Enantia

Castro-Gerardino, Diana Jimena & Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge, 2017, Comparative exploration of antennae in Pseudopontia, and antennal clubs of the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Zootaxa 4347 (3), pp. 401-445: 416-419

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4347.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:610C16FC-0583-4325-B264-6D768E48BC88

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4F018817-FF8D-1443-FF09-F993DD87F8BE

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Enantia
status

 

Enantia 

We studied the following species and subspecies of Enantia  : E. albania albania  , E. citrinella  , E. clarissa  , E. jethys  , E. limnorina  , E. lina aphrodite  , E. lina galanthis  , E. lina marion  , E. lina  ssp., E. lina psamathe  , E. mazai mazai  , and E. melite linealis  (see appendix).

ANTENNAL CLUB: The antenna is longer than one-half the costal margin of the forewing and is clavate ( Fig. 7AView FIGURE 7). The length of the scaleless club ranges from 1400 to 2300 µm with an average of 1.9 mm (1890 µm).

ANTENNOMERES: We found the following number of scaleless antennomeres: nine in males and females of E. clarissa  , E. jethys  , E. m. mazai  , E. lina  ssp., and in males of E. m. linealis  , and E. l. aphrodite  ; ten in females of E. citrinella  and E. l. psamathe  , E. l. galanthis  , and in males and females of E. l. marion  and E. limnorina  ; nine or ten in males and females of E. a. albania  and in males of E. citrinella  . The two or three first scaleless antennomeres are cylindrical and the others are doliform and depressed; the last antennomere is finger-shaped (digitiform) and may be short or elongate. The width of the antennomeres is 1.2–2.8 times their length. The last two or three are partially fused, indicted by a dorsal suture. The distal antennomere is almost twice the length of the preceding one. Males of E. citrinella  and E. clarissa  , and females of E. lina  ssp. have  up to three distally fused antennomeres ( Fig. 11BView FIGURE 11). The scaled area occurs from one ( E. m. linealis  ) to three ( E. jethys  ) antennomeres on the dorsal surface; although scales occur on the first antennomere and partially on the second, reaching less than the lower half of the antennomere.

SULCI AND PSEUDOSULCI: Sulci may vary in shape and size; they are often irregular and conspicuously disaggregated ( Fig. 9DView FIGURE 9), but in other cases they are semicircular or elliptical ( E. m. linealis  and E. citrinella  ). Usually they are wider than long, and the central ones extend between one-sixth and one-half the length of the antennomere, occupy one-eighth to one-half of its width, and may or may not be truncated by the distal margin of the antennomere ( Fig. 12CView FIGURE 12); they are reduced in the first antennomere and in the distal one. The difference in size between the lateral and central sulci also varies. Sometimes the first antennomere has several pseudosulci, but when partially scaled, they are lacking. The total number is variable, even in the same species: 7–9 central and 16– 19 lateral in males of E. a. albania  ; 8 central and 15–17 lateral in males of E. m. mazai  ; 8 central and 16 lateral in males and females of E. jethys  ; 8 central and 17 lateral in males of E. clarissa  ; 8 central and 18 lateral in males of E. citrinella  and E. m. linealis  , and in females of E. l. psamathe  ; 8–9 central and 16–17 lateral in females of E. m. mazai  ; 8–10 central and 16–18 lateral in males of E. lina  ssp.; 9 central and 14 lateral in males of E. l. aphrodite  ; 9 central and 16 lateral in females of E. clarissa  ; 9 central and 17 lateral in males of E. l. marion  ; 9 central and 18 lateral in females of E. lina  ssp.; 9 central and 19 lateral in males of E. limnorina  ; 10 central and 17 lateral in females of E. a. albania  and E. citirinella  ; 10 central and 18 lateral in males of E. l. galanthis  ; and 10 central and 19 lateral in females of E. l. marion  .

We noticed that yellow or orange Enantia  have seven to nine central sulci (mainly eight) and 14 to 19 laterals, whereas white Enantia  have eight to ten central sulci (mostly nine) and 14 to 19 laterals. The lateral sulci occupy one-sixth to one-half the length of the antennomere and may be truncated or not; most are irregular and some are disaggregated, but often are nearly rectangular. Exceptionally, in the female of E. citrinella  , some lateral sulci can occupy the antennomere from the distal to the basal margin. The position of lateral sulci in the first two antennomeres is lateral-mesial, in the following, it is lateral, and in the distal antennomere it is lateral-dorsal. In the antennomeres we find pseudosulci, and these contain few (two or three) or many sensilla as in E. mazai  , where some pseudosulci have up to 15 sensilla; these are more abundant when sulci are disaggregated. They are very frequent in E. jethys  , males of E. citrinella  , and E. limnorina  , and females of E. clarissa  , where three or more per antennomere are located between the central and lateral sulci.

MICROTRICHIA: All species have types m1 and m2 ( Fig. 13CView FIGURE 13); in E. citrinella  , E. clarissa  , E. jethys  , and E. m. linealis  , m3 surrounds the coeloconic sensilla type 1 (sc1). In most cases, the ratio between the components of the sulci is one sensillum for every two or three microtrichia. The m1s of the distal edge of the antennomere are bigger and smooth, and have a dentate apex.

TRICHOID SENSILLA: The stalk is 18–22µm in length. In some species, the trichoid sensilla have a slender stalk and an acute apex (although not as much as in Lieinix  ); in others, stems of the sensilla are thick and the apices are blunt and wide. There are tiny pores in the cuticular wall. Sometimes in E. jethys  the stalk is bifurcate with two apices. The “cuticular ring” and m 1 may be partially fused or independent ( E. citrinella  and E. clarissa  ); in a few cases m1 surrounds the sensilla ( Fig. 13CView FIGURE 13).

CHAETIC SENSILLA: These sensilla measure are 23–31 µm in length. In E. clarissa  they are very close to the sulci; infrequently they are inside or on its edge. We found type sq 1 in all species. The sq2 occurs only in E. limnorina  and the sq 3 in E. jethys  ( Fig. 15DView FIGURE 15). Usually, there is one or two ( E. citrinella  ) under each lateral sulcus and in most cases, there is also one on each side of the central sulcus. They are not grouped at the apex of the distal antennomere, as in other genera of Dismorphiini, (except in E. albania  , E. jethys  , E. galanthis  , and E. lina  ssp.), where they are on the anterior half of the antennomere and very close to the distal edge, as in E. m. mazai  .

OTHER SENSILLA: We observed basiconic and auriculate sensilla ( Fig. 14DView FIGURE 14); the latter are more abundant and like basiconic sensilla, they are scattered throughout the antennomere, except in the sulci. E. citrinella  has a few sensilla type 1 (sc1) coeloconic sensilla on the ventral surface; these are more abundant in the lateral-dorsal region and near the proximal edge of the antennomere. The sensilla are not within the lateral sulci of intermediate antennomeres, and ni3 is at the apex of the distal. In the first non-scaley antennomere of the E. l. marion  , we found a sensilla ni5 ( Fig. 4C, DView FIGURE 4); possibly this and other types of sensilla are more abundant in the dorsal side of the club.

PORES: Enantia  has some pores in the middle of the m2, as in Pseudopieris  , although in Enantia  the microtrichia are more crowded so the pores are less conspicuous. There are also pores within the sulci, as in Pseudopontia  , in the following species: Enantia jethys  , E. citrinella  , and E. l. marion  ( Fig. 13CView FIGURE 13).