Castro-Gerardino, Diana Jimena & Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge, 2017, Comparative exploration of antennae in Pseudopontia, and antennal clubs of the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Zootaxa 4347 (3), pp. 401-445: 420-425

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We studied the following species and subspecies of Pseudopieris  : Pseudopieris  sp. nov. (female with “androconial” patch), P. nehemia aequatorialis  , P. nehemia jessica  , P. nehemia limbalis  , P. nehemia luisa  , P. nehemia penia  , P. nehemia prasina  , P. nehemia  ssp., P. viridula viridula  , and P. v. zulma  (see appendix).

ANTENNAL CLUB: The antenna is about one-half the length of the costal margin of forewing and clavate. The length of scaleless club ranges from 1470–1995 µm, averaging 1.7 mm (1740 µm) ( Fig. 7BView FIGURE 7). Longer clubs occur in P. n. penia  and P. v. viridula  , and the shortest is found in P. n. jessica  .

ANTENNOMERES: There are eight to ten scaleless antennomeres, which can vary in the same species. Eight antennomeres are found in males of P. nehemia  ssp., P. n. prasina  , P. n. luisa  , and Pseudopieris  sp. nov; nine are found in males and females of P. n. penia  and P. n. jessica  , females of P. n. aequatorialis  , males of P. n. limbalis  ; ten are found in males of P. n. aequatorialis  ; eight to nine are found in females of Pseudopieris  ssp. nov  .; and nine to ten are found in P. v. viridula  . The first two antennomeres of the scaleless club are cylindrical (rectangular appearance), and the following are doliform and depressed (thier width twice their length) ( Fig. 10AView FIGURE 10); the last antennomere is digitiform and can be short or elongate. The last two or three antennomeres are fused ( P. n. limbalis  ), and they measure twice or three times (males of P. v. viridula  ) the size of those preceding them. This fusion sometimes is only ventral, and on the dorsal surface we noticed a division between antennomeres ( P. n. penia  , P. n. aequatorialis  , P. n. jessica  , and Pseudopieris  sp. nov.). The first antennomere can be partially scaled with a cleared region on the ventral surface, or may exhibit very few scales. Usually, the scaled area on the dorsal surface occurs on two antennomeres. In other cases, scales occur on one antennomere (males of P. n. penia  ) or up to three, but only extending to the proximal margin ( P. n. jessica  and Pseudopieris  sp. nov.). On the dorsal surface of the club, we noticed a certain area along with the antennomere, which is only formed by microtrichia without any sensilla. Usually, it is seen on the dorsal surface from antennomere three to six, and only in P. n. aequatorialis  did it reach antennomere seven.

SULCI AND PSEUDOSULCI: Central sulci are large and have a continuous and defined outline or are curvilinear, but they are reduced in the first antennomere; they are elliptic or semicircular, especially on the the first antennomere, and most are not truncated distally since they rarely reach the distal edge of the antennomere ( Fig. 12DView FIGURE 12). Thus, the first two or three central sulci appear to be interrupted slightly by the edge of the antennomere, as in P. n. aequatorialis  . They occupy one-half to two-thirds of the length of the antennomere and one-fourth to onehalf its width. In the first scaleless antennomere of the subspecies of P. nehemia  , the sulci are reduced or absent, whereas Pseudopieris  sp. nov. and P. viridula  sspp. have the trisulcate configuration in the antennomeres of the neitre club. Until the third antennomere the sulci are lateral-mesial, then they occur on the dorsal surface of the club, and distally they are lateral-dorsal; this displacement is not symmetrical, but the sulci of one side are lateraldorsal and other remain lateral ( Fig. 11FView FIGURE 11). In terms of numbers, they present the following combinations: 7 central and 14 lateral in females of P. n. jessica  ; 7–8 central and 16 lateral in males of P. n. luisa  ; 8 central and 12 lateral in males of P. nehemia  ssp.; 8 central and 14 lateral in males of P. n. jessica  ; 8 central and 15 lateral in males of P. n. limbalis  , P. n. prasina  , and Pseudopieris  sp. nov.; 8 central and 16 lateral in males of P. n. penia  ; 8–9 central and 14–16 lateral in females of Pseudopieris  sp. nov.; 9 central and 16 lateral in females of P. n. penia  ; 9 central and 17 lateral in females of P. n. aequatorialis  ; 9–10 central and 17–18 lateral in males of P. v. viridula  ; and 10 central and 18 lateral in males of P. n. aequatorialis  . In this genus pseudosulci are rare and occur in Pseudopieris  sp. nov. and P. viridula  ; up to to six per antennomere. One exception is in P. n. luisa  where they are scarce, but some contain a great number of trichoid sensilla (n = 36) considered to be pseudosulci. The lateral sulci are smaller than the central ones and occupy one-fourth to the middle of the antenna and are not truncated.

MICROTRICHIA: Michrotrichia m1 and m2 are present ( Fig. 13DView FIGURE 13); also, in the scaled antennomeres the m2 are larger. In Pseudopieris  sp. we found m3 surrounding sc1; m1 are joined together only at their bases, and sometimes their grooves converge to a single point with an acute apex. The ratio to the number of components of the sulci (st:m1) is 1:2 or 1:3.

TRICHOID SENSILLA: The stalk is 11–16 µm long. Sensilla are short and thick and their apices are blunt. They have very small pores along the cuticular wall. The cuticular ring is attached to the m1 forming a short, open cylinder around the sensilla ( Fig. 13DView FIGURE 13).

CHAETIC SENSILLA: These sensilla are 17–35 µm in length; shorter in P. n. aequatorialis  and longer in P. n. jessica  . Chaetic sensilla are under the lateral sulci and between these and the central sulcus, for a total of four on the ventral surface. On the dorsal surface they occur in one or two pairs ( P. v. zulma  ) toward the anterior half and near the distal and lateral edge antennomeres. They are also grouped in the apex of the distal antennomere.

OTHER SENSILLA: We found basiconic sensilla (sometimes two in a single cavity in P. n. aequatorialis  ), which are more abundant on the ventral surface and scarce on the dorsal surface ( Fig 3BView FIGURE 3). Auriculate sensilla are fewer and scattered throughout the scaleless club ( Fig. 16AView FIGURE 16). Sensilla ni2 are on the ventral surface of the first antennomere; on the dorsal side, we counted two per antennomere distally. The coeloconic sc1 occur throughout the club, especially in the lateral-dorsal and the dorsal areas, but they are most abundant in the apex of the distal antennomere. Sensilla ni1 are in the lateral sulci and ni3 at the apex of the last antennomere.

PORES: We observed large and numerous pores between m1 and m2, as well as at their bases. Also, there are some pores within the sulci in Pseudopieris n. aequatorialis  and P. v. viridula  .