Castro-Gerardino, Diana Jimena & Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge, 2017, Comparative exploration of antennae in Pseudopontia, and antennal clubs of the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Zootaxa 4347 (3), pp. 401-445: 427-428

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name




We studied the following species and subspecies of Dismorphia  : D. altis altis  , D. amphione isolda  , D. amphione lupita  , D. amphione praxinoe  , D. arcadia lucila  , D. astyocha  , D. crisia virgo  , D. cubana  , D. eunoe eunoe  , D. laja koenigi  , D. lelex lelex  , D. lewyi lewyi  , D. medora medora  , D. spio  , D. teresa  , and D. theucharila fortunata  .

ANTENNAL CLUB: The antenna is greater than one-half the length of the costal margin of the forewing, and it is clavate ( Fig. 7DView FIGURE 7). Scaleless antennomeres are 1020–2240 µm in length, averaging 1.8 mm; most are less than 2 mm. They are shortest in D. t. fortunata  ( Fig. 8AView FIGURE 8) and longest in the subspecies of D. amphione  and the female of D. astyocha  .

ANTENNOMERES: The number of scaleless antennomeres is seven to nine. There are seven in D. altis altis  , D. amphione lupita  , D. arcadia lucila  , in males of D. astyocha  , D. cubana  , D. lelex  , D. lewyi  , and D. m. medora  , and in females and some males of D. spio  and D. t. fortunata  . There are eight in D. a. praxinoe  , D. a. isolda  , D. c. virgo  , D. e. eunoe  , and D. l. koenigi  , in females of D. m. medora  , and in some males of D. spio  and D. teresa  . There are nine in females of D. astyocha  . The first scaleless antennomere is cylindrical and the following are usually depressed and doliform; they are 1.2 to 2.0 times their width ( Fig. 10CView FIGURE 10). D. cubana  shows the most depressed antennomeres. In D. spio  the antennomeres are very short, as long as wide; sometimes the first two are sunk ventrally in the central sulci that folds them over them, as in L. neblina  , or the antennomeres are almost all flattened as in females of D. m. medora  . In specimens of other species, the ventral surface collapses over the entire antennomere, forming folds (males of D. medora  and D. t. fortunata  ). The distal antennomere is usually digitiform or cupuliform and flattened; almost always, this antennomere corresponds to two fused antennomeres. The fusion of the last two is evident in D. cubana  , males of D. e. eunoe  , and females of D. teresa  because there is an incomplete fusion; in contrast, in females of D. e. eunoe  the fusion is not clear ( Fig. 11CView FIGURE 11). The distal antennomere is greater than twice the length of the anterior one in D. amphione  sspp., D. astyocha  , D. cubana  , and D. l. lewyi  . Also, in some specimens, we observed an incomplete fusion between the distal and the penultimate antennomere: females of D. astyocha  , D. c. virgo  , and D. cubana  , and males of D. e. eunoe  . The first antennomere is scaled, especially in the female of D. astyocha  , where the scales cover part of the lateral and ventral surfaces.

SULCI AND PSEUDOSULCI: Central sulci are semicircular, especially the distal ones, and in most cases they are elliptical (vertical or horizontal) and have a continuous, well-defined outline ( Fig. 7DView FIGURE 7 and 8AView FIGURE 8); sometimes they are nearly wedge-shaped (cuneiform) or trapezoidal, and very few are irregular. Species in which there is a greater variety of forms are D. spio  and D. t. fortunata  . The sulci and pseusosulci occupy one-third to two-thirds the length of antennomere containing them. The larger sulci extend one-third to one-half the width of the antennomere (exceptionally two-thirds; D. t. fortunata  has the largest sulci), and the smaller sulci extend one-fifth or one-third. In the first scaleless antennomere the sulci sometimes are reduced; there are few or no pseudosulci. We observed the following combinations: 6 central and 12 lateral in males of D. m. medora  and D. t. fortunata  ; 6 central and 13 lateral in females of D. spio  ; 7 central and 11 lateral in males of D. cubana  ; 7 central and 12 lateral in D. amphione lupita  , D. arcadia lucila  , D. crisia virgo  , and females of D. cubana  ; 7 central and 14 lateral in D. a. altis  , D. amphione isolda  , D. astyocha  , D. l. lewyi  , and males of D. spio  ; 8 central and 13 lateral in females of D. m. medora  ; 8 central and 14 lateral in males of D. e. eunoe  ; 8 central and 15 lateral in D. a. praxinoe  ; 8 central and 16 lateral in females of D. e. eunoe  , D. l. koenigi  , and D. teresa  ; and 9 central and 14 lateral in females of D. astyocha  .

The distal edge of the antennomere is almost always truncated, although the sulci are sometimes complete; in other cases, they are slightly truncated but separated from the distal edge by one or two rows of microtrichia m2 (i.e., D. crisia  , D. medora  , and D. teresa  ). Usually there are have few pseudosulci, although females of D. cubana  can have up to five on an antennomere; most are found on the basal antennomeres of the scaleless club (first three antennomeres) and close to the central sulcus. Lateral sulci are smaller and occupy one-third to one-half the length of antennomere, or may be smaller ( D. crisia  , D. cubana  , and D. medora  ); these sulci may be truncated. In the first antennomere, the lateral sulci are lateral-mesial, on the medial part they are lateral, and in the distal antennomere they are lateral-dorsal, without the asymmetry present in Pseudopieris  .

MICROTRICHIA: We observed three types of microtrichia: m1, m2, and m3. The ratio of the components of the sulci of sensilla is 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. Species with less dense trichoid sensilla in the sulci are D. crisia  , D. cubana  , males of D. spio  , and females of D. t. fortunata  .

TRICHOID SENSILLA: The stalk of the trichoid sensilla is 14–23 µm long (longer in D. cubana  and D. eunoe  and shorter in D. l. lelex  and D. teresa  ; 1020–2240 µm in D. m. medora  ). Sometimes the stalks are capilliform, and often they are flattened. The apex of the sensilla is round and has pores and/or very short striations along its cuticular wall. The cuticular rings adjacent to microtrichia m1 generally are partially fused, or m1 joins to form a short and open cylinder surrounding the sensilla (e.g., D. teresa  ); in D. amphione  sspp. the cuticular ring and microtrichia are independent or partially fused ( Fig. 13FView FIGURE 13).

CHAETIC SENSILLA: These sensilla are 22–52 µm in length. They are longer in D. a. praxinoe  , D. a. isolda  , and D. cubana  and shorter in D. arcadia lucila  , D. l. lewyi  , and especially D. m. medora  . We found a chaetic sensilla sq1 on either side of the central sulcus; in D. t. fortunata  there are up to two, and in D. a. praxinoe  two chaetic sensilla were observed under each lateral sulcus.

OTHER SENSILLA: We observed basiconic and auriculate sensilla. Also, some coeloconic sensilla sc1 were found near the proximal edge of the antennomere and on the side surrounded by microtrichia m3 ( Fig. 14AView FIGURE 14).

PORES: Dismorphia  has numerous pores as in Pseudopontia  , but the pores are smaller, especially within the sulci in the middle of the m1.