Castro-Gerardino, Diana Jimena & Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge, 2017, Comparative exploration of antennae in Pseudopontia, and antennal clubs of the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Zootaxa 4347 (3), pp. 401-445: 426-427

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We studied the following species and subspecies of Lieinix  : L. cinerascens  , L. lala lala  , L. neblina  , L. nemesis athis  , L. nemesis nemesis  , and L. viridifascia  (see appendix).

ANTENNAL CLUB: In females the antenna is one-half the length of the costal margin of the forewing, and in males it is longer; in both sexes it is clavate. The scaleless antennal club ranges from 2200–2900 µm ( Fig. 7CView FIGURE 7) and averages 2.5 mm (2500 µm). Antennal clubs are curvy, except in some females of L. nemesis athis  .

ANTENNOMERES: We found nine scaleless antennomeres in males of L. cinerascens  and L. neblina  and in both sexes of L. n. athis  and L. n. nemesis  . Ten scaleless antennomeres were found in females of L. neblina  and L. viridifascia  , and in L. l. lala  . The first three scaleless antennomeres are cylindrical, and the following are doliform (barrel-shaped) and depressed ( Fig. 10BView FIGURE 10); width is 1.3 to 2.2 times the length, and the distal antennomere is digitiform with a blunt or pointed apex, but sometimes can be elongate. In some specimens, such as L. cinerascens  , the antennomeres of the club are flattened and may also exhibit one or two antennomeres inwardly folded, forming a mesial concavity in the proximal or distal margin, evident in L. neblina  and very small in L. l. lala  and L. cinerascens  . In Lieinix  the antennomeres that precede the antennal club are much narrower. The last two are fused, and the last is almost twice that of the preceding; in females of L. neblina  they are a slightly more than twice the length. The last antennomere can be flattened or concave, except in L. athis nemesis  . In L. l. lala  , L. neblina  , and L. nemesis athis  some antennomeres (the distal and some mesial) have one or two openings without sensilla, which apparently extend into the cuticular antennomere wall. The first antennomere of the scaleless club is partially scaled, except in the female of L. n. athis  , in which scales are absent.

SULCI AND PSEUDOSULCI: Central sulci are semicircular or elliptical when not truncated, but in the first antennomeres they are irregular. They occupy one-third to one-half the antennomere, but in some cases they extend up to three-fourths ( L. cinerascens  and male of L. nemesis  sspp.); they range from one-sixth to one-third the width of the antennomere, but they can be up to one-half the width (male of L. n. athis  ) and may be truncated or not ( Fig. 10BView FIGURE 10). Antennomere sulci are reduced basally. They have a defined outline and reach the distal edge of the antennomere or continue; they may be complete ( L. cinerascens  ). In some cases although they may not reach the distal edge, the sulci are truncated and depressed (i.e., L. neblina  ). The central sulci are truncated and reach the edge of the antennomere (i.e., L. l. lala  and L. n. athis  ) or are complete and do not reach the edge of the antennomere (i.e., L. viridifascia  ). Usually, they have few pseudosulci (one or two in some antennomeres) although in L. neblina  and female of L. l. lala  we observed five in one antennomere; these pseudosulci are very small, containing between two and three trichoid sensilla. Lateral sulci are smaller than the central ones, occupying onethird to one-half in most cases, but only one-fifth in males of L. l. lala  ; they may or may not be truncated. The number of sulci has the following combinations: 8 central and 16 lateral in males of L. neblina  ; 9 central and 16 lateral in males of L. n. nemesis  and L. n. athis  ; 9 central and 17 lateral in females of L. viridifascia  and L. n. nemesis  and males of L. cinerascens  ; 9 central and 18 lateral in females of L. neblina  ; 9–10 central and 17–18 lateral in females of L. n. athis  ; 10 central and 19 lateral in males and females of L. lala  .

MICROTRICHIA: We observed types m1, m2, and m3, the last more common in Lieinix  ( Fig. 14BView FIGURE 14). The ratio of the components of the sulci (st: m1) is 1:2 or 1: 3 in central or lateral sulci.

TRICHOID SENSILLA: The stalk is 17–22 µm (or shorter in L. cinerascens  and L. viridifascia  ). The sensilla bases of L. neblina  are decorated by horn-shaped (corniform) outgrowths ( Fig. 13EView FIGURE 13) and have tiny pores in the cuticular wall. The microtrichia m1 join to form a short cylinder that surrounds the sensilla; cuticular rings are reduced or absent.

CHAETIC SENSILLA: These sensilla are 26–49 µm long, the longest in L. neblina  and shortest in L. viridifascia  . They exhibit a typical distribution - one below each lateral sulcus and two on each side of the central sulcus.

OTHER SENSILLA: Basiconic and auriculate sensilla are distributed throughout the club. Coeloconic sc1 are very common on both sides and at the apex of the distal antennomere. Sensilla ni1 and ni3 are present, although they are rare. Only in L. cinerascens  did we observe two sensilla ni4 ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4).

PORES: The pores in Lieinix  are different than those of Pseudopontia  , located between m1 and m2, and not as plentiful or as large as in Pseudopieris  .