Castro-Gerardino, Diana Jimena & Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge, 2017, Comparative exploration of antennae in Pseudopontia, and antennal clubs of the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Zootaxa 4347 (3), pp. 401-445: 429-432

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We studied the following species and subspecies of Patia  : P. cordillera cordillera  , P. cordillera sororna  , P. cordillera  ssp., P. orise denigrata  , and P. rhetes  (see the appendix), and P. cordillera larunda  partially.

ANTENNAL CLUB: The antenna is greater or substantially greater than one-half the length of the costal margin of the forewing, and its shape is clavate and elongate ( Fig. 8CView FIGURE 8). The scaleless club ranges from 2600–4720 µm, averaging about 4.01 mm (4010 µm); P. c. sororna  and P. orise denigrata  have longer clubs, and P. rhetes  has a shorter one ( Fig. 8DView FIGURE 8).

ANTENNOMERES: We observed 10 to 15 scaleless antennomeres in P. c. cordillera  , P. c. larunda  , P. cordillera  ssp., P. c. larunda  , and P. orise denigrata  ; 15 in P. c. sororna  ; and 11 in P. rhetes  . The first scaleless antennomeres are cylindrical and compressed (length up to 1.5 times their width) or depressed (width up to 1.5 times their length). The others are doliform and depressed (width up to twice their length), and the most distal one is digitiform with an acute apex. In P. cordillera  ssp. and  P. c. cordillera  , the first antennomeres have scales on their lateral surface, exposing the proximal margin of the antennomere. P. orise denigrata  and P. rhetes  have fewer scales in the first antennomere, and P. c. sororna  has the ventral surface of the basal antennomere scaled in the mesial area without reaching the proximal edge. The two most distal are merged into one and have a length greater than the preceding ( Fig. 11EView FIGURE 11), except in male P. c. cordillera  , where the last antennomere is shorter than that the one preceding (apparently unfused). In P. cordillera  ssp. and  P. c. cordillera  the distal digitiform antennomere is usually narrow and sharp, except in male P. c. cordillera  where it is blunt and has an incomplete division or fusion. In P. o. denigrata  the distal antennomere is cupuliform, and in P. rhetes  it is digitiform, large, and sharp.

SULCI AND PSEUDOSULCI: In the first scaleless antennomere the sulci are reduced and disaggregated, especially in P. rhetes  which has a larger number of pseudosulci, and even in the last scaled club there is a small scaleless area. After the first antennomere, central sulci are semicircular, elliptical, or irregular ( P. rhetes  ); the distal end of the antennomeres truncated in most ( P. cordillera  ssp., males of P. c. cordillera  , and P. rhetes  ), or in some they are complete and truncated but separated from the distal edge of antennomere; three or four rows of microtrichia m2 are found in females of P. c. cordillera  and P. c. sororna  ( Fig. 12FView FIGURE 12). They occupy one-fourth to one-half the length of antennomere ( P. rhetes  , P. cordillera  ssp., and P. c. sororna  ) to three-fourths in P. c. cordillera  ; they extend between one-fifth and one-third of the width ( P. rhetes  and P. c. sororna  ), or one-fourth to one-half ( P. cordillera  ssp. and  P. c. cordillera  ). They almost always have a well-defined boundary, except for P. orise denigrata  , and sulci in the first five of P. rhetes  , where the outlines are very irregular. The number of sulci has the following combinations: 11 central and 23 lateral in P. rhetes  ; 14 central and 28 lateral in P. c. cordillera  , P. c. larunda  , P. cordillera  ssp., and P. orise denigrata  ; and 15 central and 31 lateral in P. c. sororna  . Lateral sulci are smaller than the central sulci ( Fig. 8C, DView FIGURE 8) and occupy one-third to one-fifth of the length of the antennomere; they have the distal edge truncated or complete. Many pseudosulci were observed in P. rhetes  , especially in the basal antennomeres (up to eight pseudosulci in some of them). In P. cordillera  sspp. there are few pseudosulci per antennomere (maximum two). The lateral sulci have a latero-mesial location in the first two or three antennomeres, and thereafter they are positioned laterally, but they are not symmetrical because one of the rows of sulci is located more toward the lateral or laterodorsal surface than the other.

MICROTRICHIA: There are three types of microtrichia: m1, m2, and m4, surrounding coeloconic sensilla sc1. The ratio between the components of sulci is 1:3 ( P. cordillera  sspp.), 1:4 (central sulci of females of P. c. cordillera  ), or 1:2 ( P. rhetes  ).

TRICHOID SENSILLA: The stalk of this sensilla is 16–23 µm ( P. rhetes  and P. c. sororna  and have shorter sensilla.), and pores are inconspicuous. The cuticular ring and microtrichia are partially joined. The female of P. c. cordillera  has adjacent microtrichia surrounding the trichoid sensilla and reduced cuticular rings basally.

CHAETIC SENSILLA: We found sensilla sq1 and sq2 ( Fig. 2G, HView FIGURE 2); the last are on the first to the second or fourth antennomere, except for P. rhetes  where they are lacking. The sq1 sensilla are 35–47 µm long, and the sq2 25.5– 29.3 µm long. On antennomeres, we observed four sensilla sq1, one on each side of the central sulcus near the distal edge of antennomere, and below each lateral sulcus. Sensilla sq1 is usually present in greater numbers on the first antennomere and at the apex of the distal antennomere, except in P. c. sororna  , P. orise  , and P. rhetes  .

OTHER SENSILLA: Sometimes auriculate sensilla abound ( P. c. cordillera  ) as well as basiconic sensilla ( P. c. sororna  , P. orise  , and P. rhetes  ); the coeloconic sensilla sc1 are on the distal antennomere and the ventral surface near the proximal edge and the lateral sulci, where they are more abundant ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3). We found sensilla ni2 on the medial antennomeres ( P. cordillera  ) near the lateral sulci, and ni 3 in the last antennomere ( P. rhetes  ) and within the lateral sulci ( P. c. cordillera  ) or outside of them ( P. c. sororna  ). We also observed a hollow cavity without sensilla in the last antennomere ( P. c. sororna  ).

PORES: We found some conspicuous pores within the central sulci, similar to those in Pseudopontia  , but with a smaller diameter; also, they are outside rather than inside the sulci ( P. cordillera  ).

Characters Leptideini  Dismorphiini

Taxonomic composition One or two genera in a subtribe: Leptidea  and Azalais. 11 or 12 spp. Six genera, perhaps in three sub-tribes: Enantia  , Pseudopieris  ,

Moschoneura  , Lieinix  , Dismorphia  and Patia  . With 60 – 65 spp. approx.

Chorion More than three times longer than wide. From little more than two times to more than three times longer than wide. Almost always semi fusiform. In various forms, from semi fusiform to globular, obpyriform, ellipsoidal and citriforms or like starfruit

Long axis 9 to 16. Predominantly 7 to 12.

Short axis 2 to 5. Absent and until 6 or 7.

Ribs of varied shapes, 44 to 68. Ribs basically straight, except apical region, 24 to 70. Characters Leptideini  Dismorphiini

Color and mimicry Designs always whitish, with few gray markings; they do not participate in Wide variety of colors and wing designs; several of them participating in

complex mimetics. No aposematic colors. mimetic rings as transparent mimic species complex, and tiger.

Dimorphism Slightly accentuated sexual dimorphism. Strongly territorial and quite pronounced sexual dimorphism, except

Pseudopieris  .

Forewings Relatively elongated but proportionate hind wings. Apex blunt or slightly Females with elongated forewings and proportionate, except Pseudopieris  , arched. Forewings in males, smaller than hind wings. Acute apex and slightly arched in females, except Pseudopieris  .

Venation Very consistent or conservative; little derivative. Generically diversified, and derived features in median veins. Lieinix  has

several plesiomorphic features.

Radials in forewings, always after CD and very short. In Enantia  forewings may be issued shortly before or CD from the apex and often R1 is long, which anastomoses distally Sc except P. nehemia  CD forewings and hind wings very short; 1/3 of the total length. CD forewings and hindwings average, never short. M1 to M3 always from the CD on forewings. M1 to M3 from the radial branch or from the apex of CD forewings. In hindwings, Rs and M1 usually pedunculate or orginating together. Humeral well developed and as T. Humeral well developed and recurved.

Male genitalia Unci depressed and distally with two sclerotic processes. Unci with one sclerotic process.

Saccus short. Saccus medium and very long. Only Patia  is very short. Cornuti absent. Aedeagus with vesica almost always with numerous cornuti; They are small in one or two rows or several are large and conspicuous ( Enantia  and Patia  ).

Juxta-transtilla slightly developed. Juxta-transtilla strongly developed.

Double harpagon processes and strongly sclerotic. Harpagon processes with only the distal and internal hard sclerotic. Eighth tergite blunt and short, not cleft. Eighth tergite from blunt to pointed and short or long; little or very cleft ( Enantia  ).

female genitalia With pyriform appendix bursae (pseudobursae) in subapical position. Lacks bursae appendix or pseudobursae (possibly fused to the bursae).

Signum lacking in corpus bursae. Signum on corpus bursae

Receptaculum seminis with extended lagena wide and narrow utriculus;

with very short gland receptaculi.

Chromosomes Very varied in number 2n: 52 – 61, 80 – 91, but they reach extremes of 106. Of the most known is very close to 30 – 31 chromosomes. In Dismorphia Great  karyotypic dynamics. greater variation (13, 15, 16 – 19, 21 – 24, 26 and 53); Something smaller in Moschoneura  and Patia  .

Host plants and Age Hedyserum, Vicia  , Lathyrus, Securigera  , and Lotus  . Leguminosae  or Acacia  , Calliandra  , Zapoteca  , Inga  ( Leguminosae  , Mimosoideae  Ingeae  , Fabaceae  : Papilionoideae- ‘ Hologalegina ’: Hedysereae, Vicieae  , and Loteae  . Acacieae  ); excepcionalmente Mimosa, Cassia and Zygia  ( Mimoseae  ). ≈30 Also, Cardamine  ( Brassicaceae  ) in L. gigantea  45–50 Ma. Ma.

Distribution and Habitats Palearctic. In forests and its margins (0 – 2000 m). Neotropical (except Chile and south of the Andes). In rain forest and

humid mountain forests (0 – 2600 m).