Epicadus Simon, 1895

Machado, Miguel, Teixeira, Renato Augusto & Lise, Arno Antonio, 2018, There and back again: More on the taxonomy of the crab spiders genus Epicadus (Thomisidae: Stephanopinae), Zootaxa 4382 (3), pp. 501-530: 502-504

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Epicadus Simon, 1895


Epicadus Simon, 1895 

Eripus Walckenaer, 1833: 438  , 441 (Type species Thomisus heterogaster Guérin-Méneville, 1829  , by monotypy); Walckenaer 1837: 541.

Epicadus Simon, 1895: 1052  (replacement name for Eripus Walckenaer, 1833  ; preoccupied by Eripus Dejean, 1829  [ Coleoptera  ]); F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1900: 160; Mello-Leitão 1929: 93; Silva-Moreira and Machado 2016: 283; Machado et al. 2017: 448.

Tobias Simon, 1895: 1053  (Type species Stephanopis camelina O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869  , by original designation); F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1900: 161; Mello-Leitão 1929: 80; Machado et al. 2015: 566.

Type species. Epicadus heterogaster ( Guérin-Méneville, 1829)  .

Diagnosis. As recently proposed by Machado et al. (2017), the genus Epicadus  resembles Epicadinus  and Onocolus  in the general shape of the male palp, presenting a flat and discoid tegular structure without any apophysis, filiform embolous encircling the tegulum and in the canoe-shaped RTA that is fused to a pointed and usually curved DTA ( Fig. 1EView FIGURE 1). However, Epicadus  species can easily be recognized and distinguished from other Stephanopinae  genera by 1) their globose opisthosoma with pronounced conical opisthosomal projections, 2) the dome-shaped prosoma with elevated thoracic area, 3) presence of a proximal sensorial pit (group of trichobrothria surrounded by duster-shaped setae) located on a dorsal depression of each tibia ( Figs 1A, BView FIGURE 1), 4) epigynal plate with posterior folds elevated and joining in the middle to form a median septum ( Fig. 1CView FIGURE 1) and 5) by the copulatory ducts presenting a S-shaped configuration ( Fig. 1DView FIGURE 1).

Description. Polychromatic and cryptic bark-dwelling spiders with accentuated sexual size dimorphism and body coloration varying from to dark-brown to purple and pink (conservative in males, which are predominantly dark-orange on prosoma and legs and yellow on the opisthosoma). Prosoma as long as wide, in some cases bearing a pair of ocular projections above the ALE and a strong and conical MS on the thoracic portion (as in E. heterogaster  and E. rubripes  ) ( Fig. 1FView FIGURE 1), where a white spot can also be observed; clypeus high (about five times the diameter of AME) and in most of the species with an upside down V-shaped mark. Opisthosoma presenting three ( E. caudatus  , E. granulatus  , E. pustulosus  and E. taczanowskii  ), five ( E. camelinus  , E. dimidiaster  sp. nov., E. pulcher  , E. tigrinus  sp. nov., E. trituberculatus  , E. rubripes  ) or seven ( E. heterogaster  ) conical projections (less conspicuous in males). Legs I and II stronger and larger than the posterior ones and with conical or blister-shaped setae sockets on the ventral surface of femora; anterior tibiae and metatarsi with three pairs of ventral macrosetae each. Epigynum with copulatory openings exposed or covered by prominences of a median septum formed by the joining of the C-shaped posterior folds of the epigynal plate; two pairs of kidney-shaped spermathecae, varying in size and level of constriction of the upper curve of the copulatory ducts. Male palp with discoid tegulum, filiform embolus and both apophysis (canoe-shaped RTA + pointed and curved DTA) emerging together on the tibiae.

Composition. Eleven species: Epicadus camelinus ( O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869)  , Epicadus caudatus  (Mello- Leitão, 1929), Epicadus dimidiaster  sp. nov., Epicadus granulatus Banks, 1909  , Epicadus heterogaster  (Guérin- Méneville, 1829), Epicadus pustulosus (Simon, 1929)  , Epicadus pulcher ( Mello-Leitão, 1929)  , Epicadus rubripes Mello-Leitão, 1924  , Epicadus taczanowskii ( Roewer, 1951)  , Epicadus tigrinus  sp. nov. and Epicadus trituberculatus ( Taczanowski, 1872)  .

Updated distribution. From central Mexico to southwestern Argentina ( Fig. 17View FIGURE 17).












Epicadus Simon, 1895

Machado, Miguel, Teixeira, Renato Augusto & Lise, Arno Antonio 2018


Walckenaer, 1833 : 438
Walckenaer 1837 : 541

Epicadus Simon, 1895 : 1052

Simon, 1895 : 1052
F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1900 : 160
Mello-Leitão 1929 : 93
Silva-Moreira and Machado 2016 : 283
Machado et al. 2017 : 448


Simon, 1895 : 1053
F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1900 : 161
Mello-Leitão 1929 : 80
Machado et al. 2015 : 566