Alloperla prognoides Surdick & Stark, 2004

Ray, Donald H., Rasmussen, Andrew K., Peters, Janice G. & Stark, Bill P., 2010, The Larva And Egg Of Alloperla Prognoides (Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae), With Ecological Notes And New State Records From Florida, U. S. A., Illiesia 6 (19), pp. 256-266 : 257-259

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Alloperla prognoides Surdick & Stark


Alloperla prognoides Surdick & Stark

( Figs. 1-21 View Figs View Figs View Figs View Figs )

Alloperla furcula: sensu Stark & Harris, 1986:177 , Not Surdick, 1981.

Alloperla prognoides Surdick & Stark in Surdick, 2004:20. Holotype ♂ ( United States National Museum), Little River , Hwy 59, Baldwin Co., Alabama.

Alloperla prognoides: Willet & Stark, 2009:117 View Cited Treatment .Redescription of male epiproct.

Material examined. New State Record. FLORIDA: Escambia Co, Pine Barren Creek, below US Hwy 29, N 30°46’30.04”, W 87°20’15.64”, 30 April 2008, D. Ray, G. Chiello, 3 adult ♂ (reared), 5 larvae. GoogleMaps Same, except 22 April 2008 with F. Butera, 5 larvae. GoogleMaps Big Escambia Creek , below Fannie Rd, N 30°58’50.4”, W 87°13’43.9”, 25 March 2010, 5 larvae, D. Ray, R. Abad. GoogleMaps Same, except 28 April 2010, 1 adult ♂, 1 larva. GoogleMaps Canoe Creek , above Bratt Rd, N 30°57’22”, W 87°20’49” 24, April 2009, D. Ray, R. Abad, 1♂, 3 larvae. GoogleMaps Perdido River , 250 m above Brushy Creek confluence, N 30°47’37”, W 87°33’42”, 22 April 2009, D. Ray, R. Abad, 2♂ (reared) GoogleMaps , 36♀ (2 reared) GoogleMaps , 4 larvae. Pine Barren Creek , below US Hwy 29, N 30°46’30.04”, W 87°20’15.64”, 28 April 2009, D. Ray, R. Abad, 1♂ (reared) GoogleMaps , 3♀ (reared) GoogleMaps . Brushy Creek , above Pineville Road, N 30°47’47.6”, W 87°33’24.4”, 25 February 2008, D. Ray, L. Donelan, G. Chiello, 3 larvae GoogleMaps .

Egg. Outline elongate oval. Length ca. 290 µm, width ca. 174 µm. Collar short, ca. 14 µm long and ca. 33 µm wide, and consisting of a single irregular row of large, irregularly shaped meshes ( Figs. 1-2 View Figs ). Chorionic surface covered throughout with fine micropunctures ( Figs. 2-3 View Figs ). Micropylar orifices somewhat tear drop shaped and at least twice as large as micropunctures ( Fig. 4 View Figs ); micropylar canals slanted.

Larva. Body length (not including cerci) 5.2-7.2 mm (n = 18); body slender, dorsoventrally flattened; general color pale brown, faint brown markings on head, thorax, and abdomen; legs pale; abdominal tergites with brown speckling anteriorly.

Head. Mandible with ca. 5 teeth, apical tooth scoopshaped; dorsal surface bearing a submarginal setal row more or less parallel to marginal setal row which terminates near base of tooth 4 ( Fig. 5 View Figs ); ventral surface with patch of acanthae near base of tooth 5; marginal setal row consisting of ca. 12 major setae. Maxillary laciniae with single apical tooth and prominent row of ca. 12 long setae ( Figs. 6-7 View Figs ). Postocular area with 2 long setae ( Fig. 11 View Figs ).

Thorax. Pronotal disk darkened marginally, body of sclerite uniformly pale brown. Pronotal setae arising antero- and posterolaterally; anterolateral setae set in cluster of 1 long seta and 5-7 shorter setae; posterolateral area with 2 widely spaced setae ( Fig. 11 View Figs ). Wingpad outer margins broadly rounded, inner margins slightly divergent; short setae scattered along lateral margins ( Fig. 12 View Figs ); distinct medial notch apparent during pre-emergent stage. Mesonotal setae of various lengths anterolaterally; group of short setae extending mesally near anterior margin. Foretibia with dorsal fringe of dense, very long hairs; sparse ventral fringe of long hairs, mixed with stout setae ( Fig. 13 View Figs ); apex set with several stout spine-like setae ventrally. Forefemora dorsally covered with many spine-like appressed setae; dorsal fringe of long hairs, denser distally; mix of long and short setae ventrally.

Abdomen. Sparse covering of fine, pale clothing hairs; posterior abdominal tergal margins fringed with short setae, incomplete mesally, pair of longer submesal setae, additional longer setae laterally ( Fig. 14 View Figs ). Cerci 10-12 segmented; plumate vertical fringe on distal half; dorsal fringe of intercalary hairs on posterior 4-5 segments ( Fig. 15 View Figs ); ventral fringe of intercalary hairs on posterior 5-6 segments; fringe somewhat more strongly developed along ventral margin than along dorsal margin; segmental cercal whorls consist of mixed setal types including groups of fine setae and larger, spine-like setae ( Figs. 8-10 View Figs ).

Remarks. As mentioned, larvae of most species of Alloperla remain undescribed; therefore, it is presently not possible to provide a definitive diagnosis. However, for the eastern Nearctic species for which detailed illustrations are available, A. concolor Ricker by Fiance (1977), A. natchez by Brown & Stark (1995), and A. imbecilla (Say) by Stewart & Stark (2002), a comparison of their illustrations reveals a number of potentially promising characters for distinguishing larvae of Alloperla species ( Brown & Stark 1995). Further comparison of the illustrations of the cerci from the publications listed above with Fig. 15 View Figs of this study shows that the larvae can be separated based on the number of cercal segments. The cercus comprises 10-12 segments in penultimate and last instar A. prognoides , whereas its sister species, A. natchez has 13 segments, A. imbecilla has 15-16 segments, and A. concolor has 18 segments. Additionally, A. natchez and A. prognoides have a cercal fringe of intercalary hairs which is more strongly developed dorsally than ventrally, whereas the dorsal and ventral fringes appear equally developed for A. imbecilla and A. concolor . Another character with diagnostic value is the setation of the posterolateral area of the pronotum, which in A. imbecilla has 4 posterolateral setae, compared with 2 posterolateral setae as seen in A. concolor , A. natchez , and A. prognoides .

The egg is very similar to that of A. natchez ( Brown & Stark 1995) in shape, collar form and chorionic detail, although the surface micropores of that species appear finer and more defined than in A. prognoides . Images of the male epiproct ( Figs. 16-21 View Figs ) are presented for comparison with those in Willett & Stark (2009) made from Alabama specimens.

Distribution. Alloperla prognoides is currently known from only Coastal Plain Alabama and the far western Florida panhandle (Escambia County). The species was first reported from Alabama (Baldwin, Escambia, Monroe Cos.) in Stark & Harris (1986) as A. furcula based on one male and 13 females collected between 11 May and 24 June. The authors noted that “the epiproct of the single male specimen is shorter and wider than in South Carolina specimens,” which suggested the specimen represented an undescribed species. Subsequently, A. prognoides was described by Surdick and Stark (2004) based on specimens collected in 1985 (late April-May) by Steve Harris from the Little River (Alabama: Baldwin, Monroe County) and Autauga Creek (Alabama: Autauga County). No other Alloperla species have been recorded from Coastal Plain Alabama or Florida. Other Alloperla species do occur in Alabama above the Fall Line: A. atlantica Baumann , A. caudata Frison , A. hamata Surdick , A. idei (Ricker) , and A. usa Ricker ( Stark & Harris 1986; Surdick 2004). There is always the possibility that one of these species, or another Coastal Plain endemic of Alloperla , overlaps in range with A. prognoides .


University of Stellenbosch


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile














Alloperla prognoides Surdick & Stark

Ray, Donald H., Rasmussen, Andrew K., Peters, Janice G. & Stark, Bill P. 2010

Alloperla prognoides: Willet & Stark, 2009:117

Willet, M. R. & B. P. Stark 2009: 117

Alloperla prognoides

Surdick, R. F. 2004: 20

Alloperla furcula: sensu Stark & Harris, 1986:177

Stark, B. P. & S. C. Harris 1986: 177