Parazoanthus sp. 2

Reimer, James D., Poliseno, Angelo & Hoeksema, Bert W., 2014, Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Central Indo-Pacific, ZooKeys 444, pp. 1-57: 18

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Parazoanthus sp. 2


Taxon classification Animalia Zoantharia Parazoanthidae

21. Parazoanthus sp. 2   Figures 18B, 19

Specimens examined

(n=4). RMNH Coel 40544, Snellius–II Expedition Station 4.061, east of Melolo, northeast Sumba (09°54'12"S, 120°43'30"E), depth = 50 m, collected on September 15, 1984 by rectangular dredge; RMNH Coel. 40570, station 9, reef slope of southwest Pulau Nain, Bunaken, North Sulawesi (01°46'N, 124°45'E), collected on May 8, 1998 by B.W. Hoeksema; RMNH Coel 40572, Ternate Expedition Station TER.27, Tanjung Ratemu (south of river), west Halmahera Sea, North Moluccas (00°54'45"N, 127°29'10"E), depth = 20 m, collected on November 8, 2009 by B.W. Hoeksema; RMNH Coel 40757, Indonesia 2012 Expedition, Station LEM.34, west Pulau Sarena Kecil Lembeh, North Sulawesi (01°27'26"N, 125°13'31"E), depth = 22 m, collected on February 17, 2012 by B.W. Hoeksema.

Photographic records

(n=3). West Pulau Kudingareng Keke, Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi (05°06'20"S, 119°17'03"E), June 4, 1997; southeast Likuan, Bunaken, North Sulawesi (01°36'N, 124°47'E), May 10, 1998; Main coast, West Bali (08°06'50"S, 114°30'40"E), May 22, 1998.


Azooxanthellate, epibiotic on encrusting sponges, with 3 to 6 polyps arising in groups from a common coenenchyme, or occasionally arising in rows from stolons (Figure 18B). Polyps (oral disk, tentacles, scapus) pale yellow/cream in color. 36 to 40 tentacles, longer in length than oral disk diameter. Specimens’ preserved polyps (n=2 specimens, 10 polyps per specimen) averaged 5.8 mm in height (range 4 to 8 mm) and 3.3 mm in width (range 2.5 to 5 mm).


Regions recorded in this study (Figure 19). West Bali (4), northeast Sumba (6), Spermonde Archipelago (9), west Halmahera Sea (16), Lembah Strait (17), Bunaken (18).

Past records. NA.


The only sponge-associated Parazoanthus   species formally described from the Indo-Pacific are Parazoanthus elongatus   McMurrich, 1904 from the west coast of South America and New Zealand ( Sinniger and Haussermann 2009) and Parazoanthus darwini   Reimer & Fujii, 2010 from the Galapagos. Thus, no similar species have been reported from past or recent zoantharian work in surrounding CIP regions, and therefore it is likely that these specimens constitute an undescribed species. Although Parazoanthus   has recently been taxonomically redescribed ( Sinniger et al. 2010), and the species now only encompasses sponge-associated species, the genus is still paraphyletic and taxonomic revision is needed. DNA sequences from undescribed species are needed to correctly place specimens such as these into the correct clade.