Graphonema Cobb, 1898

Venekey, Virag, Gheller, Paula F., Kandratavicius, Noelia, Cunha, Beatriz Pereira, Vilas-Boas, Ana Carolina, Fonseca, Gustavo & , 2019, The state of the art of Chromadoridae (Nematoda, Chromadorida): a historical review, diagnoses and comments about valid and dubious genera and a list of valid species, Zootaxa 4578 (1), pp. 1-67: 24-25

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4578.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CE27CD48-70BB-4979-9C67-A1A2E1BAAFFD

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/52215C67-FFE6-FF9A-FF21-FA628396F948

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scientific name

Graphonema Cobb, 1898
status

 

Genus Graphonema Cobb, 1898 

The genus Graphonema  was erected by Cobb (1898) when the type species G. vulgare Cobb, 1898  was described from Australian samples. In the same work, G. pachydermum  was mentioned, but never described, therefore it is considered a nomen nudum. Cobb (1935) and Johnston (1938) considered Graphonema  a synonym of Euchromadora  but later Wieser (1954) reinstated the genus and transferred Chromadora sabangensis  , Spilophora amokuroides Allgén, 1927  , Spilophora norwegica Allgén, 1932  and Chromadora paraheterophya Allgén, 1932  to it. Also, in Wieser (1954), Chromadora spectabilis Allgén, 1932  was synonymized with G. vulgare  and both Spilophora pusilla Allgén, 1947  and Chromadora suilla Allgén, 1947  were synonymized with the recently transferred Graphonema amokuroides  . Subsequently, Wieser (1959a) transferred other two species to Graphonema  : G. tentabunda  , a new combination for Chromadora tentabunda sensu de Man, 1890  , and G. chitwoodi  , a new combination for Chromadorita tentabunda sensu Chitwood, 1951  . Also, in Wieser (1959a), two new species were described ( G. flaccida  and G. clivosa  ) and Chromadorita crassa Timm, 1952  was synonymized with the recently transferred G. tentabunda  . In the same year, Graphonema biseriale  is cited in Wieser (1959b) but this species was never described, consequently it is also considered nomen nudum. Inglis (1969) described G. georgei  and reviewed the situation of many Graphonema  species, resulting in the transfer of G. amokuroides  , G. clivosa  , G. flaccida  , G. norwegica  , G. paraheterophyla  and G. tentabunda  to Innocuonema  . Also, Inglis (1969) considered that Spilophora amokurae Ditlevsen, 1921  , re-described as Euchromadora amokurae  by Wieser (1954), is most probably a Graphonema  species, and Euchromadora arctica  is incertae sedis  between Euchromadora  and Graphonema  . Inglis (1969) also stated that G. sabangensis  should be considered as species inquirendum due to description based only on females, which according to him makes discussion difficult, and C. spectabilis  (which was synonymized with G. vulgare  ) should be transferred to Innocuonema  . Platonova (1971) and Kito (1981) described G. achaeta  and G. metuliferum  , respectively. Meanwhile, Warwick and Coles (1975) synonymized Protochromadora  with Graphonema  transferring all species [ P. scampae ( Coles, 1965)  ; P. mediterranea ( Allgén, 1942)  ; P. parafricana ( Gerlach, 1958)  ] and described G. northumbriae  . According to Inglis (1969), Graphonema  is easily recognized within Chromadoridae  looking at the head: distinctly set-off as a swollen, almost globular form, and with very fine dot-like punctations in the cuticle of this region of the body. Inglis (1969) also comments that the cuticle of Graphonema  becomes thicker over the region of the pharynx but always remains relatively thin and delicate in appearance when compared to Euchromadora  and other close genera.

Diagnosis (modified from Tchesunov 2014): Complex cuticle heterogeneous, structured with hexagonal or ovoid punctuations anteriorly and posteriorly, with slimmer markings restricted to the lateral surface over the middle of the body. Six outer labial sensilla and four cephalic sensilla setiform, arranged in separate circles. Transversally elliptical amphideal fovea with cuticular fringe. Buccal cavity with large, seemingly hollow dorsal tooth, ventrosublateral teeth; rows of denticles absent. No distinct posterior pharyngeal bulb. Gubernaculum with prominent hammer or L-shaped lateral pieces.

Number of valid species: 9.

Genus Graphonema Cobb, 1898 

Syn. Protochromadora Inglis, 1969 

VALID SPECIES

1. Graphonema achaeta Platonova, 1971  ( Japan Sea)

2. Graphonema amokurae (Ditlevsen, 1921) Inglis, 1969  (Auckland Islands)

Syn. Euchromadora amokurae (Ditlevsen, 1921) Wieser, 1954 

Spiliphera amokurae Ditlevsen, 1921 

3. Graphonema georgei Inglis, 1969  ( Australia)

4. Graphonema mediterranea ( Allgén, 1942) Warwick & Coles, 1975  (Mediterranean)

Syn. Euchromadora mediterranea Allgén, 1942 

Protochromadora mediterranea ( Allgén, 1942) Inglis, 1969 

5. Graphonema metuliferum Kito, 1981  ( Japan Sea)

6. Graphonema northumbriae Warwick & Coles, 1975  (Scilly Island)

7. Graphonema parafricana ( Gerlach, 1958) Warwick & Coles, 1975  (Red Sea)

Syn. Euchromadora parafricana Gerlach, 1958 

Protochromadora parafricana ( Gerlach, 1958) Inglis, 1969 

8. Graphonema scampae ( Coles, 1965) Warwick & Coles (1975)  (English Channel)

Syn. Euchromadora scampae Coles, 1965 

Protochromadora scampae ( Coles, 1965) Inglis, 1969 

9. Graphonema vulgare Cobb, 1898  ( Australia)

SPECIES INQUIRENDUM

1. Graphonema sabangensis ( Steiner, 1915) Wieser, 1954  ( Indonesia)

NOMENA NUDA

1. Graphonema biseriale Wieser, 1959  (Chesapeake Bay)

2. Graphonema pachydermum Cobb, 1898  ( Australia)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Nematoda

Class

Chromadorea

Order

Desmodorida

Family

Chromadoridae

Loc

Graphonema Cobb, 1898

Venekey, Virag, Gheller, Paula F., Kandratavicius, Noelia, Cunha, Beatriz Pereira, Vilas-Boas, Ana Carolina, Fonseca, Gustavo & 2019

2019
Loc

Graphonema metuliferum

Kito 1981

1981
Loc

Graphonema scampae ( Coles, 1965 )

Warwick & Coles 1975

1975
Loc

Protochromadora

Inglis 1969

1969
Loc

Protochromadora mediterranea ( Allgén, 1942 )

Inglis 1969

1969
Loc

Protochromadora parafricana ( Gerlach, 1958 )

Inglis 1969

1969
Loc

Protochromadora scampae ( Coles, 1965 )

Inglis 1969

1969
Loc

Graphonema

Cobb 1898

1898
Loc

Graphonema vulgare

Cobb 1898

1898