Quedius (Raphirus) imitator Luze, 1904

Salnitska, Maria & Solodovnikov, Alexey, 2018, Revision of the Quedius fauna of Middle Asia (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylininae), Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 2, pp. 117-159: 130-133

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Quedius (Raphirus) imitator Luze, 1904


Quedius (Raphirus) imitator Luze, 1904  Figs 3C, 15

Quedius tschinganensis  Coiffait, 1969, syn. n. (Fig. 14)

Quedius imitator  Luze, 1904, 102 (original description); Bernhauer 1905, 596 (notes); Bernhauer and Schubert 1916, 429 (list with synonyms); Gridelli 1924, 135 (characters, notes); Coiffait 1967, 406 (characters); Coiffait 1978, 237 (characters, distribution records); Boháč 1988, 556 (distribution records); Klimenko 1996, 121;

Quedius tschinganensis  Coiffait, 1969, 50 (original description); Coiffait 1970, 143 (list); Coiffait 1978, 237 (characters); Kascheev 2001, 102 (distribution records);

Quedius tschinganensis var. gracilicornis  Coiffait, 1977, 139 (original description);

Quedius tschinganensis var. debilicornis  Coiffait, 1978, 237 (replacement name for gracilicornis  ).

Type material examined.

Quedius imitator: Tajikistan or Uzbekistan: Lectotype (here designated): 1 ♂, "Seravschan Darch Glasunov 1892 [printed]/ Q. imitator Luze J. Boháč det. 1983 [pre-printed]"; paralectotypes: 1 ♂, "[square orange piece of paper]/ Seravschan Putchin Pass. Glasunov, 1892 [printed]/ Quedius imitator Luze [handwritten]/ Q. imitator Luze J. Boháč det. 1983 [pre-printed]"; paralectotypes: 1 ♂, "Seravschan Putchin Pass. Glasunov, 1892 [printed]/ Quedius imitator Luze [handwritten]/ Q. imitator Luze J. Boháč det. 1983 [pre-printed]/ Quedius sp.1. cf. suturalis Ksw. A. Solodovnikov 1997 [handwritten]"; 3 ♂, "Seravschan Putchin Pass. Glasunov 1892 [printed]/ Q. imitator Luze J. Boháč det. 1983 [pre-printed]/ Quedius sp.1. cf. suturalis Ksw. A. Solodovnikov 1997 [handwritten]"; 2 ♀, "Seravschan Putchin Pass. Glasunov 1892[printed]"; 2 ♂, "Seravschan Obburden Glasunov, 1892 [printed]/ Q. imitator Luze J. Boháč det. 1983 [pre-printed]/ Quedius sp.1. cf. suturalis Ksw. A. Solodovnikov 1997 [handwritten]"; 1 ♀, "Iskander-Kul Iskander-Darja Glasunov 1892 [printed]/ Q. imitator Luze J. Boháč det. 1983 [pre-printed]" ( ZIN).

Quedius tschinganensis: Uzbekistan: Holotype: ♂, "Ouzbekistan 8-68 Mts Tschingan 1500 m. H.C. [printed]/ Q. (Sauridus) tschinganus [sic!] Coiff. H. Coiffait det. 1968 [pre-printed]/ Holotype [printed]"; 5 ♂, 1 ♀, "Ouzbekistan 8-68 Mts Tschingan 1500 m. H.C. [printed]/ Paralectotype [printed]" (Fig. 14D, H) ( MNHN).

Quedius tschinganensis gracilicornis: Tajikistan: ♂, "Karatak Buchara [printed]/ Type [printed]/ Q. (Sauridus) tschinhganensis v. gracilicornis H. Coiffait det. [sic!] 1977 [pre-printed]" ( MNHN).

Additional material.

Tajikistan: 3 ♂, Zeravshan Mt. Ridge, Chap-Dara River valley, 2500 m a.s.l., 26.VI.1983, S.K. Alekseev leg. (cRyv); 1 ♂, Pamir-Alai, Zeravshan Mt Ridge, Zavron valley, 2100-3000 m a.s.l., 12-13.VII.1990, M. Schülke & D.W. Wrase leg (cSch); 1 ♂, Zeravshan Mt. Ridge, near Mazor, 14.VIII.1989, K.G. Michailov leg. (NHMD); Kazakhstan: 1 ♂, Makanchi District, Tarbagatay Mts, 6 km NE Kirovka (=Karatuma), Sholakterek River valley, ca. 1200 m a.s.l., 47°10'N, 82°06'E, highly disturbed Populus  forest with Salix  , Rosa  , Lonicera  , Crataegus  , etc., 23-24.VI.2001, S.I. Golovatch leg. (cRyv); 1 ♂, Dzhungarskiy Alatau, S Koktuma, Alakol Lake, 05.VI.1962, L.V. Arnoldi leg. ( ZIN); 2 ♂, Almaty Area, Dzhungarskiy Alatau Mts, 6 km NE Rudnichnyi, Koksu River canyon, 1300-1400 m a.s.l., 44°41'N, 78°58'E, Betula  sp., Populus  , Picea  etc. forest, 09-10.VI.2001, S.I. Golovatch leg. (cRyv); 2 ♂, Zalataysky Alatau, Krasnogorka [Sulutor], stream beach under tree, 75.13504E, 43.23457N, 28.VII.2010, V.A. Kastcheev leg. ( ZIN); 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Lle-Alatau NP Talgar env., Ak-Bulak Resort horse and cow dung, 1750 m a.s.l., 43.26897N, 77.37145E, 08.V.2014, M. Kocián leg. (cKoc); 2 ♀, Lle-Alatau NP Talgar env., Ak-Bulak Resort, horse and cow dung, 1690 m a.s.l., 43.27039N, 77.37137E, 12-15.V.2014, M. Kocián leg. (cKoc); 1 ♂, Almaty Area, Zailiyskiy Alatau Mts, Medeo near Almaty, 1500-1600 m a.s.l., 43°10'N, 77°04'E, Picea  , Betula  , etc. forest, 27.V.2001, S.I. Golovatch leg. (cRyv); 3 ♂, Almaty Area, Zailiyskiy Alatau Mts, ca. 20 km SE Turgen, Turgen River canyon, near Batun, 1750 m a.s.l., 43°14'N, 77°46'E, Picea  , Betula  sp., Salix  , etc. forest, 25.V.2001, S.I. Golovatch leg. (cRyv); 1 ♂, Zailiysky Alatau, Chilik River, Sarybastau, 15.VI.1988, V.A. Kastcheev leg. ( ZIN); 4 ♂, 1 ♀, Almaty Area, Uygurskiy Distr., Ketmen Mts, 5 km SE Kyrghyzsay (=Podgornoye), 1500-1900 m a.s.l., 43°17'N, 79°31'E, Picea  , Betula  sp., Populus  , etc. forest, 01-02.VI.2001, S.I. Golovatch leg. (cRyv);1 ♂, Ketmen Mts, Malyi Kyrgisai, 28.VII.1987, V.A. Kastcheev leg., ( ZIN); 3 ♂, Karatau Mts, 660 m a.s.l., 42°53' 41.42N, 70°42' 56.6E, leaf litter along stream, 11.VII.2010, V.A. Kastcheev leg. ( ZIN); 8 ♂, 1 ♀, Karatau Mts, Byzhi River, Rynagus stream, 757 m a.s.l., 43°57' 08.7N, 68°12' 04.2E, 24-25.VII.2010, V.A. Kastcheev leg. ( ZIN); 2 ♂, 1, Karatau Mts, Aktobe River, grove, 25.VII.2010, V.A. Kastcheev leg. ( ZIN); 6 ♂, 1 ♀, Karatau Mts, Khantagi River, 570 m a.s.l., 43°33' 32.4N, 68°40' 52.7E, 25.VI.2011, V.A. Kastcheev leg. ( ZIN); same locality and collector, but 1 ♂, leaf litter under Salix  sp., 536 m a.s.l., 43°32' 46.5N, 68°39' 50.6E, 21.VII.2010 ( ZIN); ♂, 1 ♀, 27 km S Chulak-Kurgan, 04.VI.1983, B.V. Iskakov leg. ( ZIN); 1 ♂, 1, Chimkent, Aksukent, Aksu River, 29.VI.1983, V.A. Kastcheev leg. ( ZIN); 2 ♂, Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve, Tokmak River, near border, under stones, 1600 m a.s.l., 30.V.1974, E.V. Ishkov leg. ( ZIN); 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Aksu-Dzhabagly, Taldy-Bulak River, 15-25.VI.1983, B.V. Iskakov leg. ( ZIN); 1 ♂, Aksu-Dzhabagly, Isbala River, 18.VII.1986, ( ZIN); 1 ♂, Aksu-Djabagly, Djabagly River, tract Ulken-Kaindy, IV.1986, B.V. Iskakov leg. ( ZIN); same locality and collector, but 1 ♂, Kshi-Kaindy River, 01.V.1986 ( ZIN); Uzbekistan: 1 ♂, Kitab, 30.VII.1933, V.V. Gussakovsky leg. ( ZIN); Kyrgyzstan: 1 ♂, Terskey Alatoo Mts, Barskoon Valley, Chuli River, 15.VII.1983, S.K. Alekseev leg. (cRyv); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Osh Area, Sary-Chelek Biosphere Reserve, near Arkit, Bakay-say Tract, 14.VII.1983, K.G. Mikhailov leg. (cRyv); 1 ♂, Chatkal Mt. Ridge, near Arkit, nut-fruit forest, 16.V.1961, V.A. Zaslavsky leg. ( ZIN); 2 ♂, Tien Shan, Kichik-Alai Mt. Ridge, upper reaches of Kyrghyz-Ata River, Kara-Goy, 2400-2850 m a.s.l., Juniperus  stand, 21-23.V.1993, S.I. Golovatch leg. (cRyv); 1 ♂, Osh Area, environs of Sary-Chelek Biosphere Reserve, confluent of Aflatun River, Batrakhan (=Baltyrkan) Tract, moss and leaf litter in birch forest & under Picea schrenkiana  at stream bank, 31.VII.1983, A.B. Ryvkin leg. (cRyv); 3 ♂, Tien Shan, Chatkal Mt. Ridge, Sary-Chelek Biosphere Reserve, 1550-2200 m a.s.l., forests, 29-31.V.1993, S.I.Golovatch leg. (cRyv); 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Osh Area, W Tien Shan, Ferganskiy Mt. Ridge, near Yarodar, 1100-1200 m a.s.l., Juglans  forest, in leaf litter, 27-28.IX.1983, K.Yu. Eskov leg. (cRyv); 1 ♂, Osh Area, W Tien Shan, Ferganskiy Mt. Ridge, Yarodar, 1300 m a.s.l., rill bank, in leaf litter and under stones, 24-25.IX.1983, K.Yu. Eskov leg. (cRyv); 3 ♂, Tien Shan, Baubash-Ata Mt. Ridge, near Arslanbob, 1800-1900 m a.s.l., scrub, litter & under stones. 19.V.1993. S.I. Golovatch leg. (cRyv); 10 ♂, 1 ♀, Tien Shan, Baubash-Ata Mt. Ridge, near Yarodar, 1400-1700 m a.s.l., Juglans  forest, litter & under bark. 16-17.V.1993. S.I. Golovatch leg. (cRyv); 4 ♂, 1 ♀, Ferganskiy Mt. Ridge, Kara-Alma, 1800 m a.s.l., 22-24.VI.1945, K.V. Arnoldi leg. ( ZMMU); ♂ 1 ♂, 3 ♀, Gava, Fergana Valley, Jalal-Abad Region, near station of Forest Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 04.IX.1950, L.V. Arnoldi leg. ( ZIN); 1 ♂, Fergana Valley, Kulun Lake, 3000 m a.s.l., 07.V.1993, I.I. Kabak leg. ( ZIN); 2 ♂, 1 ♀, S Fergana Valley, Ak-Terek, 25.IX.1937, A.N. Kirichenko leg. ( ZIN).

Comments on the lectotype designation.

In the original description of Q. imitator  , Luze (1904) did not specify the number of syntypes but provided geographical data that indicated multiple syntypes collected in the localities "Seravschan, Putchin-Pass, Darch, Obburden, Urmitan, Kumar; Jagnob, Varsaut; Iskander-Kul, Iskander-Darja" (approximate coordinates as we interpret these localities are given in the Table. 2). Also, the syntype series must have included both sexes because male characters were specified separately in the description. In the ZIN collection we found 11 specimens from several localities along Zeravchan and Iskander Darya Rivers matching those in the original description (for details see 'Material examined’ above). Based on that and additional information from the specimen labels, there is no doubt that they are syntypes. Earlier they were identified by Boháč (1988) as Q. imitator  without recognizing them as syntypes. In order to fix the identity of the species, we designate here one male syntype with more preciselocality "Seravschan Darch Glasunov 1892" (Darg, Sughd Distr.) as the lectotype. Bernhauer (1905) considered Q. imitator  as a "rough form" of Q. oblitteratus  (now synonym of Q. humeralis  Stephens, 1832). Gridelli (1924) not seeing types or any other material of Q. imitator  was not sure about the status of this species. Based on the non-type material, Coiffait (1967, 1978) illustrated its aedeagus for the first time that here is shown to be the correct species interpretation. Boháč (1988) provided new records for the species from Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan that are reliable because he examined syntypes.

Comments on the new synonym.

Coiffait (1969) described Quedius tschinganensis  (Fig. 14) from Uzbekistan and separated it from Q. imitator  by darker body coloration, antennal segment 3 longer than 2, presence of ‘lateral’ puncture on pronotum, denser punctation of the elytra and more elongated median lobe. Additionally Coiffait (1977) described Q. tschinganensis gracilicornis  , a variety of Q. tschinganensis  from Tajikistan based on some differences in coloration of the body and the proportions of antennae. Later (1977), he replaced the preoccupied name gracilicornis  by the new name debilicornis  . Both are unavailable names due to ICZN Article 15.2 as already noted in Herman (2001).

Our examination of the material from Middle Asia, including types, showed continuous variability in the external morphology and aedeagus that connects the states of Q. imitator  and Q. tschinganensis  . The shape of the paramere varies from the state with narrow and sharp apex with lesser number of sensory peg setae arranged in regular rows away from the apex, to the state with obtuse apex and with more sensory peg setae arranged denser and closer to the apex (Figs 14C, G; 15). Shape of the median lobe is more stable and varies only slightly in length and degree of sharpness of its apex (Figs 14B, F; 15). Mapping of this variability across the species distribution does not show any geographical patterns. Externally all specimens including females, also show no traits that would correspond to variants different in the shape of the paramere. Thus we place Q. tschinganensis  Coiffait, 1969 in synonymy with Q. imitator  Luze, 1904. Our study of the type specimen of Q. tschinganensis debilicornis  also shows it to be conspecifc with Q. imitator  .

Comments on taxonomy, distribution and bionomics.

Quedius imitator  can be diagnosed by the following character combination: body dark brown with darker head and abdomen; elytra with slightly yellowish anterior angles; antennae usually pale; scutellum without setiferous punctation; aedeagus with ventral tooth of median lobe located remotely from its apex, with median lobe and paramere very narrow, apex of paramere obtusely sharpened and sensory peg setae arranged in two regular rows convergent to each other. Among other Raphirus  that occur in Middle Asia, Q. imitator  is most similar to Q. cohaesus  from which it can be easily distinguished by the mentioned diagnostic characters of the aedeagus.

Based on the examined material and literature (Table 1), Q. imitator  is widely distributed in all countries of Middle Asia (Fig. 15). According to the label data of the examined material, Q. imitator  inhabits ground based debris and leaf litter of mainly deciduous forests along rivers and streams at various elevations, up to 3000 m. Also it can be found in dung or under stones.