Rhaucus quinquelineatus Simon 1879

García, Andrés F. & Kury, Adriano B., 2017, Taxonomic revision of the Andean harvestman genus Rhaucus Simon, 1879 (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae), Zootaxa 4338 (3), pp. 401-440 : 413-417

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4338.3.1

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Rhaucus quinquelineatus Simon 1879


Rhaucus quinquelineatus Simon 1879 View in CoL comb. rest.

( Figs 1d View FIGURE 1 , 6–8 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 , 20a View FIGURE 20 , 22 View FIGURE 22 )

Rhaucus quinquelineatus Simon, 1879: 215 View in CoL .

Flirtea quinquelineata: Roewer, 1912a: 76 View in CoL ; Roewer, 1923: 346, fig. 393; Mello-Leitão, 1923: 112; Roewer, 1927: 594; Mello- Leitão, 1932: 79, fig. 47; B. Soares, 1945: 343; Roewer, 1963: 58; Flórez & Sánchez, 1995: 368; Kury, 2003: 63.

Rhaucus (Rhaucus) quinquelineatus: Sørensen in Henriksen, 1932: 358 View in CoL .

Metarhaucus albilineatus Roewer, 1912a: 147 View in CoL , pl. 7, figs 5–6; Flórez & Sánchez, 1995: 368. Synonymy established by Roewer, 1912b.

Pararhaucus obscurus Pickard-Cambridge, 1905: 572 View in CoL ; Roewer, 1912a: 102; Roewer, 1923: 378. New synonymy.

Paecilaema obscurum: Goodnight & Goodnight, 1953: 54 [by implication].

Rhaucus (Rhaucus) muticus Sørensen, 1932: 360 View in CoL . New synonymy.

Flirtea mutica: Mello-Leitão, 1933: 110 View in CoL [by implication].

Rhaucus (Rhaucus) tristis Sørensen, 1932: 363 View in CoL , fig. 26. New synonymy.

Flirtea tristis: Mello-Leitão 1933: 110 View in CoL [by implication].

Type material. Types of Rhaucus quinquelineatus : ♂♀ syntypes, MNHN, examined by photograph. Holotype of Metarhaucus albilineatus , MHNN, lost. Holotype ♂ of Pararhaucus obscurus , BMNH, examined. Holotype ♀ of Rhaucus muticus , NHMW 1873.I. 31.28 (currently 3078), examined by photograph. Types of Rhaucus tristis , 3♀ syntypes, ZMUC, BMNH, examined by photograph.

Distribution and habitat. COLOMBIA, Boyacá Department: Villa de Leyva. Cundinamarca Department: Bogotá, Guasca, La Calera, Zipaquirá. Between 2700 and 3200 m a.s.l., especially in Northern Andean páramo and Cordillera Oriental montane forests ecoregions ( Figs 22 View FIGURE 22 , 24a–b View FIGURE 24 ).

Diagnosis. A pair of acuminate tubercles in area III, tilted backwards ( Figs 6c–e View FIGURE 6 , contrasting with all other species of Rhaucus ). Differs from R. florezi sp. nov. by the weakly developed tuberculation of legs III–IV ( Figs7d– e View FIGURE 7 ).

Redescription. Male (ICN-AO-465)

Measurements: CL=2.2, CW=3, AL=3, AW=4, BaCh=0.7, FeL III=4.6, FeL IV=6, TiL III=3, TiL IV=4. Intraspecific variation of body and appendages measurements in Table 1.

Dorsum ( Figs 1d View FIGURE 1 , 6a, 6c–e View FIGURE 6 , 7a–b View FIGURE 7 , 18b View FIGURE 18 ): Dorsal scutum alpha type, granulate ( Figs 6a View FIGURE 6 , 7a View FIGURE 7 ), with five yellow transverse irregular lines that vary in length and shape, and a reticulate pattern on each side of ocularium ( Figs 6a View FIGURE 6 , 7a View FIGURE 7 , 18b View FIGURE 18 ). Abdominal scutum widest at level of groove II; areas I–IV granulate. Carapace without conspicuous ornamentation on the anterolateral region ( Figs 6a View FIGURE 6 , 7a View FIGURE 7 ). Ocularium low without median depression, armed with a cluster of granules ( Figs 6a, 6c–e View FIGURE 6 , 7a View FIGURE 7 ). Lateral margins of DS with a few granules on the medial region ( Figs 7a–b View FIGURE 7 ). Mesotergum faintly delimited, divided into four areas: area I with a pair of medium-sized paramedian tubercles; area II with a pair of small paramedian tubercles; area III with a pair of paramedian, conical, acuminate tubercles pointing backwards; area IV with a pair of small paramedian tubercles ( Fig. 7a View FIGURE 7 ). Posterior border of scutum curved and with a row of tubercles. Free tergites I–III with a row of granules ( Figs 6a View FIGURE 6 , 7a–b View FIGURE 7 ).

Venter ( Fig. 6b View FIGURE 6 ): Stigmatic area with a few granules. Stigmata large, oval and transverse. Coxa I with two parallel rows of tubercles increasing size distally and with an anterior smooth space for the pedipalp to rest; coxa II longer than coxa I, granulate; coxa III longer than I and II, granulate, with posterior margin sigmoid; coxa IV strongly backward, granulate. Genital operculum finely granulate.

Pedipalps ( Figs 8a–c View FIGURE 8 ): Coxa dorsally and ventrally with one meso-distal granule. Trochanter with one dorsal short tubercle and two ventral tubercles fused at base (mesal taller); femur compressed, dorsally with a row of aligned triangular setiferous tubercles of different sizes –not reaching the distal portion– and ventrally the same (the three most-basal tubercles fused, the fourth and the sixth tubercles smaller than the others, and the two mostdistal tubercles very small). Patella distally depressed with dorsal granules; tibia depressed, spoon-shaped, dorsally granulate, with lateral borders tuberculate and some setiferous tubercles at distal portion ( Figs 8a–b View FIGURE 8 ). Tarsus long, conical, with some dorsal granules and ventrally with two rows of thickened setae ( Fig. 8c View FIGURE 8 ).

Chelicera ( Figs 6a–b View FIGURE 6 , 8d–e View FIGURE 8 ): Chelicera swollen. Basichelicerite rectangular, with a few granules, the proximal border with two ectal tubercles and two small dorsal granules, the ectal face with two sub-distal joined tubercles, and the mesal face with one large distal tubercle ( Figs 6a View FIGURE 6 , 8d View FIGURE 8 ). Hand with one tubercle near the joint of the movable finger. Fixed finger with the inner surface finely grooved. Movable finger with one conical, sub-basal tooth and with the inner surface at distal portion dentate ( Fig. 8e View FIGURE 8 ).

Legs ( Figs 6a–b View FIGURE 6 , 7d–e View FIGURE 7 ): Coxae I–II dorsally with one posterior process ( Figs 6a–b View FIGURE 6 ); coxa III with one proximal retrolateral tubercle; coxa IV coarsely granulate ( Figs 6b View FIGURE 6 , 7a View FIGURE 7 ), with a prominent anterolateral clavi inguines and with a posterolateral multicapitate apophysis ( Fig. 6c View FIGURE 6 ). Trochanter I–II dorsally with some minute granules and ventrally with some tubercles; trochanter III with some dorsal tubercles and one proximal prolateral tubercle, ventrally with a few granules; trochanter IV with a few dorsal tubercles and one small ventral prolateral tubercle ( Figs 7d–e View FIGURE 7 ). Femora I–IV slightly sigmoid, granulated; III–IV ventrally with two longitudinal sub-straight rows of tubercles all along its length, increasing in size distally, and one prolateral and one retrolateral row of tubercles (dorsally just the two last ones evident, the last one curved, thinner and with irregular tip) ( Figs 7d–e View FIGURE 7 ). Patellae I– IV dorsally granulate, curved. Tibiae I–IV granulate; tibiae III–IV sub-straight, with two longitudinal rows of tubercles all along its length (in tibia III the two distal tubercles are close together and the last one are larger and bicapitate) ( Fig. 7d View FIGURE 7 ), tibia IV the same, but the distal tubercle separated from the others, larger and bicapitate ( Fig. 7e View FIGURE 7 ). Metatarsus I–IV with one ventrodistal seta. Tarsi I–II with one smooth claw; tarsi III–IV with 2 subparallel smooth claws and a tarsal process ( Fig. 7c View FIGURE 7 ). Tarsal counts: 6(3)–6(3)/19(3)–19(3)/8–8/9–10. Intraspecific variations in Table 2.

Color (in ethanol): Carapace Strong Reddish Brown (40), reticulated in the ocularium. Areas I–IV Dark Reddish Brown (44). Blots in carapace Brilliant Greenish Yellow (98). Pedipalps, coxae I–IV, free tergites and chelicera Strong Reddish Brown (40). Trochanters I–IV and legs I–III Strong Yellowish Brown (74). Legs IV Strong Reddish Brown (40).

Male genitalia ( Fig. 8f–h View FIGURE 8 ): VP of penis subrectangular with concave distal border; VP with two lateral, elongated, dense patches of type 4 microsetae, slightly separated in the median longitudinal field, where type 1 microsetae appear ( Fig. 8h View FIGURE 8 ). VP with two apical MS C curved and laterally inserted; two MS D, the most distal large and straight following the same lateral row as MS C and the other (D2) smaller, inserted dorso-laterally on the middle third of VP; two MS A straight and laterally inserted, near D2 ( Fig. 8g View FIGURE 8 ); two small MS E volcano-shaped on the ventral face; one small MS B volcano-shaped inserted laterally at the base of the VP ( Fig. 8h View FIGURE 8 ). Glans mostly smooth; stylus long falciform, papillae-like wattle barbels, spoon-shaped process ( Fig. 8f View FIGURE 8 ). Remarks. Fig. 8h View FIGURE 8 shows both MS B located inside symmetrical elliptical pits, which, however, are not present in all individuals examined.

Female. Similar to male, but differs by having anterior part of carapace narrower and coda divergent; tubercles of areas I–III shorter; ocularium lower; legs III–IV and associated rows of thinner tubercles; chelicerae not hyperthelic ( Figs 6d–e View FIGURE 6 ).

Other material examined. 57 specimens (19 males, 38 females) in 13 lots. COLOMBIA: Boyacá Department: Villa de Leyva , 6♂ 2♀ 1 juv. ( MNRJ 19384 View Materials ), S.F.F. Iguaque [05°42'6.3''N 73°27'22.4''W], 2941 m, A. García & A.B. Kury leg GoogleMaps . Cundinamarca Department: Guasca , 1♂ (ICN-AO-68) [4°50'52.76''N 73°52'4.69''W], 2750 m GoogleMaps ; 1♀ (ICN-AO-1102), Reserva Biológica El Encenillo [4°47'N 73°54'W], 3050 m, 16.ix.2012, C. Suárez, A. Herrera, E. Henao, E. Ariza & C. Villalva leg. GoogleMaps ; 3♀ (ICN-AO-1385), Reserva Biológica El Encenillo [4°50'N 73°53'W], 8–10.xii.2012, A. Herrera, C. Suarez & E. Ariza leg. GoogleMaps ; Bogotá, 1♀ (ICN-AO-134), Páramo Cruz Verde [4°34'N 74°1'W], 21.ii.2010, D. Luna leg. GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 1♀ (ICN-AO-160), same loc., 3200 m, xi.1996, O. Sanchez leg.; 4♂ 2♀ (ICN-AO-1026), same loc., v.2010, E. Florez & C. Mattoni leg; 5♂ 1♀ (ICN-AO-1038), vía a la Vírgen de la Peña [4°34'N 74°3'W], 2700 m, 12.v.2012, M. Medrano & A. García leg. GoogleMaps ; 2♂ 10♀ (ICN-AO-418), Usme, Parque Entrenubes, Cerro Juan Rey [4°31'N 74°5'W], 2700 m, 23–25.v.2003, L. Benavides leg.; 4♂ 16♀ (ICN-AO-465), Usme, Vereda Corinto, Cerro Redondo, Paramo Parada del Viento [4°25'N 74°7'W], 3100 m, 17.v. 2008, I. Morales leg. GoogleMaps ; La Calera, 1♀ (ICN-AO-876), E.A.A.B. Club La Aguadora - Embalse de San Rafael [4°42'N 74°0'W], 2700 m, ix.2000, P. Barriga & D. Tobar leg. GoogleMaps ; 1♂ (ICN-AO-216), Via a Mundo Nuevo [4°38'N 73°54'W], 2850 m, 17.x.2000, E. Flórez leg. GoogleMaps ; Zipaquirá , 1♂ 1♀ (ICN-AO-1198), Vereda Ventalarga, Represa Pantanoredondo [05°2'N 74°2'W], 3000 m, 27.iv.2003, E. Flórez & UN biology students leg. GoogleMaps














Rhaucus quinquelineatus Simon 1879

García, Andrés F. & Kury, Adriano B. 2017

Paecilaema obscurum:

Goodnight 1953: 54

Flirtea mutica: Mello-Leitão, 1933 : 110

Mello-Leitao 1933: 110

Flirtea tristis: Mello-Leitão 1933 : 110

Mello-Leitao 1933: 110

Rhaucus (Rhaucus) quinquelineatus: Sørensen in Henriksen, 1932 : 358

Henriksen 1932: 358

Flirtea quinquelineata: Roewer, 1912a : 76

Kury 2003: 63
Florez 1995: 368
Roewer 1963: 58
Soares 1945: 343
Leitao 1932: 79
Roewer 1927: 594
Roewer 1923: 346
Mello-Leitao 1923: 112
Roewer 1912: 76

Metarhaucus albilineatus

Florez 1995: 368
Roewer 1912: 147

Pararhaucus obscurus

Roewer 1923: 378
Roewer 1912: 102
Pickard-Cambridge 1905: 572

Rhaucus quinquelineatus

Simon 1879: 215
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