Platystoma arcuatum Loew, 1856

Bodner, L. & Freidberg, A., 2016, Taxonomy and immature stages of the Platystomatidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) of Israel, Zootaxa 4171 (2), pp. 201-245: 211-213

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Platystoma arcuatum Loew, 1856


Platystoma arcuatum Loew, 1856 

( Figs. 8View FIGURES 8 – 18, 19View FIGURES 19 – 29, 30View FIGURES 30 – 40, 41View FIGURES 41 – 51, 52View FIGURES 52 – 62, 63, 77)

Platystoma arcuatum Loew, 1856: 50  .

Selected references: Hendel, 1913: 97 (monograph of Platystoma  ); Hennig, 1945: 27 (palaearctic Platystomatidae  ).

Diagnosis. This species differs from all other congeners by the combination of small size (usually 2.5–3.50 mm), the presence of a nearly complete hyaline transverse band composed of hyaline spots over crossvein DM-Cu, and the T5 of the male, which is 3–4 times as long as either T4 or T3.

Redescription. Head ( Figs. 8View FIGURES 8 – 18, 19View FIGURES 19 – 29): Color and vestiture: Head mostly brown to black, with pale brown areas. Frons mostly translucent microtrichose, with dense silvery-white microtrichia at orbits and around bases of orbital and vertical setae. Ocellar triangle delimited by thin grayish line of microtrichia. Lunule brown to black, with grayish median line of microtrichia. Antenna brown to blackish, densely microtrichose (less pronounced in certain angles); pedicel sometimes yellowish anterodorsally. Face dark brown to black; dorsal 0.5 grayish microtrichose; ventral 0.5 shiny, except thin median line of grayish microtrichia. Clypeus shiny black with either microtrichose spots on corners, or narrow microtrichose band ventrally. Palpus dark brown to black, with pale brown base. Chaetotaxy: 2 (pairs) orbital setae and 1 (pair) postocellar seta present. Lunule setulose. Gena with 1–3 setae, and with long dark brown setulae. Postgena with long pale brown setulae. Occiput with short pale brown setulae. Ratios: Head: 1.46–1.56; frons anterior: 1.17–1.44; frons posterior: 1.20–1.39; ocellar triangle/frons: 0.27–0.36; eye: 1.90–2.38; 1st flagellomere: 1.67–2.50; gena/eye 0.24–0.29; parafacial/gena: 0.20–0.28; posterior orbital/ anterior orbital: 1.35–2.67; medial vertical/ lateral vertical: 1.00–1.31; posterior orbital/medial vertical: 0.41–0.76; ocellar/medial vertical: 0.32–0.64; ocellar/ocellar triangle: 1.08–1.92; postocellar/medial vertical: 0.30–0.48.

Thorax: Color and vestiture: Ground color mostly black, inconspicuously grayish microtrichose. Scutum with 3 or 5 weak microtrichose stripes. Postpronotal lobe ground color dark brown to black. Scutellum usually matte black, sometimes inconspicuously microtrichose marginally. Subscutellum dark brown, without microtrichia. Anepisternum with sparsely reticulate pattern of microtrichia. Katepisternum mostly shiny dark brown to black, with inconspicuously microtrichose margins. Chaetotaxy: Postpronotal lobe with 1 seta and moderately long brown setulae. Presutural supra-alar seta and postsutural supra-alar seta present. Anepisternum mostly short dark brown setulose, with paler, slightly longer setulae posteriorly. Katepisternum mostly moderately long dark brown setulose, with longer setulae ventrally. Ratios: Scutum: 0.85–0.94; presutural supra-alar/intra-alar: 0.31–0.52; postsutural supra-alar/intra-alar: 0.44–0.73; postalar/intra-alar: 1.00–1.33.

Legs: Color and vestiture: Leg type dark. Tarsi with following yellowish areas: fore metatarsus proximally, mid and hind metatarsi ventrally, and 2nd tarsomere of hind tarsus ventrally. Coxae inconspicuously microtrichose. Trochanters, femora and tibiae shiny, without microtrichia. Chaetotaxy: Coxae and trochanters black setulose. Femora dark brown setulose, with short setulae dorsally and long setulae ventrally. Fore and hind tibiae with 0–2 spines. All tarsi with dark brown setulae dorsally and yellowish to pale brown setulae ventrally.

Wing ( Fig. 30View FIGURES 30 – 40): Pattern: Generally dark brown, with small hyaline spots scattered more or less uniformly on proximal 0.5–0.6 of wing, posterior to vein R2+3, and with small to large hyaline spots scattered somewhat irregularly on distal 0.5 of wing; more or less conspicuous, fragmented, sometimes complete, transverse band present, consisting of large hyaline spots extending from costa to hind margin of wing, aligned with crossvein DM- Cu; hyaline spots otherwise scattered mostly on apex and around periphery of wing. Combined area of hyaline spots less than combined area of pigmented pattern. Pattern with discrete transverse dark bands extending from costa to hind margin of wing: 1 band extending from pterostigma, over crossvein R-M, near crossvein DM-Cu, ending in posterodistal margin of cell cu1; 2 somewhat oblique bands beyond level of crossvein DM-Cu: Proximal band wider than medial band, starts at apex of cell r1; 1 spot or narrow band over wing apex. Costal cell mostly dark brown, with thin subhyaline spots. Venation: Veins and sclerites dark brown. Vein M ends slightly anterior to wing tip. Crossvein DM-Cu without stump vein. Calypteres pale brown with dark brown margins and yellowish-white fringes; dorsal calypter slightly narrower and shorter than ventral calypter, with conspicuously longer fringes. Halter base brown, stem beige to pale brown, knob dark brown. Chaetotaxy: Base of costa near costagial break, with long ventral seta. Ratios: Wing: 2.41–2.67.

Abdomen: Structure: Male T4 about as long as T3 and less than 0.33 times as long as T5. Female T4 slightly shorter than T3 and about as long as T5. Color and vestiture: Abdomen almost completely shiny black, with slight microtrichia (sometimes more in female). Male terminalia ( Figs. 41View FIGURES 41 – 51, 52View FIGURES 52 – 62, 63): Epandrium laterally broad; ventral concavity with posterior depression; subepandrial sclerite anteriorly broadened and extended beyond anterior margin of epandrium; lateral surstylus in ventral view finger-like, posteriorly rounded and curved mesally, with pointed apex; medial surstylus ambiguous. Terminal filaments equally long and slightly longer than distiphallus. Female terminalia (Fig. 77): 3 spermathecae present; spermatheca short ovoid, with large protuberances. Ratios: Male: T3/T4: 0.71–1.27; T4/T5: 0.26–0.28; T3+4/T5: 0.48–0.57; epandrium: 0.49–0.55; preglans: 1.17–1.50; glans: 1.64–1.89; preglans/glans: 0.39–0.55; acrophallus/preglans+glans: 8.24–10.17; distiphallus/preglans+glans: 6.47–7.29. Female: T3/T4: 0.89–1.00; T4/T5: 0.93–1.12; T3+4/T5: 1.80–2.12; aculeus: 4.17–5.50; cercal unit: 2.50–3.33; cercal unit/aculeus: 0.20–0.23.

Measurements (mm). Body length: 2.40–5.30; wing length: 2.70–3.40.

Material examined. ISRAEL: Nahal ' Iyyon , haTanur (' HaTanur' , or ' Tanur' ): 17.iii.1973, D. Furth (1Ƌ, 1♀), 21.iii.1974, D. Furth (1Ƌ), 13.iv. [19]83, AF (1♀), 430m  , 33°16.1'N 35°34.5'E, 15.iii.2011, L. Bodner (19Ƌ, 12♀), AF (5Ƌ, 5♀); Newe Ativ , 26.iv.1964, D. Furth (1♀)  ; Senir [ Hazbani ], 24.iv.1982, F. Kaplan (1Ƌ); Mezudat Nimrod: [Cala’at Nemrod], 24.iv.1982, AF (1Ƌ)  , 33°15.2’N 35°43,2'E, 760m, 17.v.2011, L. Bodner (7Ƌ, 1♀), AF (2Ƌ); Dan, Bet Ussishkin, 33°14’N 35°39'E, 15.iii.2011, AF (7Ƌ, 1♀); Tel Dan , 13.iv. [19]83, AF (3Ƌ, 6♀), I. Yarom (1Ƌ, 3♀)  ; Panyas (or ' Banias' ): 33°14.9'N 35°41.7'E, 15.iii.2011, L. Bodner (1♀), M. Morgulis (1♀), 205mGoogleMaps  , 33°15'N 35°42'E, 28.iv.2011, D. Furth (2Ƌ), 4.v.1977, AF (1♀); 24.iv.1982, AF (11Ƌ, 6♀), I. Yarom (1Ƌ), F. Kaplan (1Ƌ, 1♀), 12.iv. [19]83, AF (1Ƌ). I. Yarom (2Ƌ, 1♀), 16.iv.1992, AF (7Ƌ, 4♀), 8.iii.1984, I. Nussbaum (1♀); Nahal Bezet: [Karkara], 31.iii. [19]68, Pener et al. (5Ƌ, 1♀), 6.iv. [19]67, J. Margalit (3Ƌ, 2♀), 6.iv. [19]67, Pener et al. (3Ƌ), 9.iv. [19]68, Pener et al. (1♀), 12.iv. [19]67, Pener et al. (1Ƌ), [N. Bezet], 21.iv. [19]83, I. Yarom (1Ƌ), Y. Zvik (1♀)  ; Hanita , 27.iii.1976, D. Gerling (1Ƌ, 1♀)  ; Nahal Keziv, Monfort (' Monfort' , or ' Nahal Keziv' ): 14.iii.1985, AF (1Ƌ), 10.iv.1993, AF (1Ƌ, 2♀)  , 33°02.635'N 35°13.271'E, 4.iii.2010, AF (1♀), 33°02.7'N 35°13.6'E, 5.iii.2008, L. Friedman (2Ƌ), AF (1Ƌ, 1♀), 4.iii.2010, L. Friedman (1Ƌ, 1♀), 33°02.6'N 35°13.3'E, 4.iii.2010, I. Katz (1Ƌ); Avivim , 18.iv.1981, AF (1♀)GoogleMaps  ; Sasa , 18.iv.1981, AF (21Ƌ, 7♀)  ; Meron (' Har / Mt. Meron' , or ' Meiron' ): [ Jermak ], 16.iv. [19]63, J. Margalit (1Ƌ), 20.iv.1972, AF (4Ƌ, 2♀), 3.v.1973, AF (1♀)  , 32°59'N 36°24'E, 30.iv.2007, T. Levanony, Malaise trap (2♀), 1100m, 32°59.7'N 36°24.7'E, 14.iv.2011, L. Bodner (1Ƌ); Nahal 'Ammud: 17.iii.1973, D. Furth (2Ƌ, 1♀), 4.iv. [19]83, I. Yarom, (1♀), 31.iii. [19]82, I. Nussbaum (1Ƌ); Zefat, 10.iv.1976, D. Simon (♀); 'Ein el Asad, 18.iv.1984, I. Nussbaum (1Ƌ, 1♀); Golan, Upper Nahal Zavitan, 7.v.1987, A. Shlagman (1Ƌ); Golan , Devora Fall , 23.iv.1973, AF (1♀)  ; Golan, Qazrin , 4.v.1999, AF (1Ƌ); Park haYarden: - 210m  , 32°54.5’N 35°37.5'E, 14.iv.2011, AF (1Ƌ, 1♀), 2.iv.1998, AF (2♀), 4.iv. [19]83, AF (1♀), 7.v.1997, AF (1Ƌ); Teverya [Tiberias, Jordan Valley , Palestine], 15.v.1949, D. Theodor (1Ƌ, 2♀)GoogleMaps  ; Nahal Tavor , 25–26.iii.2001, L. Friedman (4Ƌ, 2♀)  ; Qiryat Tiv'on , 22.iii.1975, B. Shadmot (1♀), 2.iv.1975, F. Kaplan (7Ƌ, 2♀), 2.iv.1975, M. Kaplan (1♀); Har haKarmel, Horeshat ha'Arba'im, 450m  , 32°45.5’N 35°01.6'E, 2.v.2011, AF (1♀); Nahal Oren : 9.iii.2012, AF (7Ƌ, 1♀), 16.iv.2003, AF (1Ƌ), 14.iv.2006, AF (2♀)  ; HaZorea' , 8.iii.1979, D. Furth (1Ƌ); Gal'ed, 19.iii. [19]83, AF (1Ƌ); Ma'agan Mikha'el  , 32°33’N 34°55.6'E, 26.iii.2009, W. Kuslitzky (1Ƌ); Zikhron Ya'aqov : [Z.Y.], 12.iii.1940, Com. Inst. Ent. Coll. No. 12720 (1Ƌ, 1♀), 1.v.1998, AF (5Ƌ, 1♀)GoogleMaps  ; Zomet Elyaqim , 1.iv.2012, L. Bodner (31Ƌ, 6♀)  ; Sebastiya , 24.iii.1973, D. Furth (1Ƌ); Kokhav Ya'ir  , 32°19’N 34°59'E, 21.iii.2011, AF (2Ƌ, 1♀), L. Bodner (1Ƌ); Qedumim, 24.iii. 2 0 0 5, L. Friedman (1♀); Yarhiv , 24.iii. [19]83, AF (1Ƌ); Tel Aviv, Abu Kabir, 28.iv.1981, AF (1Ƌ); Bet Dagan  , 32°00’N 34°50'E, 18.iv.2008, W. Kuslitzky (2♀); Rantis Junction, near Nahshonim , 13.iv.1999, AF (1♀)  ; Shoham, 18.iii.2011, L. Bodner (1Ƌ); Park Canada, 29.iii.1992, AF (1Ƌ); Bet Shemesh , 30.iii.2004, L. Friedman (2Ƌ, 2♀), I. Zonstein (4♀)  ; Zomet haEla, 4.iv.1999, AF (1Ƌ). 

Type locality. Beirut. 

Distribution. Turkey, Lebanon, Syria and Israel.

Distribution in Israel. Galilee, Golan Heights, Jordan Valley, Carmel Ridge, Samaria, Central Coastal Plain, Foothills of Judea and Judean Hills.

Adult activity in Israel. March to May.

Comments. This is the smallest species of Platystomatidae  found in Israel, and is probably the smallest Platystoma  species anywhere. Adults were frequently collected on Scandix pecten-veneris  and Smyrnium olusatrum  ( Apiaceae  ) and Euphorbia  sp. ( Euphorbiaceae  ).














Platystoma arcuatum Loew, 1856

Bodner, L. & Freidberg, A. 2016

Platystoma arcuatum

Loew 1856: 50