Epicadinus spinipes ( Blackwall, 1862 )

Prado, André Wanderley Do, Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira & Machado, Miguel, 2018, Taxonomic review of Epicadinus Simon, 1895 (Araneae: Thomisidae), Zootaxa 4459 (2), pp. 201-234: 217-222

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4459.2.1

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scientific name

Epicadinus spinipes ( Blackwall, 1862 )
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Epicadinus spinipes ( Blackwall, 1862) 

Figs 8–10View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10, 15 View Figure

Eripus spinipes Blackwall, 1862: 422  .

Epicadus spinipes (Blackwall)  . Petrunkevitch 1911: 405.

Epicadinus espinipes (Blackwall)  (sic). Mello-Leitão 1929: 100.

Epicadinus albimaculatus Mello-Leitão, 1929: 104  . New synonymy.

Epicadinus gavensis Soares, 1946: 267  , figs 1–2. New synonymy.

Type-material. Holotype of Epicadinus spinipes  : female, BRASIL, Rio de Janeiro: Serra dos Órgãos, 1857, Clark, H. & Gray, J. (OUMNH 1277.3, Figs 10A–C View Figure ), examined. Lectotype of Epicadinus albimaculatus  : male, BRASIL, Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro city (MNHN AR-15076, Coll. Simon 7.319, Figs 10D–F View Figure ), examined. Syntypes of Epicadinus gavensis  : male lectotype and male paralectotype (herein designated), BRASIL, Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro city, Gávea, 1944, P. Wygodzinsky (MZUSP 3547, Figs 10G–I View Figure ), examined.

Additional material examined. BRASIL: Espírito Santo: 1 male, Anchieta, CSV [Companhia Siderúrgica Vitória], Macega , ca. 20°47'22"S, 40°38'40"W, 20 August 2008, R. Baptista ( UFRJ 1340View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; idem, 1 female, 24 April 2009, G. A. Pérez (UFRJ 1341); 2 males, Linhares, Caliman, Fazenda Santa Terezinha, ca. 19°07'91.1"S, 39°58'43.5"W, 30 November 2011, R. Baptista (UFRJ 1335); 1 female, 1 juvenile, Linhares, Reserva Natural Vale, Bicuíba, ca. 19°09'11"S, 40°02'50"W, 4 February 2011, D. T. Castro (UFRJ 1339); idem, 2 females, R. Baptista (UFRJ 1337); idem, 1 female, 22 April 2011, D. T. Castro, (UFRJ 1336); idem, 1 juvenile, 22 April 2011, R. Baptista (UFRJ 1332); idem, 3 juveniles, 4 August 2011, R. Baptista (UFRJ 1338); idem, 1 juvenile, 28 November 2011, D. T. Castro (UFRJ 1333); 1 juvenile, Sooretama , REBIO Sooretama, Quirinão, ca. 18°59'35"S, 40°08'58"W, 23 April 2011, D. T. Castro ( UFRJ 1331View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 juvenile, 23 April 2011, R. Baptista (UFRJ 1334). Rio de Janeiro: 1 male, Angra dos Reis , Ilha Grande, Vila Abraão, ca. 23°08'32"S, 44°10'26"W, February 1994, M. Ramirez ( MNRJAbout MNRJ [ex MACNAbout MACN])GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, Casemiro de Abreu, Barra do Sana , ca. 22°22'25"S, 42°12'14"W, 28 December 2002, Wienskoski ( MNRJ 11484View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 juvenile, Macaé, Terminal Cabiúnas, Mata da Fazenda , ca. 22°17'18"S, 41°44'05"W, 16 March 2011, R. Baptista ( UFRJ 1316View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, Macaé, Terminal Cabiúnas, Mata do Gasoduto , ca. 22°17'18"S, 41°44'05"W, 11 December 2012, G. Miranda ( UFRJ 1320View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; idem, 1 juvenile, 23 May 2013 (UFRJ 1315); idem, 1 female, 21 February 2014, M. O. Villareal (UFRJ 1318); idem, 1 juvenile, 21 February 2014, D. R. Pedroso (UFRJ 1317); 1 juvenile, Macaé, Terminal Cabiúnas, Mata da Odebei , ca. 22°17'09"S, 41°44'06"W, 17 March 2011, R. Baptista ( UFRJ 1322View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; idem, 1 juvenile, 24 February 2013, G. Miranda (UFRJ 1321); 1 juvenile, 21 November 2013 (UFRJ 1319); 2 males, Mangaratiba, Rio das Pedras , ca. 22°59'23"S, 44°05'47"W, 12 December 2006, Wienskosk ( MNRJ 06865View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 2 males, 1 juvenile, Mendes, Centro Marista São José das Paineiras , Sede , 22°30'35"S, 43°45'16"W, 21 November 2014, R. Baptista ( UFRJ 1327View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; idem, 1 male, 1 female, 1 juvenile, 21 November 2014, A. W. Prado (UFRJ 1328); idem, 1 female, 21 November 2014, R. Baptista (UFRJ 1326); 1 male, 18 November 2014, A. W. Prado (UFRJ 1324); 2 juveniles, Mendes, Fazenda Arvoredo, Encruzilhada, 22°30'17"S, 43°45'35"W, 31 August 2014, R. Baptista (UFRJ 1323); idem, 1 male, 17 November 2014, R. Baptista (UFRJ 1329); 1 male, Mendes, Fazenda Arvoredo, Porteira, 22°30'10"S, 43°45'14"W, 4 March 2015, A. W. Prado (UFRJ 1325); 1 male, Rio de Janeiro, Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Pau da Fome, Padaria , 22°56'13"S, 43°26'29"W, 23 September 2013, P. Castanheira ( UFRJ 1343View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 juvenile, Rio de Janeiro, Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Pau da Fome, Figueira , 22°54'40"S, 43°30'25"W, 12 June 2013, R. Baptista ( UFRJ 1342View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 juvenile, Santa Maria Madalena, Desengano, ca. 21°57'14"S, 42°00'56"W, 23–25 March 1998, A. B. Kury (MNRJ 10388). São Paulo: 1 male, São Sebastião, Praia de Guaecá , ca. 23°49'20"S, 45°27'07"W, September 1998, C. A. Rheims ( IBSP 20588View Materials)GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. E. spinipes  belongs to the spinipes  -group and resembles E. villosus  . Females of E. spinipes  are distinguished from E. villosus  by the presence of a yellowish, thin, median stripe along the carapace, located between two dark brown stripes, and two yellowish white lateral stripes on the dorsum of the opisthosoma ( Fig. 8A View Figure ), and yellowish sternum, sometimes with pale brown marginal spots ( Fig. 8B View Figure ). The paired macrosetal tubercles of the tibia and metatarsus are robust, with length greater or equal to half the width of the article ( Fig. 8G View Figure ). The epigygum presents a remarkable triangular median septum, with anterior base at least twice as wide as the posterior one ( Fig. 8E View Figure ), and spiral copulatory ducts with approximately ten coils, the last one partially covering the anterior surface of the spermathecae ( Fig. 8F View Figure ). Males of E. spinipes  are distinguished from E. villosus  by the yellowish sternum as in the female ( Fig. 9C View Figure ), RTA about twice as long as wide, slanted to the axis of the cymbium ( Fig. 9F View Figure ), and embolus with about four turns around the tegulum.

Notes. The type-locality of Eripus spinipes  , according to its original description, is Serra dos Órgãos in the surroundings of Rio de Janeiro city. Clark & Gray's journey crossed the municipalities of Teresópolis and Petrópolis in the Organ Mountains ( Clark 1867: 114–173). The two British collectors made more extensive collections at Constance, an old farm in Teresópolis ( Clark 1867: 118–132, Johnson 2015: 9) and Presidency, the residence of a British immigrant, about 5 km from Petrópolis ( Clark 1867: 148–155). Therefore it is not possible to specify the precise type-locality. According to Mello-Leitão (1929), Epicadinus albimaculatus  was based on females from Terra Nova, Bahia state (near the Baía de Todos os Santos), and the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro state, both in Brazil, under number 7329 of Coll. Simon. The only specimen of Epicadinus albimaculatus  found at MNHN is a female from Rio de Janeiro, clearly labelled as “Type” in Mello-Leitão´s handwriting ( Figs 10D–F View Figure ), erroneously numbered 7319 of Coll. Simon by later curators. This specimen is herein considered as the lectotype of E. albimaculatus  ( ICZN 1999, art. 74.7.3). In color and shape of the epigynum, the lectotype of E. albimaculatus  agrees perfectly with abundant specimens of E. spinipes  from the city of Rio de Janeiro and nearby localities. The other syntype from Terra Nova is considered lost. Besides, Terra Nova is situated in the coastal area of the Atlantic Forest, a preferred area for E. spinipes  . Although Terra Nova is the only record of the species for Bahia, it is close to Sooretama, in the area of the Tabuleiros Forest, northern Espírito Santo state, near the border with Bahia, where specimens of E. spinipes  were collected. The two males of E. gavensis  ( Fig. 10G–I View Figure ) also come from the city of Rio de Janeiro and agree perfectly with the specimens of E. spinipes  . We choose and herein designate the specimen that is best preserved and was illustrated in the original description as the lectotype ( ICZN 1999, recommendation 74B). In addition, the only species of Epicadinus  collected in the city of Rio de Janeiro and surrounding areas and throughout the coastal region of the state of Rio de Janeiro is E. spinipes  .

Description. Female ( UFRJAbout UFRJ 1326, Figs 8A–C, G View Figure ): Total length: 4.41. Carapace: length 2.00, width 1.77, height 1.11. Clypeus: height 0.23. Chelicera: length 0.50, width 0.32. Sternum: length 0.98, width 0.89. Endites very setaceous, especially in the retrolateral portion: length 0.28, width, 0.25. Labium: length 0.28, width 0.43. Eye

diameters and interdistances: AME 0.09, ALE 0.11, PME 0.06, PLE 0.05, AME–AME 0.013, AME–ALE 0.09, ALE–ALE 0.33, PME–PME 0.19, PME–PLE 0.13, PLE–PLE 0.56. MOQ trapezoidal. Legs 1234. Leg I: femur 2.68, patella 1.14, tibia 2.15, metatarsus 1.67, tarsus 0.99, total 8.63; II: 2.00-1.16-1.89-1.23-0.71-6.99; III: 1.05- 0.70-0.94-0.66-0.50-3.85; IV: 1.06-0.58-0.90-0.68-0.49-3.71. Paired macrosetal tubercles very robust in tibiae and metatarsi, longer than or equal to half width of the article. Opisthosoma: length 2.55, width 2.98, height 2.56, pentagonal. Anterior margin of dorsum concave in dorsal view, projecting over posterior portion of carapace, with projected anterior angles. Pair of lateral conical projections with acute apex directed posterolaterally, placed transversally in the median portion, and the posterior one placed in a very slanted position, a little longer than the paired projections and reaching 2/3 of the height of the opisthosoma. In lateral view, anterior portion of the dorsum nearly flat, aligned to the dorsal face of the posterior conical projection, and posterior portion slightly convex.

Epigynum ( Figs 8C, D View Figure ) longer than wide, with reniform atrium, approximately twice as wide as long, located anteriorly, formed by a deep depression, deepest at level of lateral pair of foveas, whose margins are covered by a thin translucent chitinous keel. Anterior portion of atrium rises gradually reaching surface level of opisthosoma. Triangular median septum, almost as long as wide, with an anterior base at least twice as wide as posterior base and projecting itself laterally, merging into interior part of atrium. The posterior base fuses to area near to epigastric furrow, placed far from atrium. Median portion of septum very high, covering copulatory openings and posterior margins of atrium. Margins of epigynum present long cilium-shaped bristles, which partially cover the atrium. Vulva ( Fig. 8F View Figure ) with very long spiral copulatory ducts and a pair of posterior rounded spermathecae. Copulatory ducts initially formed by a simple, curved duct, followed by a spiral portion directed anteriorly, with approximately nine coils, lighter in hue, ending in a more dilated anterior portion, whose inner margin originates an inner darker spiral portion. This darker spiral, formed by approximately ten coils, runs posteriorly in opposite direction from first spiral with a thicker posterior portion, whose last coil partially covers the dorsal surface of the spermathecae, and forms a sharply curved distal duct connected to the posterior inner face of the rounded and well-developed spermathecae.

Coloration. Carapace yellow, with two greyish brown stripes, separated by a thin stripe of the carapace hue, and greyish brown radial stripes. Sternum, endites and labium light yellow. Chelicerae greyish brown. Legs I and II of the same color as the carapace, covered with irregular greyish brown spots, legs III and IV lighter and with few spots. Opisthosoma greyish yellow with two median yellowish white (guanine) longitudinal stripes bordered by black irregular lines; each opisthosomal projection bears one blackish spot at the basis, followed by a blackish grey stripe up to the light yellow tip. Venter light yellow, sides with black irregular spots near the basis of the median projections. Posterior conical projection of the same hue as the dorsum, with light yellow tip.

Male ( UFRJAbout UFRJ 1324, Fig. 9A–C View Figure : Total length: 2.89. Carapace: length 1.32, width 1.23, height 0.75. Clypeus: height 0.16. Chelicera: length 0.33, width 0.19. Sternum: length 0.56, width 0.59. Endites very setaceous, especially in the retrolateral portion: length 0.22, width, 0.26. Labium: length 0.09, width 0.20. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.07, ALE 0.07, PME 0.05, PLE 0.04, AME–AME 0.08, AME–ALE 0.05, ALE–ALE 0.16, PME–PME 0.07, PME–PLE 0.04, PLE–PLE 0.29. MOQ trapezoidal. Legs 1243. Leg I: femur 1.30, patella 0.49, tibia 0.96, metatarsus 0.82, tarsus 0.58, total 4.15; II: 1.12-0.52-0.95-0.79-0.52-3.90; III: 0.54-0.25-0.49-0.37-0.31- 1.94; IV: 0.59-0.32-0.51-0.39-0.30-2.11. Paired macrosetal tubercles in tibiae and metatarsi very robust and long, longer than or equal to half the width of the article. Opisthosoma: length 1.57, width 1.90, height 1.30, pentagonal. Anterior margin of opisthosoma a little concave in dorsal view, slightly projecting over the posterior portion of the carapace, with anterior angles a little projected. Paired conical projections thin, about as long as the posterior one, and arranged transversally. Posterior conical projection very slanted and not reaching half the height of the opisthosoma itself. In lateral view, anterior portion of the dorsum nearly flat and almost aligned to the posterior conical projection, and posterior portion slightly convex.

Palpus ( Figs 9D–E View Figure ). Tegulum with transversal furrow at 1 o’clock position. Embolus basis gradually separating from tegulum, initially forming a wide stripe, slightly tapering along its median portion, which describes about 4 turns around the lateral margin of the tegulum, and ends in a filiform apex, hidden by the margin of tegulum. RTA fused to DTA, both connected directly to the tibia by an elongated and narrow base, forming a kind of pedestal. RTA about 2x longer than wide, arranged transversally, downward slanted to the longitudinal axis of the cymbium, with large median concavity, marginal folds, and an apex much thinner than the median portion, forming an acute and elongated curve. Dorsal fold slightly projected over the median concavity only in the apical region, fusing directly to the base of the DTA. Ventral fold strongly projected over the median concavity, but gradually decreasing towards the apex. DTA slightly elongated, hook-shaped, with a slightly thicker base, excavated at the inner surface of hook, its apex forming a rounded and slightly acute tip.

Coloration. Carapace reddish brown with two median longitudinal dark brown stripes in the posterior portion. Sternum light yellow bordered by reddish brown spots. Endites and labium uniformly reddish brown. Reddish brown chelicerae with irregular black spots. Legs I and II with the same color as the carapace, III and IV lighter. Opisthosoma dorsally yellow with a faint transversal stripe of irregular blackish spots between the conical projections in the median portion. Conical projections reddish brown. Opisthosoma ventrally and laterally yellow with several black spots near macrosetae. Basis of macrosetae appearing as reddish brown dots.

Distribution. Most records of E. spinipes  are from Atlantic Forest areas near the coast of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, reaching south to the northeastern coast of São Paulo state, all in southeastern Brazil ( Fig. 15 View Figure ). Its distribution may reach the coastal area of southern Bahia state, northeastern Brazil, as there are specimens from the Tabuleiros Forest at the border of Espírito Santo and Bahia, and one of the type-localities of the species is Terra Nova, near Salvador (albeit we had not examined this lost syntype).