Trichrysis triacantha ( Mocsary , 1889)

Rosa, Paolo, Wei, Na-sen, Feng, Jun & Xu, Zai-fu, 2016, Revision of the genus Trichrysis Lichtenstein, 1876 from China, with description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae), Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 63 (1), pp. 109-136: 125-126

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Trichrysis triacantha ( Mocsary , 1889)


Taxon classification Animalia Hymenoptera Chrysididae

Trichrysis triacantha ( Mocsary, 1889)  Figs 67-72, 73-75, 104

Chrysis (Trichrysis) triacantha  Mocsáry, 1889: 325. Syntypes, ♀♀, Indonesia: Sumatra ( NHMW) (examined).

Chrysis (Trichrysis) sumbawamba  Mocsáry, 1912: 378. Holotype, ♀, Indonesia: Sumbawa Isl. ( HNHM) (synonymised by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 573).

Chrysis (Trichrysis) transmutata  Mocsáry, 1914: 26. Lectotype, ♀, designated by Bohart in Bohart and French 1986, Myanmar: Tenasserim ( HNHM) (examined) (synonymised by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 574).

Chrysis (Trichrysis) saohime  Tsuneki, 1950: 68. Holotype, ♀, Japan: Nagano (HUM, not NIAS) (synonymised by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 574).

Chrysis (Trichrysis) bicarinata  Tsuneki, 1950: 69. Holotype, ♀, China: Hong Kong ( EIHU) (synonymised by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 574).

Chrysis (Trichrysis) transmutata  Mocsáry: Tsuneki 1950: 70; 1961: 374.

Trichrysis triacantha  (Tsuneki): Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 573; Rosa et al. 2014.

Material examined.

INDONESIA: 1♀, Plason  Sumatra 877-2 / triacantha  det. Mocsáry Type <handwritten in red>; 1♀, Sumatra, triacantha  det. Mocsáry <handwritten in red> ( NHMW); MYANMAR: 1♀, Lower Burma Tenasserim Haundraw Valley 5.98 Bingham Coll. / transmutata  Mocs., det. Mocsáry typ <handwritten in red> / Coll. Bingham / red label / Lectotypus Chrysis transmutata  Mocs. ♀ RM Bohart / id nr. 135542 HNHM Hym. Coll. ( HNHM). CHINA: 3♀♀, Guangdong, Qingyuan (24°8 ’31” N 112°55 ’15” E), 9.IX.2014, leg. Z-f. Xu (SCAU); 2♀♀, Guangdong, Nankunshan Provincial Nature Reserve (23°39 ’28” N 113°55 ’23” E), 2. VII– 3.IX.2005, leg. Z-f. Xu (SCAU); 1♀, Guangdong, Nanling National Nature Reserve (24°55 ’43” N 113°1 ’1” E), 16-18.IV.2004, leg. Z-f. Xu (SCAU); 1♀, Guangdong, Fogang, Mt. Guanyin (23°57 ’57” N 113°33 ’55” E), 15-16.IX.2007, leg. Z-f. Xu (SCAU); 1♀, Guangdong, Zhaoqing, Fenghuang, Tonggu (23°13 ’26” N 112°31 ’55” E), 14-15.VII.2007, leg. Z-f. Xu (SCAU); 1♀, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Liuxihe Forest Park (23°44 ’31’’ N, 113°47 ’0’’ E), 13-14.IV.2002, leg. Z-f. Xu (SCAU); 1♂, Guangdong, Huizhou, Rengtu (23°10 ’50’’ N, 114°35 ’1’’ E), 27.VIII.2008, leg. H-y. Chen (SCAU); 2♀♀, Hainan, Bawangling National Nature Reserve (19°7 ’31” N 109°14 ’6” E), 7-11.VII.2006, leg. J-x. Liu & L-q. Weng (SCAU); 1♀, Hainan, Bawangling National Nature Reserve, 1-3.V.2008, leg. C-d. Hong (SCAU); 1♀, Yunnan, Jingdong, Jinping (24°27 ’14” N 100°50 ’4” E), 28.IV.2005, leg. H-s. Wang (SCAU); 1♀, Yunnan, Jinggu,Weiyuan (23°29 ’30” N 100°42 ’29” E), 4.X.2004, leg. J-x. Liu & W-q. Fan (SCAU); 1♀, Yunnan, Hekou, Nanxi (22°37 ’31” N 103°56 ’53” E) 21.VII.2003, leg. T-j. Li (SCAU).


Trichrysis triacantha  ( Mocsáry, 1889) can be separated from all other Chinese species by following characteristics: tegula fully metallic blue; pronotal sublateral carina complete; TFC well developed, usually appearing double and sometimes with weak branches upward to ocellar area; S2 black spots small (Fig. 104); T3 prepit bulge medially convex; interval between median tooth and lateral tooth slightly convex. It is separated from the common species, Trichrysis cyanea  , by TFC (single, never double or with branches upwards to ocellar area in Trichrysis cyanea  ) and by S2 black spots (Fig. 104) differently shaped ( Trichrysis cyanea  , Fig. 97).


Female. Body length 5.5-8.0 mm.

Head. Scapal basin deep, striate, with aligned small punctures across striae. TFC well developed, usually beneath raised and laterally directed downward, appearing as double TFC, sometimes even with traces of dorsal branches upwards to ocellar area. Relative length of P:F1:F2:F3=1.0:1.5 –1.8:0.8–1.0:0.6– 0.8; F1 l/w=3.3; OOL=1.6-1.9 MOD; BOL=1.5-1.7 MOD; POL=1.6-1.8 MOD; MS=1.0 MOD; clypeal apexus concave.

Mesosoma. Pronotal groove deep, extending to half length of pronotum; sublateral carina distinct and complete (Fig. 69). Mesoscutellum and metanotum without antero-median depression or pit. Punctuation uneven, with shining and wrinkled or punctate interspaces; mesoscutellum usually impunctate antero-medially. Mesopleuron with large punctures; episternal sulcus not particularly deep or enlarged.

Metasoma. Punctuation uniform on metasoma (Fig. 70); punctures on T1 larger than on T2; T1 and T2 laterally with small punctures on interspaces between large punctures. T2 with median carina. T3 prepit bulge convex; when evidently bulged then pre pit row area with large impunctate and shining area; pit row with large isolate pits. Apex of T3 with three pointed teeth, with convex interval between median tooth and lateral tooth (Fig. 71). S2 black spots small (Fig. 104), fused medially.

Colouration. Body metallic blue to bluish-green. Scape and pedicel metallic bluish-green, F1 from black to partially or fully metallic bluish-green, rest of flagellum black. Tegula metallic blue, or blackish-brown with extensive metallic reflections. Legs metallic bluish-green, with fore tarsi blackish-brown with reflection, mid and hind tarsis fully or partially metallic green.

Male. Similar to female, except for: apex of T3 with smaller teeth and without pre pit area.


Trichrysis triacantha  is one of the most variable species. Its TFC varies from straight to downcurved at two ends, usually appearing as double TFC, with or without branches pointing to ocellar area, with some intermediate forms. Tsuneki (1961) synonymised Trichrysis bicarinata  with Chrysis tonkinensis  without type examining; this identification was incorrect, but the drawings of Trichrysis bicarinata  and Trichrysis tonkinensis  in his publications ( Tsuneki 1950, 1961) confirm the synonymy with Trichrysis triacantha  . Other variable characteristics of Trichrysis triacantha  are: metallic colouration of F1 (from fully black to partially or fully metallic green); metallic colouration of basitarsus (partially or fully metallic green); and interval between median tooth and lateral tooth (vary from gently convex to markedly convex) (Figs 73-75). However, these specimens do not show variation for OOL, BOL, POL and relative length of P:F1:F2:F3.


China (Fujian, Taiwan, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Hainan, Yunnan) ( Rosa et al. 2014). Widely distributed in the Oriental Region ( Kimsey and Bohart 1991).


Trichrysis singalensis  ( Mocsáry, 1889) was synonymised with Trichrysis triacantha  by Kimsey and Bohart (1991). Trichrysis singalensis  was described from a single (?) specimen from Sri Lanka, originally housed in MNHU, and not from a syntype series including Myanmar specimens housed in MSNG as stated by Kimsey and Bohart (1991). The holotype was not found during our research (P.R. and N-s.W.) in the institute and not even by Dr. Frank Koch, curator at MNHU, and we could not find it in other museums. The four specimens identified as Chrysis singalensis  in MSNG do not match the original description. They were collected after the description and belong to different species. In Mocsáry’s collection in Budapest there are seven specimens labelled as Chrysis singalensis  , but they also belong to different species.

Trichrysis vestigator  (Smith, 1858) was described from Borneo and could be present in Sumatra, from where Trichrysis tricantha  ( Mocsáry, 1889) was described. The two species are very likely synonymy, but the type of Trichrysis vestigator  was not available for this study. Based on short description and key given by Bohart (1987), we could not state that Trichrysis triacantha  is a junior synonym of Trichrysis vestigator  at present.














Trichrysis triacantha ( Mocsary , 1889)

Rosa, Paolo, Wei, Na-sen, Feng, Jun & Xu, Zai-fu 2016

Trichrysis triacantha

Lichtenstein 1876