Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S., 2018, The millipede genus Julus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caucasus (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae), Zootaxa 4461 (1), pp. 89-117: 92-97

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.1.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3FACE488-20DC-46A4-A511-026B7F2DBEA2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/610E87FB-9315-FF92-FF0D-F190FED71F6B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936
status

 

Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936 

Figs 1B View Figure , 2B View Figure , 3B–D View Figure , 4B–D View Figure , 5 View Figure , 6C–I View Figure , 14B View Figure , 15B View Figure , 16B View Figure , 17B View Figure , Map 1

Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936: 77  (D).

Julus colchicus  — Lang, 1959: 1791 (M); Kobakhidze, 1964: 190 (R); 1965: 393 (R); Golovatch, 1977: 49 (D, R); Lokšina and Golovatch, 1979: 386 (M); Talikadze, 1984: 143 (M); Enghoff, 2006: 181 (R); Chumachenko, 2012: 452 (R); 2016: 409 (R); Zuev, 2014: 350 (R); Korobushkin et al., 2016: 25 (R); Kokhia and Golovatch, 2018: 40 (M).

Material examined. 2 males, 30 females, 3 juveniles ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, Krasnodar Prov., Severskaya Distr. , 3– 

10 km S of Ubinskaya, Quercus  , Fagus  , Carpinus  etc. forest, 300–450 m a.s.l., litter and under bark, 3–4.VII.1986; 2 males, 22 females (ZMUM), Mostovskoy Distr., Shedok N of Psebai, karst funnel, wet Fagus  , Acer  , Quercus  etc. forest, litter and under bark, 650 m a.s.l., 4.VIII.1986; 2 males, 1 female, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Caucasian Nature Reserve, Pslukh ca 20 km E of Krasnaya Polyana, Fagus  , Quercus  , Abies  , Picea  etc. forest, 1000 m a.s.l., litter, 12.VIII.1986; 2 males, 5 females, 2 juveniles (ZMUM), same locality, 1 8–20.V.1985; 1 male, 6 females, 2 juveniles (ZMUM), Sochi, ca 8 km S of Khosta, Cave “Our Lady”, Buxus  , Fagus  , Acer  etc. forest near entrance, litter and under stones, 16.V.1985; 1 male, 1 female (ZMUM), same locality, Taxus  and Buxus  forest, litter, 28.X.1981; 3 males, 5 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), same locality, Lazarevskoye, Saloniki, deciduous forest, litter, 28.X.1981, all leg. S. Golovatch; 5 males, 25 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Belorechensky Distr., Dolgogusevsky, Belaya River valley, litter, 7.VI.2009, leg. L. Rybalov and V. Semenov; 2 males, 4 females, 7 juveniles (ZMUM), 5.5 km NE of Krasnaya Polyana, lower flow of Achipse River, 600 m a.s.l., 43°43’10”N, 40°15’25”E, leg. K. Makarov and A. Matalin; 6 males, 6 females, 4 juveniles (AE), near Adler, I.2008; 8 males, 8 females, 1 juvenile (AE), Caucasian Nature Reserve, near Khosta, Taxus  and Buxus  grove, VI.2006; 17 males, 11 females, 2 juveniles (AE), same locality, V.2006, all leg. Yu. Chumachenko; 2 females, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Khosta, Taxus  and Buxus  forest, 43.5317°N, 39.8772°E, 80 m a.s.l., 07.VIII.2012, leg. F. Walther; 1 male, 1 female (SMNG), Utrish, Ostrya, Juniperus  , Acer campestre  , Quercus, Cornus  mas, Pistacia etc. coppice, 44.7111°N, 37.4825°E, 11.V.2004; 1 female, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Mezmai, valley with Buxus  , under bark, 44.1902°N, 39.9677°E, 16.V.2004, all leg. K. Voigtländer.

2 males ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, Adygea Republic, Sakhrai near Novoprokhladnoe, S of Maikop , 700 m a.s.l., 

Fagus  and Alnus  forest, litter, 7.VII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch; 1 female (SMNG), Sachrai, Novopchladnoe, slope,

mixed forest, 44.1363°N, 40.2880°E, 31.VIII.2005, leg. R. Bischof; 7 juveniles (SMNG), S of Novoprokhladnoe, Bzhebs River valley, 44.1365°N, 40.3179°E, under logs, 19.VIII.2005; 1 juvenile (SMNG), same locality, 30.VIII.2005;2 males, 2 females (SMNG), SE of Novoprokhladnoe, Kuna Valley, wet Fagus orientalis  forest, litter, 44.1131°N, 40.3214°E, 30.VIII.2005; 1 female (SMNG), Ust’-Sakhrai, Kuna River valley, Fagus orientalis  etc. forest, under logs, 44.2086°N, 40.2816°E, 19.V.2004; 2 female, 4 juveniles (SMNG), SE of Novoprokhladnoe, 44.0866°N, 40.4183°E, 23.V.2004; 1 male (SMNG), same locality, 44.1000°N, 40.3666°E, 26.V.2004; 1 male (SMNG), same locality, Petasites, Heracleum  etc. meadow, 44.0999°N, 40.3998°E, 22–26.V.2004; 1 male (SMNG), E of Novoprokhladnoe, Sachrai Valley, Fagus orientalis  etc. forest, 44.1365°N, 40.3179°E, 19– 21.V.2004, all leg. K. Voigtländer; 4 males, 6 females (AE), Caucasian Nature Reserve, near Guzeripl, Fagus  and Abies  forest, 1000 m a.s.l., V.2009; 1 male, 1 female (AE), same locality, 700 m a.s.l., 21.V.2009; 4 males, 11 females (AE), same locality, 1000 m a.s.l., 23.VI.–24.VII.2009; 2 males, 7 females (AE), same locality, 8.VII.– 24.VII.2009; 14 males, 17 females (AE), same locality, VI.2009, all leg. Yu. Chumachenko; 2 males, 5 females (ZMUM), same locality, forest, summer 1976, leg. B. Striganova; 3 males, 2 females (AE), Caucasian Nature Reserve, NE slope of Mt Oshten, 2150 m a.s.l., 17.VII.2004; 5 males, 6 females (AE), near Maikop, Quercus  forest, pitfall trapping, 14.IV.–01.V.2009; 7 males, 4 females (AE), near Maikop, 44°20.724’N, 40°11.368’E, 16.III.–1.IV.2011; 3 males, 5 females (AE), same locality, 15.IV.–2.V.2011; 2 males, 5 females (AE), same locality, 15.V.–4.VI.2011; 1 male, 2 females (AE), same locality, 4.VI.–16.VI.2011; 2 males, 8 females, 1 juvenile (AE), same locality, 16.VI.–15.VII.2011; 12 females, 1 juvenile (AE), same locality, 15.VII.–29.VII.2011; 7 females (AE), same locality, 29.VII.–16.VIII.2011; 1 male, 6 females (AE), same locality, 16.IX.–2.X.2011; 3 males, 4 females, 2 juveniles (AE), same locality, 1.X.–17.X.2011, all leg. Yu. Chumachenko; 1 male (AE), 6 km NNE of Guzeripl, mouth of Kisha River, mixed forest, 11.VI.2013, leg. R. Zuev; 1 male, 1 female (AE), Guzeripl, mixed forest, 3.VI.2012, leg.?

3 males, 3 females ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, Karachaevo-Cherkessia , Teberda Nature Reserve , Canyon Gonachkhir, Pass Klukhor, 2760–2850 m a.s.l., alpine meadow, under stones, 2.VIII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch  ; 1 male (AE), Caucasian Nature Reserve , near Zakan, 30.VI.–9.VII.2009, leg. Yu. Chumachenko  .

1 male (ZMUM), Russia, Stavropol Prov., Georgievsk, Quercus  , Acer  and Fagus  forest, litter and under bark, 7.VI.1985, leg. S. Golovatch; 1 male, 3 females, 1 juvenile (AE), Kochubeevsky Distr., near Nevinnomyssk, floodplain of Bolshoy Zelenchuk River, 44.5970°N, 41,9252°E, 340 m a.s.l., 06.XI.2017, leg. R. Zuev.

1 male, 3 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), Abkhazia, Lake Ritsa, 950–1100 m a.s.l., Fagus  , Abies  , Picea  , Acer  etc. forest, litter, under bark and stones, 13–14.VIII.1986; 19 males, 14 females, 15 juveniles (ZMUM), Myussera Nature Reserve, 20–130 m a.s.l., mixed deciduous forest ( Castanea  , Alnus  etc.), litter, under bark and stones, 8– 10.IV.1983; 1 male (ZMUM), same locality and dates; 1 male, 9 females (ZMUM), Sukhumi Distr., Bzyb River Valley, Pskhu, 700–900 m a.s.l., Fagus  , Quercus  , Castanea  etc. forest, litter, under bark and stones, 15– 16.VIII.1986; 5 males, 2 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), environs of Sukhumi, near Cave Kelassuri, litter, 11.IV.1983, all leg. S. Golovatch; 1 male (ZMUM), near Sukhumi, under stones, 22.IV.1971, leg. N. Zalesskaja; 2 males, 3 females (ZMUM), Abkhazia, Sukhumi Distr., Yashtukha, tree nursery, 29.III.1995, leg. A. Markossian; 1 male (ZMUM), Abkhazia, Sukhum, 42°58.4’N, 41°04.04’E, ca 50 m a.s.l., litter, Eucalyptus  , tree shaking etc., 7.XII.2003, leg. Yu. Marusik and G. Antipova.

5 males, 2 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), Georgia, Borzhomi Nature Reserve, Banishkevi Valley, 800–900 m a.s.l., Picea  , Fagus  and Carpinus  forest, litter, logs, under stones, 12 and 16.V.1983; 1 male, 8 females, 3 juveniles (ZMUM), Ajaria, Khulo Distr., 3 km W of Danisparauli, deciduous forest, litter, 10.X.1981; 1 male, 3 females (ZMUM), Ajaria, Batumi Botanical Garden, litter, 13.X.1978; all leg S. Golovatch; 2 males, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), Ajaria, Kintrish Nature Reserve, Zeraboseli, 450–600 m a.s.l., 1–3.VI.1981, leg. S. Golovatch and J. Martens; 1 male (SMNG), Khashuri, Akhaldaba, Nedzvi Managemened Reserve, Nedzvistskali River, 41.9082°N, 43.5151°E, humid Picea  forest, 01.VI.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Akhaltsikhe to Borjomi, S Chobiskhevi, Chobiskhevi River, 41.7651°N, 43.3265°E, Fagus  forest, 01.VI.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Sairme Gorge, 41.9569°N 42.7692°E, mixed forest, leaf litter ( Fagus orientalis  and Castanea sativa  ), 14.VII.2013, all leg. L. Mumladze; 1 male, 1 female (SMNG), Samzche-Dschawachetien, Abastumani Observatory on Mt Kanobili, 41.7544°N, 42.8202°E, 1580 m a.s.l., 28.X.2009; 1 male, 3 females, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Shida Kartli, Ormotsi, Tana valley 16.6 km upstream Didi Ateni, 41.8611°N, 43.9444°E, 1110 m a.s.l., 16.IX.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Samtskhe-Javakheti, 500 m W of Tsaghveri, Gujarula River valley, 41.8078°N, 43.4672°E, 1010 m a.s.l., 17.IX.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Kvemo Kartli, SW of Kojori, 41.6472°N, 44.6936°E, 1200 m a.s.l., 06.X.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Guria, SW of K’vabgha, 41.9131°N, 42.4000°E, 590 m a.s.l., 26.IX.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Ajaria, Q’orolistavi towards Mt Mta Mt’irala, 41.6494°N, 41.7731°E, 730 m a.s.l., 01.X.2012; 1 female, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Darial gorge at 8–131 km, 42.7039°N, 44.6264°E, 1480 m.a.s.l., 10.VIII.2014, all leg. F. Walther; 1 male, 1 female (ZMUM), Tskhaltubo, near Cave Belaya (= Tetri), deciduous forest on limestone rock, litter and under stones, 26.X.1981; 1 male (ZMUM), Kutaisi Distr., Sataplia Nature Reserve near Tskhaltubo, forest, litter and under stones, 25.X.1981, all leg. S. Golovatch; 1 male, 1 female (ZMUM), same locality, IV.1973, leg. D. Krivolutsky; 1 male, 1 female (ZMUM), Okriba, Mukhura ca 15 km E of Tkibuli, 700–800 m a.s.l., Castanea  , Fagus  , Carpinus  etc. forest, litter, under bark and stones, 7–9.V.1987; 4 males, 8 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Surami Mt. Ridge, Pass Djvari between Gomi and Sachkhere, 850 m a.s.l., Alnus  , Fagus  , Rhododendron  etc. forest, litter, 7.V.1987; 1 male (ZMUM), Kakhetia, Babaneuri Nature Reserve, ca 16 km ENE of Akhmeta, near Babaneuri, 500 m a.s.l., 4– 5.V.1987, all leg. S. Golovatch and K. Eskov.

Diagnosis. Differs from other species of the genus by the following combination of characters. Main process (mp) of male leg-pair 2 long, with a ventral spike-like outgrowth ( Figs 2B, 2C View Figure , 3B View Figure , 4B View Figure , 5B View Figure ). Ends of flagella (fl) upturned ( Figs 3C, 3D View Figure , 4D View Figure , 5E View Figure ). Distal part of fl thin, with lamellae. Gonopodal promere (pr) wide, round at apex, with a triangular spike (t) in middle part ( Figs 3C, 3D View Figure , 4C, 4D View Figure , 5C, 5D, 5E View Figure ). Lateral outgrowth (lo) of op narrow, pointed ( Figs 4E View Figure , 5E View Figure ) or rounded ( Figs 3D View Figure , 5D View Figure ) at apex. Metazonae with shallow and weakly expressed striations ( Figs 2D View Figure , 22B). Female vulvae (vu) relatively broad; ampulla 1 (am1) located slightly basal to ampulla 2 (am2); coxa 2 (l2) with a weakly developed apicomesal outgrowth (Fig. 23B).

Descriptive notes. Length of adults 19–36 mm, width 1.3–2.5 mm. Number of segments in adults from 44+1+T to 50+1+T. Body grey-brown with a thin, black, dorsal, axial line, venter lighter; legs light brown to yellow; antennae and anal valves brown ( Fig. 5 View Figure ). Eye patches composed of 40–45 ocelli. Metazonae with superficial, weakly expressed striations ( Figs 5D View Figure , 16B View Figure ).

All other characters as in J. alexandrae  , except as follows. Antennae in situ reaching back to body segment 4. Antennomeres 5 and 6 each with a corolla of bacilliform sensilla ( Fig. 1B View Figure ). Each stipes of gnathochilarium with a group of a few setae parabasally, below mentum ( Fig. 2B View Figure ).

Male leg-pair 1 ( Figs 3B–D View Figure ) with a well-developed suture between coxa (cx) and a 1-segmented telopodite remnant (te). Apex of lateral process of cx varying from acuminate ( Figs 3B, 3D View Figure ) to round ( Fig. 3C View Figure ); te round, with several thin setae. Male leg-pair 2 with three coxal processes ( Figs 4B–D View Figure ): a short anterolateral process (alp), a long, distally thickened main process (mp) with a distocaudal spike-like outgrowth, and a short and acuminate posterior process (pp). Penes (p) short, slightly bifurcate ( Fig. 4B View Figure ).

Promere (pr) broad, clearly rounded at apex, with a triangular mesal spike or tooth (t) near distal third ( Figs 8C–I View Figure ), flagella (fl) long and mostly relatively slender, with inconspicuous lamellae over most of their extent, curved at apex.

Mesomere (ms) rounded at apex ( Figs 8D, 8F, 8H, 8I View Figure ). Opisthomere (op) somewhat variable in shape: flattened ( Figs 8D, 8F View Figure ) or widely rounded ( Figs 8H, 8I View Figure ) (see also Lohmander 1936; Golovatch 1977). Lateral outgrowth (lo) of op narrow, pointed ( Fig. 8H View Figure ), rounded ( Fig. 8D View Figure ) or bifurcate ( Fig. 8I View Figure ) at apex.

Ventral edge of male segment 7 with small curved lamellae bordering the gonopodal aperture ( Fig. 15B View Figure ).

Female vulvae (vu) relatively wide; bursa (bu) with a small, rounded, apical outgrowth; ampulla 1 (am1) located slightly basal to ampulla 2 (am2); coxa 2 (12) with a weakly expressed apicomesal outgrowth ( Fig. 17B View Figure ).

Remarks. This is the most common and widespread species of Julus  in the Caucasus, recorded from the Krasnodar and Stavropol provinces, the Adygea and Karachaevo-Cherkessia republics, Abkhazia, most of Georgia and the adjacent parts of Turkey ( Lohmander 1936; Lang 1959; Kobakhidze 1964, 1965; Golovatch 1977; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979; Talikadze 1984; Enghoff 2006; Chumachenko 2012; Korobushkin et al. 2016). It inhabits mixed and deciduous forests, as well as subalpine and alpine meadows, occurring at a range of elevations from the Black Sea coast to the alpine belt.

The species shows only minor morphological variations in the structure of male coxa 1 and gonopodal opisthomere.

ZMUM

Zoological Museum, University of Amoy

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Diplopoda

Order

Julida

Family

Julidae

Genus

Julus

Loc

Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S. 2018

2018
Loc

Julus colchicus

: 77

Loc

Julus colchicus

: 1791 : 190 : 49 : 386 : 143 : 181 : 452 : 350 : 25 : 40