Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S., 2018, The millipede genus Julus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caucasus (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae), Zootaxa 4461 (1), pp. 89-117: 92-97

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.1.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3FACE488-20DC-46A4-A511-026B7F2DBEA2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/610E87FB-9315-FF92-FF0D-F190FED71F6B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936
status

 

Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936 

Figs 1BView FIGURE 1, 2BView FIGURE 2, 3B–DView FIGURE 3, 4B–DView FIGURE 4, 5View FIGURE 5, 6C–IView FIGURE 6, 14BView FIGURE 14, 15BView FIGURE 15, 16BView FIGURE 16, 17BView FIGURE 17, Map 1

Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936: 77  (D).

Julus colchicus  — Lang, 1959: 1791 (M); Kobakhidze, 1964: 190 (R); 1965: 393 (R); Golovatch, 1977: 49 (D, R); Lokšina and Golovatch, 1979: 386 (M); Talikadze, 1984: 143 (M); Enghoff, 2006: 181 (R); Chumachenko, 2012: 452 (R); 2016: 409 (R); Zuev, 2014: 350 (R); Korobushkin et al., 2016: 25 (R); Kokhia and Golovatch, 2018: 40 (M).

Material examined. 2 males, 30 females, 3 juveniles ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, Krasnodar Prov., Severskaya Distr. , 3– 

10 km S of Ubinskaya, Quercus  , Fagus  , Carpinus  etc. forest, 300–450 m a.s.l., litter and under bark, 3–4.VII.1986; 2 males, 22 females (ZMUM), Mostovskoy Distr., Shedok N of Psebai, karst funnel, wet Fagus  , Acer  , Quercus  etc. forest, litter and under bark, 650 m a.s.l., 4.VIII.1986; 2 males, 1 female, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Caucasian Nature Reserve, Pslukh ca 20 km E of Krasnaya Polyana, Fagus  , Quercus  , Abies  , Picea  etc. forest, 1000 m a.s.l., litter, 12.VIII.1986; 2 males, 5 females, 2 juveniles (ZMUM), same locality, 1 8–20.V.1985; 1 male, 6 females, 2 juveniles (ZMUM), Sochi, ca 8 km S of Khosta, Cave “Our Lady”, Buxus  , Fagus  , Acer  etc. forest near entrance, litter and under stones, 16.V.1985; 1 male, 1 female (ZMUM), same locality, Taxus  and Buxus  forest, litter, 28.X.1981; 3 males, 5 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), same locality, Lazarevskoye, Saloniki, deciduous forest, litter, 28.X.1981, all leg. S. Golovatch; 5 males, 25 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Belorechensky Distr., Dolgogusevsky, Belaya River valley, litter, 7.VI.2009, leg. L. Rybalov and V. Semenov; 2 males, 4 females, 7 juveniles (ZMUM), 5.5 km NE of Krasnaya Polyana, lower flow of Achipse River, 600 m a.s.l., 43°43’10”N, 40°15’25”E, leg. K. Makarov and A. Matalin; 6 males, 6 females, 4 juveniles (AE), near Adler, I.2008; 8 males, 8 females, 1 juvenile (AE), Caucasian Nature Reserve, near Khosta, Taxus  and Buxus  grove, VI.2006; 17 males, 11 females, 2 juveniles (AE), same locality, V.2006, all leg. Yu. Chumachenko; 2 females, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Khosta, Taxus  and Buxus  forest, 43.5317°N, 39.8772°E, 80 m a.s.l., 07.VIII.2012, leg. F. Walther; 1 male, 1 female (SMNG), Utrish, Ostrya, Juniperus  , Acer campestre  , Quercus, Cornus  mas, Pistacia etc. coppice, 44.7111°N, 37.4825°E, 11.V.2004; 1 female, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Mezmai, valley with Buxus  , under bark, 44.1902°N, 39.9677°E, 16.V.2004, all leg. K. Voigtländer.

2 males ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, Adygea Republic, Sakhrai near Novoprokhladnoe, S of Maikop , 700 m a.s.l., 

Fagus  and Alnus  forest, litter, 7.VII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch; 1 female (SMNG), Sachrai, Novopchladnoe, slope,

mixed forest, 44.1363°N, 40.2880°E, 31.VIII.2005, leg. R. Bischof; 7 juveniles (SMNG), S of Novoprokhladnoe, Bzhebs River valley, 44.1365°N, 40.3179°E, under logs, 19.VIII.2005; 1 juvenile (SMNG), same locality, 30.VIII.2005;2 males, 2 females (SMNG), SE of Novoprokhladnoe, Kuna Valley, wet Fagus orientalis  forest, litter, 44.1131°N, 40.3214°E, 30.VIII.2005; 1 female (SMNG), Ust’-Sakhrai, Kuna River valley, Fagus orientalis  etc. forest, under logs, 44.2086°N, 40.2816°E, 19.V.2004; 2 female, 4 juveniles (SMNG), SE of Novoprokhladnoe, 44.0866°N, 40.4183°E, 23.V.2004; 1 male (SMNG), same locality, 44.1000°N, 40.3666°E, 26.V.2004; 1 male (SMNG), same locality, Petasites, Heracleum  etc. meadow, 44.0999°N, 40.3998°E, 22–26.V.2004; 1 male (SMNG), E of Novoprokhladnoe, Sachrai Valley, Fagus orientalis  etc. forest, 44.1365°N, 40.3179°E, 19– 21.V.2004, all leg. K. Voigtländer; 4 males, 6 females (AE), Caucasian Nature Reserve, near Guzeripl, Fagus  and Abies  forest, 1000 m a.s.l., V.2009; 1 male, 1 female (AE), same locality, 700 m a.s.l., 21.V.2009; 4 males, 11 females (AE), same locality, 1000 m a.s.l., 23.VI.–24.VII.2009; 2 males, 7 females (AE), same locality, 8.VII.– 24.VII.2009; 14 males, 17 females (AE), same locality, VI.2009, all leg. Yu. Chumachenko; 2 males, 5 females (ZMUM), same locality, forest, summer 1976, leg. B. Striganova; 3 males, 2 females (AE), Caucasian Nature Reserve, NE slope of Mt Oshten, 2150 m a.s.l., 17.VII.2004; 5 males, 6 females (AE), near Maikop, Quercus  forest, pitfall trapping, 14.IV.–01.V.2009; 7 males, 4 females (AE), near Maikop, 44°20.724’N, 40°11.368’E, 16.III.–1.IV.2011; 3 males, 5 females (AE), same locality, 15.IV.–2.V.2011; 2 males, 5 females (AE), same locality, 15.V.–4.VI.2011; 1 male, 2 females (AE), same locality, 4.VI.–16.VI.2011; 2 males, 8 females, 1 juvenile (AE), same locality, 16.VI.–15.VII.2011; 12 females, 1 juvenile (AE), same locality, 15.VII.–29.VII.2011; 7 females (AE), same locality, 29.VII.–16.VIII.2011; 1 male, 6 females (AE), same locality, 16.IX.–2.X.2011; 3 males, 4 females, 2 juveniles (AE), same locality, 1.X.–17.X.2011, all leg. Yu. Chumachenko; 1 male (AE), 6 km NNE of Guzeripl, mouth of Kisha River, mixed forest, 11.VI.2013, leg. R. Zuev; 1 male, 1 female (AE), Guzeripl, mixed forest, 3.VI.2012, leg.?

3 males, 3 females ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, Karachaevo-Cherkessia , Teberda Nature Reserve , Canyon Gonachkhir, Pass Klukhor, 2760–2850 m a.s.l., alpine meadow, under stones, 2.VIII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch  ; 1 male (AE), Caucasian Nature Reserve , near Zakan, 30.VI.–9.VII.2009, leg. Yu. Chumachenko  .

1 male (ZMUM), Russia, Stavropol Prov., Georgievsk, Quercus  , Acer  and Fagus  forest, litter and under bark, 7.VI.1985, leg. S. Golovatch; 1 male, 3 females, 1 juvenile (AE), Kochubeevsky Distr., near Nevinnomyssk, floodplain of Bolshoy Zelenchuk River, 44.5970°N, 41,9252°E, 340 m a.s.l., 06.XI.2017, leg. R. Zuev.

1 male, 3 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), Abkhazia, Lake Ritsa, 950–1100 m a.s.l., Fagus  , Abies  , Picea  , Acer  etc. forest, litter, under bark and stones, 13–14.VIII.1986; 19 males, 14 females, 15 juveniles (ZMUM), Myussera Nature Reserve, 20–130 m a.s.l., mixed deciduous forest ( Castanea  , Alnus  etc.), litter, under bark and stones, 8– 10.IV.1983; 1 male (ZMUM), same locality and dates; 1 male, 9 females (ZMUM), Sukhumi Distr., Bzyb River Valley, Pskhu, 700–900 m a.s.l., Fagus  , Quercus  , Castanea  etc. forest, litter, under bark and stones, 15– 16.VIII.1986; 5 males, 2 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), environs of Sukhumi, near Cave Kelassuri, litter, 11.IV.1983, all leg. S. Golovatch; 1 male (ZMUM), near Sukhumi, under stones, 22.IV.1971, leg. N. Zalesskaja; 2 males, 3 females (ZMUM), Abkhazia, Sukhumi Distr., Yashtukha, tree nursery, 29.III.1995, leg. A. Markossian; 1 male (ZMUM), Abkhazia, Sukhum, 42°58.4’N, 41°04.04’E, ca 50 m a.s.l., litter, Eucalyptus  , tree shaking etc., 7.XII.2003, leg. Yu. Marusik and G. Antipova.

5 males, 2 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), Georgia, Borzhomi Nature Reserve, Banishkevi Valley, 800–900 m a.s.l., Picea  , Fagus  and Carpinus  forest, litter, logs, under stones, 12 and 16.V.1983; 1 male, 8 females, 3 juveniles (ZMUM), Ajaria, Khulo Distr., 3 km W of Danisparauli, deciduous forest, litter, 10.X.1981; 1 male, 3 females (ZMUM), Ajaria, Batumi Botanical Garden, litter, 13.X.1978; all leg S. Golovatch; 2 males, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), Ajaria, Kintrish Nature Reserve, Zeraboseli, 450–600 m a.s.l., 1–3.VI.1981, leg. S. Golovatch and J. Martens; 1 male (SMNG), Khashuri, Akhaldaba, Nedzvi Managemened Reserve, Nedzvistskali River, 41.9082°N, 43.5151°E, humid Picea  forest, 01.VI.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Akhaltsikhe to Borjomi, S Chobiskhevi, Chobiskhevi River, 41.7651°N, 43.3265°E, Fagus  forest, 01.VI.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Sairme Gorge, 41.9569°N 42.7692°E, mixed forest, leaf litter ( Fagus orientalis  and Castanea sativa  ), 14.VII.2013, all leg. L. Mumladze; 1 male, 1 female (SMNG), Samzche-Dschawachetien, Abastumani Observatory on Mt Kanobili, 41.7544°N, 42.8202°E, 1580 m a.s.l., 28.X.2009; 1 male, 3 females, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Shida Kartli, Ormotsi, Tana valley 16.6 km upstream Didi Ateni, 41.8611°N, 43.9444°E, 1110 m a.s.l., 16.IX.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Samtskhe-Javakheti, 500 m W of Tsaghveri, Gujarula River valley, 41.8078°N, 43.4672°E, 1010 m a.s.l., 17.IX.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Kvemo Kartli, SW of Kojori, 41.6472°N, 44.6936°E, 1200 m a.s.l., 06.X.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Guria, SW of K’vabgha, 41.9131°N, 42.4000°E, 590 m a.s.l., 26.IX.2011; 1 male (SMNG), Ajaria, Q’orolistavi towards Mt Mta Mt’irala, 41.6494°N, 41.7731°E, 730 m a.s.l., 01.X.2012; 1 female, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Darial gorge at 8–131 km, 42.7039°N, 44.6264°E, 1480 m.a.s.l., 10.VIII.2014, all leg. F. Walther; 1 male, 1 female (ZMUM), Tskhaltubo, near Cave Belaya (= Tetri), deciduous forest on limestone rock, litter and under stones, 26.X.1981; 1 male (ZMUM), Kutaisi Distr., Sataplia Nature Reserve near Tskhaltubo, forest, litter and under stones, 25.X.1981, all leg. S. Golovatch; 1 male, 1 female (ZMUM), same locality, IV.1973, leg. D. Krivolutsky; 1 male, 1 female (ZMUM), Okriba, Mukhura ca 15 km E of Tkibuli, 700–800 m a.s.l., Castanea  , Fagus  , Carpinus  etc. forest, litter, under bark and stones, 7–9.V.1987; 4 males, 8 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Surami Mt. Ridge, Pass Djvari between Gomi and Sachkhere, 850 m a.s.l., Alnus  , Fagus  , Rhododendron  etc. forest, litter, 7.V.1987; 1 male (ZMUM), Kakhetia, Babaneuri Nature Reserve, ca 16 km ENE of Akhmeta, near Babaneuri, 500 m a.s.l., 4– 5.V.1987, all leg. S. Golovatch and K. Eskov.

Diagnosis. Differs from other species of the genus by the following combination of characters. Main process (mp) of male leg-pair 2 long, with a ventral spike-like outgrowth ( Figs 2B, 2CView FIGURE 2, 3BView FIGURE 3, 4BView FIGURE 4, 5BView FIGURE 5). Ends of flagella (fl) upturned ( Figs 3C, 3DView FIGURE 3, 4DView FIGURE 4, 5EView FIGURE 5). Distal part of fl thin, with lamellae. Gonopodal promere (pr) wide, round at apex, with a triangular spike (t) in middle part ( Figs 3C, 3DView FIGURE 3, 4C, 4DView FIGURE 4, 5C, 5D, 5EView FIGURE 5). Lateral outgrowth (lo) of op narrow, pointed ( Figs 4EView FIGURE 4, 5EView FIGURE 5) or rounded ( Figs 3DView FIGURE 3, 5DView FIGURE 5) at apex. Metazonae with shallow and weakly expressed striations ( Figs 2DView FIGURE 2, 22B). Female vulvae (vu) relatively broad; ampulla 1 (am1) located slightly basal to ampulla 2 (am2); coxa 2 (l2) with a weakly developed apicomesal outgrowth (Fig. 23B).

Descriptive notes. Length of adults 19–36 mm, width 1.3–2.5 mm. Number of segments in adults from 44+1+T to 50+1+T. Body grey-brown with a thin, black, dorsal, axial line, venter lighter; legs light brown to yellow; antennae and anal valves brown ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5). Eye patches composed of 40–45 ocelli. Metazonae with superficial, weakly expressed striations ( Figs 5DView FIGURE 5, 16BView FIGURE 16).

All other characters as in J. alexandrae  , except as follows. Antennae in situ reaching back to body segment 4. Antennomeres 5 and 6 each with a corolla of bacilliform sensilla ( Fig. 1BView FIGURE 1). Each stipes of gnathochilarium with a group of a few setae parabasally, below mentum ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2).

Male leg-pair 1 ( Figs 3B–DView FIGURE 3) with a well-developed suture between coxa (cx) and a 1-segmented telopodite remnant (te). Apex of lateral process of cx varying from acuminate ( Figs 3B, 3DView FIGURE 3) to round ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3); te round, with several thin setae. Male leg-pair 2 with three coxal processes ( Figs 4B–DView FIGURE 4): a short anterolateral process (alp), a long, distally thickened main process (mp) with a distocaudal spike-like outgrowth, and a short and acuminate posterior process (pp). Penes (p) short, slightly bifurcate ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4).

Promere (pr) broad, clearly rounded at apex, with a triangular mesal spike or tooth (t) near distal third ( Figs 8C–IView FIGURE 8), flagella (fl) long and mostly relatively slender, with inconspicuous lamellae over most of their extent, curved at apex.

Mesomere (ms) rounded at apex ( Figs 8D, 8F, 8H, 8IView FIGURE 8). Opisthomere (op) somewhat variable in shape: flattened ( Figs 8D, 8FView FIGURE 8) or widely rounded ( Figs 8H, 8IView FIGURE 8) (see also Lohmander 1936; Golovatch 1977). Lateral outgrowth (lo) of op narrow, pointed ( Fig. 8HView FIGURE 8), rounded ( Fig. 8DView FIGURE 8) or bifurcate ( Fig. 8IView FIGURE 8) at apex.

Ventral edge of male segment 7 with small curved lamellae bordering the gonopodal aperture ( Fig. 15BView FIGURE 15).

Female vulvae (vu) relatively wide; bursa (bu) with a small, rounded, apical outgrowth; ampulla 1 (am1) located slightly basal to ampulla 2 (am2); coxa 2 (12) with a weakly expressed apicomesal outgrowth ( Fig. 17BView FIGURE 17).

Remarks. This is the most common and widespread species of Julus  in the Caucasus, recorded from the Krasnodar and Stavropol provinces, the Adygea and Karachaevo-Cherkessia republics, Abkhazia, most of Georgia and the adjacent parts of Turkey ( Lohmander 1936; Lang 1959; Kobakhidze 1964, 1965; Golovatch 1977; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979; Talikadze 1984; Enghoff 2006; Chumachenko 2012; Korobushkin et al. 2016). It inhabits mixed and deciduous forests, as well as subalpine and alpine meadows, occurring at a range of elevations from the Black Sea coast to the alpine belt.

The species shows only minor morphological variations in the structure of male coxa 1 and gonopodal opisthomere.

ZMUM

Zoological Museum, University of Amoy

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Diplopoda

Order

Julida

Family

Julidae

Genus

Julus

Loc

Julus colchicus Lohmander, 1936

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S. 2018

2018
Loc

Julus colchicus

Lohmander, 1936 : 77

Loc

Julus colchicus

Lang, 1959 : 1791 Kobakhidze, 1964 : 190 Golovatch, 1977 : 49 Lokšina and Golovatch, 1979 : 386 Talikadze, 1984 : 143 Enghoff, 2006 : 181 Chumachenko, 2012 : 452 Zuev, 2014 : 350 Korobushkin et al., 2016 : 25 Kokhia and Golovatch, 2018 : 40