Julus Linnaeus, 1758

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S., 2018, The millipede genus Julus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caucasus (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae), Zootaxa 4461 (1), pp. 89-117: 90-92

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4461.1.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3FACE488-20DC-46A4-A511-026B7F2DBEA2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/610E87FB-9317-FF99-FF0D-F1FBFB871F6B

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Plazi

scientific name

Julus Linnaeus, 1758
status

 

Genus Julus Linnaeus, 1758 

Raulinsia Leach, 1814  ; type-species: Julus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 

Micropodoiulus Verhoeff, 1893  ; type-species: Iulus scandinavius Latzel, 1884 

Mastigoiulus Attems, 1894  ; type-species: Julus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 

Diagnosis. Julus  is very distinct not only amongst contribal genera, but also in the entire family Julidae  in that the adult males show a particularly strongly reduced and non-unciform leg-pair 1, coupled with each coxa 2 supplied with 1–3, often prominent processes, and the flagellum on the promere being always present, characteristically thickened and somewhat ribbon-shaped ( Schubart 1934; Lohmander 1936).

Remarks. Formally, Julus  includes six subgenera ( Lohmander 1936; Hoffman 1980): Julus  s. str.; Orescioiulus Lohmander, 1936  ; Porrhoiulus Lohmander, 1936  ; Euxinoiulus Lohmander, 1936  ; Hungaroiulus Lohmander, 1936  ; and Ornithoeides Verhoeff, 1941  . However, because the number of species described in Julus  has since doubled, some of them fail to properly fit into any subgenus, therefore a subgeneric classification has been abandoned ( Mikhaljova 2009, 2013, 2017).

At the moment, Julus  comprises 16 species or subspecies. They have been listed, and their distributions outlined, by Evsyukov (2016a). The species or subspecies known to occur outside the Caucasus are as follows:

J. azarovae Mikhaljova, 2009  , from the Republic of Altai, Siberia, Russia ( Mikhaljova 2009, 2017).

J. curvicornis Verhoeff, 1899  , from Slovakia ( Verhoeff 1899; Kime and Enghoff 2017).

J. ghilarovi brachydactylus Gulička, 1972  , described from Siberia, Russia: the Republic of Altai ( Gulička 1963; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979; Mikhaljova 2004, 2017).

J. ghilarovi ghilarovi Gulička, 1963  , from Siberia, Russia: the Kemerovo and Novosibirsk areas, the southern part of Krasnoyarsk Province, the Republic of Khakassia, the Republic of Altai ( Gulička 1963; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979; Mikhaljova 2004, 2017).

J. insolitus Mikhaljova, 2009  , from the Republic of Altai, Siberia, Russia ( Mikhaljova 2009, 2017).

J. kazakhus Mikhaljova, 2013  , from eastern Kazakhstan and the Altai Mountains of Mongolia ( Mikhaljova 2013; Nefediev et al. 2015).

J. scandinavius Latzel, 1884  , from Northern and Central Europe, also introduced to North America ( Latzel 1884; Lohmander 1925; Schubart 1934; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979; Kime and Enghoff 2017).

J. scanicus Lohmander, 1925  , from many countries in Northern and Central Europe ( Lohmander 1925; Schubart 1934; Lokšina and Golovatch, 1979; Kime and Enghoff 2017).

J. terrestris Linnaeus, 1758  , the type-species, known from many countries across Europe ( Lohmander 1925; Schubart 1934; Lokshina 1969; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979; Chornyi and Golovatch, 1993; Kime and Enghoff 2017).

In the Caucasus region, the genus contains seven species, as follows:

Julus alexandrae Evsyukov, 2016  , from the Rostov-on-Don Region , southern Russia ( Evsyukov 2016a); 

J. colchicus Lohmander, 1936  , from Russia, Abkhazia and Georgia ( Lohmander 1936; Lang 1959; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979; Korobushkin et al. 2016; Chumachenko 2016);

J. jedryczkowskii Golovatch, 1981  , from North Ossetia, Russia ( Golovatch 1981);

J. kubanus Verhoeff, 1921  , from the NW Caucasus, Russia ( Verhoeff 1921; Lohmander 1936; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979);

J. lignaui Verhoeff, 1910  , from the NW Caucasus, Russia ( Verhoeff 1910; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979);

J. lindholmi Lohmander, 1936  , from Abkhazia ( Lohmander 1936; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979);

J. subalpinus Lohmander, 1936  , from the Krasnodar Province, Russia ( Lohmander 1936; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979).

Quite a few additional nominal species of Julus  or Iulus  , the latter spelling being an improper emendation, had been documented or recorded from the Caucasus prior to Lohmander’s (1936) milestone monograph, but they have since been either transferred to other genera or shown to represent misidentifications, or been synonymized. Thus, Julus caucasicus Karsch, 1881  , described from a juvenile female holotype from near Borzhom, Georgia ( Karsch 1881), was omitted by Lohmander (1936), but revised by SG as belonging to the Brachyiulini  (to be addressed by Vagalinski, in preparation). Julus rossicus Timotheew, 1897  , described from south-central Russia, eastern Ukraine and the northern Caucasus ( Timotheew 1897), is presently referred to as Byzantorhopalum rossicum ( Timotheew, 1897)  (see Vagalinski and Lazányi 2018). Julus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758  , J. scandinavius  and J. ligulifer Latzel, 1884  , all recorded from the Black Sea coast, were misidentified and are currently referred to as J. lignaui  (see below). Julus placidus Lignau, 1903  , J. bellus Lignau, 1903  and J. ruber Lignau, 1903  have since been transferred to the genus Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894  (see Read 1992), whereas J. curvocaudatus Lignau, 1903  and J. litoreus Lignau, 1903  are presently classified in Omobrachyiulus Lohmander, 1936  (see Vagalinski and Lazányi 2018). Similarly, a number of European and/or Mediterranean Julidae  listed from the Caucasus under Julus  by Muralewicz (1907, 1911, 1913) are largely dubious or evident misidentifications as well (see also Lohmander 1936), whereas the single new species, Julus foetidissimus Muralewicz, 1907  , is currently referred to as Pachyiulus krivolutskyi Golovatch, 1977  (see Evsyukov 2016b).

In addition, Kobakhidze (1964) listed an undescribed species, J. svaneticus Lohmander  nomen nudum, which Hans Lohmander had intended, but failed to describe from Svanetia, Georgia, Caucasus. In the Museum of Georgia, SG saw all material identified by Lohmander which Kobakhidze (1964, 1965) published alone quite soon after Lohmander's death in 1961. Apparently, Kobakhidze decided to drop Julus svaneticus  nomen nudum from his 1965 paper because that taxon had not been described, listing only described species.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Diplopoda

Order

Julida

Family

Julidae

Loc

Julus Linnaeus, 1758

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S. 2018

2018
Loc

Julus

Evsyukov & Golovatch & Reip 2018

2018
Loc

Julus

Evsyukov & Golovatch & Reip 2018

2018
Loc

J. kazakhus

Mikhaljova 2013

2013
Loc

J. azarovae

Mikhaljova 2009

2009
Loc

J. insolitus

Mikhaljova 2009

2009
Loc

J. jedryczkowskii

Golovatch 1981

1981
Loc

Pachyiulus krivolutskyi

Golovatch 1977

1977
Loc

J. ghilarovi brachydactylus Gulička, 1972

Gulicka 1972

1972
Loc

J. ghilarovi ghilarovi Gulička, 1963

Gulicka 1963

1963
Loc

J. colchicus

Lohmander 1936

1936
Loc

J. lindholmi

Lohmander 1936

1936
Loc

J. subalpinus

Lohmander 1936

1936
Loc

Omobrachyiulus

Lohmander 1936

1936
Loc

J. scanicus

Lohmander 1925

1925
Loc

J. kubanus

Verhoeff 1921

1921
Loc

J. lignaui

Verhoeff 1910

1910
Loc

J. lignaui

Verhoeff 1910

1910
Loc

Brachyiulini

Verhoeff 1909

1909
Loc

Julus foetidissimus

Muralewicz 1907

1907
Loc

Julus placidus

Lignau 1903

1903
Loc

J. bellus

Lignau 1903

1903
Loc

J. ruber

Lignau 1903

1903
Loc

J. curvocaudatus

Lignau 1903

1903
Loc

J. litoreus

Lignau 1903

1903
Loc

J. curvicornis

Verhoeff 1899

1899
Loc

Julus rossicus

Timotheew 1897

1897
Loc

Byzantorhopalum rossicum (

Timotheew 1897

1897
Loc

Mastigoiulus

Attems 1894

1894
Loc

Cylindroiulus

Verhoeff 1894

1894
Loc

Micropodoiulus

Verhoeff 1893

1893
Loc

Iulus scandinavius

Latzel 1884

1884
Loc

J. scandinavius

Latzel 1884

1884
Loc

J. scandinavius

Latzel 1884

1884
Loc

J. ligulifer

Latzel 1884

1884
Loc

Julus caucasicus

Karsch 1881

1881
Loc

Iulus

Wollaston 1878

1878
Loc

Julus terrestris

Linnaeus 1758

1758
Loc

J. terrestris

Linnaeus 1758

1758
Loc

Julus terrestris

Linnaeus 1758

1758