Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S., 2018, The millipede genus Julus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caucasus (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae), Zootaxa 4461 (1), pp. 89-117: 100-104

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Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921


Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921 

Figs 1DView FIGURE 1, 2DView FIGURE 2, 3G–IView FIGURE 3, 4G–IView FIGURE 4, 10View FIGURE 10, 14DView FIGURE 14, 15DView FIGURE 15, 16DView FIGURE 16, 17DView FIGURE 17, Map 2

Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921: 46  (D)

Julus kubanus  — Lohmander, 1936: 73 (D, R); Lang, 1959: 1791 (M); Kobakhidze, 1965: 393 (R); Lokšina and Golovatch, 1979: 386 (M); Talikadze, 1984: 143 (M); Kokhia and Golovatch, 2018: 40 (M).

Material examined. 6 males, 11 females ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, Krasnodar Prov., Caucasian Nature Reserve, Pasture  

Abago near Guzeripl, Abies  , Fagus  , Acer  etc. forest, up to timber line and in subalpine meadow, 1700–1850 m a.s.l., litter, under bark and stones, 24–26.V.1985; 6 males, 7 females, 10 juveniles (ZMUM), Caucasian Nature Reserve, Pslukh ca 20 km E of Krasnaya Polyana, Mt Kogot, Fagus  and Abies  forest up to timber line, 1650–1850 m a.s.l., litter, under bark and stones, 18–20.V.1985; 1 male (ZMUM), same locality, Fagus  , Quercus  , Abies  , Picea  etc. forest, 1000 m a.s.l., litter, 11–12.VIII.1986; 1 male, 9 females (ZMUM), same locality, S slope of Mt Aishkho-2, 1900–2000 m a.s.l., subalpine meadow and sparse Acer  , Betula  and Rhododendron  stand, litter, stones, 12.VIII.1986, all leg. S. Golovatch; 3 males (SMNG), Plateau Lagonaki (= Lago-Naki), source area of Kurdjips River, 44.0792°N, 40.0000°E, 16.VIII.2012; 1 female, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Kordon Chernorechye (camp of Caucasian Nature Reserve), left side of Malaya Laba River near bridge across Urushten River, 43.9331°N, 40.6833°E, 840 m a.s.l., 19.VIII.2012; 4 females (SMNG), Urushten valley, right side of 1 km upstream of bridge at Kordon Chernorechye, 43.9319°N, 40.6778°E, 850 m a.s.l., Acer  and Fagus  forest with Sambucus, Corylus  , Alnus, Ulmus  in understorey, 18.VIII.2012, all leg. F. Walther.

1 male (ZMUM), Russia, Adygea Republic, near Maikop, Quercus  , Carpinus, Corylus  forest, 300 m a.s.l., litter, V.2005, leg. Yu. Chumachenko; 1 female (SMNG), SE of Novoprokhladnoe, 25.VIII.2005, leg. K. Voigtländer.

3 males, 7 females, 2 juveniles (ZMUM), Russia, Karachaevo-Cherkessia, Teberda Nature Reserve, Canyon Alibek near Dombai, 2000–2100 m a.s.l., sparse Betula  stand, litter and under stones, 25.VII.1986; 1 male, 3 females, 3 juveniles (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Canyon Gonachkhir between Teberda and Dombai, road to Klukhor Pass, 1700–1900 m a.s.l., Abies  , Fagus  , Acer  etc. forest, 1.VI.1985; 7 males, 21 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Canyon Baduk between Teberda and Dombai, dwarf Fagus  , Acer  , Abies  , Pinus  and Betula  stands, litter, under bark and stones at timber line, 2000 m a.s.l., 3.VI.1985; 6 males, 19 females, 8 juveniles (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Mt Malaya Khatipara, above town of Teberda, Fagus  , Abies  and Betula  forest, Rhododendron  thicket, 2150 m a.s.l., litter, 29–30.V.1985; 1 male, 3 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), same locality, Mt Malaya Khatipara, 29–30.V.1985; 4 males, 1 juvenile male, 8 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Dombai, Abies  , Fagus  , Picea  , Betula  , Acer  etc. forest, 1700–1800 m a.s.l., litter, under bark and stones, 31.V.1985; 1 male, 10 females (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Dombai, Mt Mussa-Achitara, 3000 m a.s.l., alpine meadow, 29.VII.1986, all leg. S. Golovatch; 6 males, 21 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Gumbashi Pass ca 32 km NE of Karachaevsk, 2000 m a.s.l., subalpine meadow, under stones, 11.VII.1986; 1 male, 2 females (ZMUM), ca 30 km N of Kurjinovo, 4 km N of Damkhurts, 1050–1100 m a.s.l., Laba River valley, Fagus  , Acer  , Picea  etc. forest, litter, bark, 4.VIII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch; 2 females, 2 juveniles (SMNG), 9.5 km S of Rozhkao, valley of Bolshaya Laba River, 43.7528°N, 40.8442°E, 1100 m a.s.l., Alnus  forest, 23.VIII.2012, leg. F. Walther.

2 males, 1 juvenile ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, North Ossetia, North Ossetian Nature Reserve, S slope of Tseissky Mt. Ridge, meadow, 2000 m a.s.l., 13.VIII.1982, leg. S. Alekseev. 

2 males, 6 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Russia, Chechnya, Kharachoy SE of Vedeno, 950 m a.s.l., Fagus  , Carpinus  etc. forest, litter, under bark and stones, 17.VII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch.

3 males, 8 females ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Abkhazia, near Lake Ritsa, Avadkhara , 1600–1700 m a.s.l., under stones and bark, 18.IX.1985, leg. I. Ushakov  ; 3 males, 9 females ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), SE of Lake Ritsa , between Pass Anchkho and Pskhu, 1300–1450 m a.s.l., 14 and 16.VIII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch. 

1 male, 1 male juvenile, 14 females, 4 juvenile (ZMUM), Georgia, Kakheti, Batsaro Nature Reserve, ca 20 km N of Akhmeta, Fagus  , Castanea  forest, 800–850 m a.s.l., litter, 5-6.V.1987, leg. S. Golovatch and K. Eskov.

Diagnosis. Differs from other species of the genus by the following combination of characters. Main process (mp) of male leg-pair 2 long, with two outgrowths. The distofrontal one more or less large and thick. The caudal outgrowth small and short ( Figs 4G–IView FIGURE 4). Gonopodal promere (pr) very narrow, broadly rounded at apex, with a wide lamella (la) ( Figs 10B, 10D, 10FView FIGURE 10). End of pr more or less clearly narrowed. Flagella (fl) well-developed, each with a spike-like outgrowth in middle part ( Fig. 10BView FIGURE 10). Opisthomere (op) with an elongated lateral outgrowth (lo) sharpened at apex ( Fig. 14DView FIGURE 14). Striations on metazonae superficial and irregular ( Fig. 16DView FIGURE 16). Bursa (bu) of female vulva (vu) with well-developed apical outgrowths; ampullae (am1 and am2) different in size; female leg-pair 2 (l2) with a large coxal process ( Fig. 17DView FIGURE 17).

Descriptive notes. Length of adults 28–38 mm, width 1.6–2.4 mm. Number of segments in adults from 52+1+T to 57+2+T. Body grey-brown with a thin, black, dorsal, axial line, lighter on ventral side; legs light brown, antennae and anal valves grey. Eye patches composed of 40–45 black ocelli. Striae on metazonae shallow and irregular ( Fig. 16DView FIGURE 16).

All other characters as in J. alexandrae  , except as follows. Antennae in situ reaching back to body segment 5. Antennomeres 5 and 6 each with a sparse corolla of bacilliform sensilla ( Fig. 1DView FIGURE 1). Each stipes of gnathochilarium with a rather compact group of ca 17 setae placed parabasally below mentum ( Figs 2DView FIGURE 2).

Male leg-pair 1 ( Figs 3G–IView FIGURE 3) with a well-developed suture between coxa (cx) and a roundish 1-segmented telopodite remnant (te); cx with a distolateral outgrowth, rounded at apex; te with a group of thick setae. Male legpair 2 with three coxal processes ( Figs 4G–IView FIGURE 4): anterolateral process (alp) short; main process (mp) long and with two outgrowths, including a more or less thick and large distofrontal branch and a small and short caudal outgrowth; posterior process (pp) short and with two basal setae. Penes (p) short, not deeply bifurcate, with two small claws crossing at apex ( Fig. 4GView FIGURE 4).

Gonopodal promere (pr) very narrow, widely rounded at apex, with a wide lateral lamella (la) ( Figs 10B, 10D, 10FView FIGURE 10). End of pr more or less narrowed. Flagella (fl) long and thick, with an anchor-shaped outgrowth near midpoint ( Fig. 10BView FIGURE 10). Apex of a particularly short mesomere (ms) narrow ( Figs 10C, 10GView FIGURE 10, 14DView FIGURE 14). Opisthomere (op) with an elongated, sharpened ( Fig. 14DView FIGURE 14) or rounded ( Fig 10CView FIGURE 10), lateral outgrowth (lo) at apex.

Ventral edges of male segment 7 on each side with a small curved lamella bordering a small, inconspicuous gonopodal aperture ( Fig. 15DView FIGURE 15).

Bursa (bu) of female vulva (vu) with well-developed apical outgrowths. Ampullae (am1 and am2) rounded, slightly different in size; leg-pair 2 (l2) with a large coxal process ( Fig. 17DView FIGURE 17).

Remarks. In the Caucasus, this is the second most common species following J. colchicus  . It has been recorded from the Krasnodar Province, the Adygea, Karachaevo-Cherkessia and North Ossetia republics, and Abkhazia ( Verhoeff 1921; Lohmander 1936; Lang 1959; Kobakhidze 1965; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979; Talikadze 1984), being widely distributed from lowlands to elevations about 2000 m a.s.l.

Intraspecific variation: The species shows only minor variations in the structure of male legs-pairs 1 and 2, and of the gonopods.


Zoological Museum, University of Amoy














Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S. 2018


Julus kubanus

Verhoeff, 1921 : 46


Julus kubanus

Lohmander, 1936 : 73 Lang, 1959 : 1791 Kobakhidze, 1965 : 393 Lokšina and Golovatch, 1979 : 386 Talikadze, 1984 : 143 Kokhia and Golovatch, 2018 : 40