Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S., 2018, The millipede genus Julus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caucasus (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae), Zootaxa 4461 (1), pp. 89-117: 100-104

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Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921


Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921 

Figs 1D View Figure , 2D View Figure , 3G–I View Figure , 4G–I View Figure , 10 View Figure , 14D View Figure , 15D View Figure , 16D View Figure , 17D View Figure , Map 2

Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921: 46  (D)

Julus kubanus  — Lohmander, 1936: 73 (D, R); Lang, 1959: 1791 (M); Kobakhidze, 1965: 393 (R); Lokšina and Golovatch, 1979: 386 (M); Talikadze, 1984: 143 (M); Kokhia and Golovatch, 2018: 40 (M).

Material examined. 6 males, 11 females ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, Krasnodar Prov., Caucasian Nature Reserve, Pasture  

Abago near Guzeripl, Abies  , Fagus  , Acer  etc. forest, up to timber line and in subalpine meadow, 1700–1850 m a.s.l., litter, under bark and stones, 24–26.V.1985; 6 males, 7 females, 10 juveniles (ZMUM), Caucasian Nature Reserve, Pslukh ca 20 km E of Krasnaya Polyana, Mt Kogot, Fagus  and Abies  forest up to timber line, 1650–1850 m a.s.l., litter, under bark and stones, 18–20.V.1985; 1 male (ZMUM), same locality, Fagus  , Quercus  , Abies  , Picea  etc. forest, 1000 m a.s.l., litter, 11–12.VIII.1986; 1 male, 9 females (ZMUM), same locality, S slope of Mt Aishkho-2, 1900–2000 m a.s.l., subalpine meadow and sparse Acer  , Betula  and Rhododendron  stand, litter, stones, 12.VIII.1986, all leg. S. Golovatch; 3 males (SMNG), Plateau Lagonaki (= Lago-Naki), source area of Kurdjips River, 44.0792°N, 40.0000°E, 16.VIII.2012; 1 female, 1 juvenile (SMNG), Kordon Chernorechye (camp of Caucasian Nature Reserve), left side of Malaya Laba River near bridge across Urushten River, 43.9331°N, 40.6833°E, 840 m a.s.l., 19.VIII.2012; 4 females (SMNG), Urushten valley, right side of 1 km upstream of bridge at Kordon Chernorechye, 43.9319°N, 40.6778°E, 850 m a.s.l., Acer  and Fagus  forest with Sambucus, Corylus  , Alnus, Ulmus  in understorey, 18.VIII.2012, all leg. F. Walther.

1 male (ZMUM), Russia, Adygea Republic, near Maikop, Quercus  , Carpinus, Corylus  forest, 300 m a.s.l., litter, V.2005, leg. Yu. Chumachenko; 1 female (SMNG), SE of Novoprokhladnoe, 25.VIII.2005, leg. K. Voigtländer.

3 males, 7 females, 2 juveniles (ZMUM), Russia, Karachaevo-Cherkessia, Teberda Nature Reserve, Canyon Alibek near Dombai, 2000–2100 m a.s.l., sparse Betula  stand, litter and under stones, 25.VII.1986; 1 male, 3 females, 3 juveniles (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Canyon Gonachkhir between Teberda and Dombai, road to Klukhor Pass, 1700–1900 m a.s.l., Abies  , Fagus  , Acer  etc. forest, 1.VI.1985; 7 males, 21 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Canyon Baduk between Teberda and Dombai, dwarf Fagus  , Acer  , Abies  , Pinus  and Betula  stands, litter, under bark and stones at timber line, 2000 m a.s.l., 3.VI.1985; 6 males, 19 females, 8 juveniles (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Mt Malaya Khatipara, above town of Teberda, Fagus  , Abies  and Betula  forest, Rhododendron  thicket, 2150 m a.s.l., litter, 29–30.V.1985; 1 male, 3 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), same locality, Mt Malaya Khatipara, 29–30.V.1985; 4 males, 1 juvenile male, 8 females, 1 juvenile (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Dombai, Abies  , Fagus  , Picea  , Betula  , Acer  etc. forest, 1700–1800 m a.s.l., litter, under bark and stones, 31.V.1985; 1 male, 10 females (ZMUM), Teberda Nature Reserve, Dombai, Mt Mussa-Achitara, 3000 m a.s.l., alpine meadow, 29.VII.1986, all leg. S. Golovatch; 6 males, 21 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Gumbashi Pass ca 32 km NE of Karachaevsk, 2000 m a.s.l., subalpine meadow, under stones, 11.VII.1986; 1 male, 2 females (ZMUM), ca 30 km N of Kurjinovo, 4 km N of Damkhurts, 1050–1100 m a.s.l., Laba River valley, Fagus  , Acer  , Picea  etc. forest, litter, bark, 4.VIII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch; 2 females, 2 juveniles (SMNG), 9.5 km S of Rozhkao, valley of Bolshaya Laba River, 43.7528°N, 40.8442°E, 1100 m a.s.l., Alnus  forest, 23.VIII.2012, leg. F. Walther.

2 males, 1 juvenile ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Russia, North Ossetia, North Ossetian Nature Reserve, S slope of Tseissky Mt. Ridge, meadow, 2000 m a.s.l., 13.VIII.1982, leg. S. Alekseev. 

2 males, 6 females, 4 juveniles (ZMUM), Russia, Chechnya, Kharachoy SE of Vedeno, 950 m a.s.l., Fagus  , Carpinus  etc. forest, litter, under bark and stones, 17.VII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch.

3 males, 8 females ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Abkhazia, near Lake Ritsa, Avadkhara , 1600–1700 m a.s.l., under stones and bark, 18.IX.1985, leg. I. Ushakov  ; 3 males, 9 females ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), SE of Lake Ritsa , between Pass Anchkho and Pskhu, 1300–1450 m a.s.l., 14 and 16.VIII.1986, leg. S. Golovatch. 

1 male, 1 male juvenile, 14 females, 4 juvenile (ZMUM), Georgia, Kakheti, Batsaro Nature Reserve, ca 20 km N of Akhmeta, Fagus  , Castanea  forest, 800–850 m a.s.l., litter, 5-6.V.1987, leg. S. Golovatch and K. Eskov.

Diagnosis. Differs from other species of the genus by the following combination of characters. Main process (mp) of male leg-pair 2 long, with two outgrowths. The distofrontal one more or less large and thick. The caudal outgrowth small and short ( Figs 4G–I View Figure ). Gonopodal promere (pr) very narrow, broadly rounded at apex, with a wide lamella (la) ( Figs 10B, 10D, 10F View Figure ). End of pr more or less clearly narrowed. Flagella (fl) well-developed, each with a spike-like outgrowth in middle part ( Fig. 10B View Figure ). Opisthomere (op) with an elongated lateral outgrowth (lo) sharpened at apex ( Fig. 14D View Figure ). Striations on metazonae superficial and irregular ( Fig. 16D View Figure ). Bursa (bu) of female vulva (vu) with well-developed apical outgrowths; ampullae (am1 and am2) different in size; female leg-pair 2 (l2) with a large coxal process ( Fig. 17D View Figure ).

Descriptive notes. Length of adults 28–38 mm, width 1.6–2.4 mm. Number of segments in adults from 52+1+T to 57+2+T. Body grey-brown with a thin, black, dorsal, axial line, lighter on ventral side; legs light brown, antennae and anal valves grey. Eye patches composed of 40–45 black ocelli. Striae on metazonae shallow and irregular ( Fig. 16D View Figure ).

All other characters as in J. alexandrae  , except as follows. Antennae in situ reaching back to body segment 5. Antennomeres 5 and 6 each with a sparse corolla of bacilliform sensilla ( Fig. 1D View Figure ). Each stipes of gnathochilarium with a rather compact group of ca 17 setae placed parabasally below mentum ( Figs 2D View Figure ).

Male leg-pair 1 ( Figs 3G–I View Figure ) with a well-developed suture between coxa (cx) and a roundish 1-segmented telopodite remnant (te); cx with a distolateral outgrowth, rounded at apex; te with a group of thick setae. Male legpair 2 with three coxal processes ( Figs 4G–I View Figure ): anterolateral process (alp) short; main process (mp) long and with two outgrowths, including a more or less thick and large distofrontal branch and a small and short caudal outgrowth; posterior process (pp) short and with two basal setae. Penes (p) short, not deeply bifurcate, with two small claws crossing at apex ( Fig. 4G View Figure ).

Gonopodal promere (pr) very narrow, widely rounded at apex, with a wide lateral lamella (la) ( Figs 10B, 10D, 10F View Figure ). End of pr more or less narrowed. Flagella (fl) long and thick, with an anchor-shaped outgrowth near midpoint ( Fig. 10B View Figure ). Apex of a particularly short mesomere (ms) narrow ( Figs 10C, 10G View Figure , 14D View Figure ). Opisthomere (op) with an elongated, sharpened ( Fig. 14D View Figure ) or rounded ( Fig 10C View Figure ), lateral outgrowth (lo) at apex.

Ventral edges of male segment 7 on each side with a small curved lamella bordering a small, inconspicuous gonopodal aperture ( Fig. 15D View Figure ).

Bursa (bu) of female vulva (vu) with well-developed apical outgrowths. Ampullae (am1 and am2) rounded, slightly different in size; leg-pair 2 (l2) with a large coxal process ( Fig. 17D View Figure ).

Remarks. In the Caucasus, this is the second most common species following J. colchicus  . It has been recorded from the Krasnodar Province, the Adygea, Karachaevo-Cherkessia and North Ossetia republics, and Abkhazia ( Verhoeff 1921; Lohmander 1936; Lang 1959; Kobakhidze 1965; Lokšina and Golovatch 1979; Talikadze 1984), being widely distributed from lowlands to elevations about 2000 m a.s.l.

Intraspecific variation: The species shows only minor variations in the structure of male legs-pairs 1 and 2, and of the gonopods.


Zoological Museum, University of Amoy














Julus kubanus Verhoeff, 1921

Evsyukov, Aleksandr, Golovatch, Sergei & Reip, Hans S. 2018


Julus kubanus

Verhoeff, 1921 : 46


Julus kubanus

Lohmander, 1936 : 73 Lang, 1959 : 1791 Kobakhidze, 1965 : 393 Lokšina and Golovatch, 1979 : 386 Talikadze, 1984 : 143 Kokhia and Golovatch, 2018 : 40