Foa yamba, Fraser, Thomas H., 2014

Fraser, Thomas H., 2014, Foa yamba, a new species of cardinalfish (Percomorpha: Apogonidae: Apogonichthyini) from the tidal region of the Clarence River, Australia and redescriptions of the West Pacific Foa longimana , Zootaxa 3878 (2), pp. 167-178: 172-176

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3878.2.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A051F6E0-5ECF-4594-895C-8D6503052E74

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/746CDCB9-34D2-4EFE-9C32-55EA298249FA

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:746CDCB9-34D2-4EFE-9C32-55EA298249FA

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Foa yamba
status

new species

Foa yamba  new species

Figures 4–7View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7

Type material: Holotype AMS I. 41858 –037 33.9 mm SL, Australia, New South Wales, Iluka Marina, along rock shore, 29.41750 °S 153.35550 °E, 6 Dec. 2002, M. McGrouther, A. Gill & J. Pogonoski, 5.7 m. Paratypes: AMS I. 41287 –063 (10, 12.7–45.1), Australia, New South Wales, Micalo I., Oyster Channel, S end of bridge, NE side, 29 ° 25 ' 49 "S 15 ° 318 ' 34 "E, 25 Mar 2002, M. McGrouther, A. Gill & K. Parkenson, 0.5 m. AMS I. 41858 –035 (4, 32.1–50.1), Australia, New South Wales, Clarence River, Iluka Marina, along rock shore, 29.41750 °S 153.35550 °E, 6 Dec. 2002, M. McGrouther, A. Gill & J. Pogonoski, 0–5.7 m. AMS I. 41858 –036 (1, 41.1) Australia, New South Wales, Clarence River, Iluka Marina, along rock shore, 29.41750 °S 153.35550 °E, 6 Dec. 2002, M. McGrouther, A. Gill & J. Pogonoski, 0–5.7 m, tissue voucher specimen.

Diagnosis. A species of Foa  with brownish-red irregular spots on body; usually 9 pored lateral-line scales; alternating markings on second dorsal, anal and caudal fins; young and juveniles with three regular bars on body.

Description. For general body shape see Fig. 4View FIGURE 4. Proportions for specimens larger than 28 mm SL: greatest body depth 42.2 (39.6–44.2); head length 46.0(40.0– 46.4); eye diameter 12.4 (10.4–13.1); snout length 9.7 (8.1–9.7); bony interorbital width 7.4 (7.0– 9.8); upper-jaw length 24.5 (19.5–22.4); caudal-peduncle depth 16.2 (14.7 –17.0); caudal-peduncle length 23.3 (18.9–24.3); first dorsal-fin spine length 4.7 (2.9 –5.0); second dorsalfin spine length 12.4 (8.8–14.1); third dorsal-fin spine length 19.2 (17.1 –22.0); fourth dorsal-fin spine length 17.4 (14.6–19.6); spine in second dorsal fin 11.5 (9.3–12.7); first anal-fin spine length 2.4 (2.3–3.5); second anal-fin spine length 12.4 (10.6–12.7); pectoral-fin length 24.5 (21.5–25.7); pelvic-fin length 23.3 (20.4–25.1).

Dorsal fin VII –I, 9; anal fin II, 8; pectoral fin rays 12; pelvic fins I, 5; principal caudal rays 9 + 8, upper and lower unbranched; pored lateral-line scales 9 (9 rarely 10), pits 13 (12–13); transverse scale rows above lateral line 1; transverse scale rows below lateral line 6; median predorsal scales 4; circumpeduncular scale rows 12 (5 + 2 + 5).

Holotype: upper arch with 2 rudiments and 2 rakers, lower arch with 6 rakers and 6 rudiments as 2 + 2–6 +6, 8 rakers, 16 total; second arch, upper with 2 rudiments lower with 6 rudiments, one raker near angle; paratypes: upper arch with 2 rudiments and 1 raker, lower arch with 6–7 rakers and 3–7 rudiments, 7–8 rakers, 13–16 total; second arch, upper with 1–2 rudiments, lower with 7–8 rudiments, one raker near angle;.

Band of villiform teeth on premaxilla; band of villiform teeth on dentary; one (2–3 paratypes) long row on the palatine and 1–2 (2–3 paratypes) rows on vomer; none on ectopterygoid, endopteygoid or basihyal.

Two supernumerary spines on first dorsal pterygiophore; posttemporal smooth on posterior margin; preopercle ridge smooth, edges smooth on posterior vertical and ventral horizontal margins; infraorbital edges smooth.

Scales ctenoid on cheek, subopercle, opercle, predorsal, breast, abdomen, rest of body; two large pelvic scales, ctenoid on first scale, cycloid on second scale (paratypes with variable second scale cycloid or ctenoid); last scales on base of caudal fin cycloid; pored lateral-line scales with a single opening above and below mid-line of canal, posterior lateral-line scales with pits ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A & B).

Free neuromasts (combination of specimens): Five lines on upper side of lower branched caudal rays 3–7; six lines on lower side of upper branched caudal rays 10–15; branched rays 8, 9 and unbranched rays 1 and 17 without lines of free neuromasts. See Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 for cephalic pores and neuromasts. See Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 C for anterior pore arrangement relative to naris.

Live color pattern. Unknown.

Post-mortem color pattern. See Figure 4View FIGURE 4 A of holotype. Head and body with many small brownish-red erythrophores; lower jaw with two lighter marks alternating three darker marks; upper jaw with faint alternating marks on premaxilla but not on maxilla; base of tubular anterior naris reddish, distally brownish; cheek without a distinct mark, inner iris orangish becoming a light pink, outer edge of iris with narrow light marks alternating with broader brownish marks; snout to nape without stripes; preopercle, opercle and subopercle brownish-red without any pattern, upper portion of preopercle and opercle with clumps of dark brown; body with dark brown irregular spots in semi-vertical lines, first from pored lateral line to upper insertion of pectoral fin, then irregular spots in variable vertical lines from just below pored lateral line passing behind pectoral fin onto upper abdomen, about eight; a few irregular spots on anterior peduncle, much smaller posteriorly, three lighter blotches above and below center line of peduncle, three light spots at base of caudal fin, mid-line, upper and lower; first dorsal fin brownish to reddish, distally dark membranes between fourth and seventh spines; second dorsal-fin spine proximal alternating light and reddish marks extending to second branched fin-ray, proximal reddish membrane base from third to fifth-fin ray, proximal base of eighth and ninth-fin ray reddish, alternating pale and reddish branched finrays from above the proximal membrane bases to tips of fins; pectoral fin-rays translucent reddish; anal spine with alternating reddish and lighter marks, branched fin-rays dark brownish becoming reddish and distally pale; pelvic fin spine with alternating lighter and reddish marks, fin-rays deep brownish-red proximally becoming lighter distally to translucent; anal fin with proximal blotch on membrane including second and third fin-rays, a smaller proximal mark at base of seventh and eighth fin-rays, all fin-rays with alternating reddish and translucent to tips of fins; caudal fin-rays with alternating translucent and reddish markings from base to tip of fins including procurrent rays.

Preserved color pattern. In 70 % ethanol holotype with head and body tannish with brown erythrophores on head and body; lower jaw with two lighter marks alternating three darker marks; upper jaw darkish anteriorly; brownish anterior naris; cheek without a distinct mark; iris dark with a few light marks and brownish marks; snout to nape without stripes; preopercle, opercle and subopercle brownish without any pattern; small brown blotch upper posterior corner next to eye; upper portion of preopercle and opercle with clumps of dark brown; body with dark brown irregular spots in vertical line, first from pored lateral line to upper insertion of pectoral fin, then irregular spots in variable (about eight) vertical lines from just below pored lateral line passing behind pectoral fin onto upper abdomen; a few irregular spots on anterior peduncle, much smaller posteriorly, two lighter blotches above and three below center line of peduncle, three light spots at base of caudal fin, mid-line, upper and lower; first dorsal fin blackish, with pale areas on membranes between fifth and sixth, sixth and seventh and seventh and dorsum; pectoral fin-rays translucent; anal spine with irregular alternating darkish and lighter marks; pelvic fin spine with alternating lighter and darkish marks, fin-rays blackish to near fin-ray tips; anal fin with proximal darkish blotch on membrane including second and third fin-rays, a smaller proximal mark at base of seventh and eighth fin-rays, all fin-rays with irregular alternating darkish and pale tips of fins; caudal fin-rays with alternating translucent and reddish markings from base to tip of fins including procurrent rays. Caudal fin-rays with alternating translucent and darkish markings from base to tip of fins including procurrent rays; stomach and intestine pale; peritoneum pale with small scattered melanophores.

Three young to juveniles in AMS I. 41287 –063 (12.6, 20.6 & 20.8 mm SL) with three bars on body, first bar from membranes of first dorsal fin to membranes of pelvic fin, second bar from under second dorsal fin to base of anal fin, third bar on caudal peduncle much closer to ends second dorsal and anal fins; many scales sloughed from bodies may just reveal an underlying pattern; post ocular marks, first onto nape, second to posttemporal, and third as a bar to anterior edge of preopercle in four smallest; post ocular marks diffuse or absent in large specimens; 23 mm SL to 45 mm SL with no signs of the bars; body spots present on 28 mm SL specimen.

Etymology. yamba  is an Australian aboriginal name of uncertain meanings, one of which refers to a kind of oyster, the other to the headland near the river mouth and is the name of the city at the mouth of the Clarence River, location of the type series, see Figure 6View FIGURE 6.

Habitat. At Iluka Marina between the Coast Guard base and harbor along a rocky wall with silt and mud from field note NNSW 02– 28. Two digital site photographs were taken (NNSWII02– 28 Site Photos 1 & 2) and are at the Australian Museum.

Distribution. Known only from the Clarence River, Yamba  , New South Wales ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7). This species should be found in other tidal estuaries in New South Wales and farther north in Queensland.

Remarks. Small discrete reddish spots on a brownish-red ground color over most of the body will identify this species from all other Foa  . The pits in lateral line scales following the last pored scale are hard to detect in some paratypes. The general pattern is to have the first three pits in the same scale row as the last pored scale, then change down one scale row or appear to skip one or two scale rows until the mid row of scales with pits. Two specimens (34–37) exhibited expanded (buccal) mouths but eggs were not present. Ozichthys albimaculosus ( Kailola 1976)  , recently removed from Foa  , has pale spot-like marks with outer, incomplete darkish edges on body, all scales in lateral line with pores and fused hypurals 1 + 2, all characters different than all known species of Foa (Fraser 2014)  .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Perciformes

Family

Apogonidae

Genus

Foa