Foa hyalina,

Fraser, Thomas H., 2014, Foa yamba, a new species of cardinalfish (Percomorpha: Apogonidae: Apogonichthyini) from the tidal region of the Clarence River, Australia and redescriptions of the West Pacific Foa longimana , Zootaxa 3878 (2), pp. 167-178: 168-170

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Foa hyalina


Foa hyalina  (Smith & Radcliffe in Radcliffe, 1912)

Figures 1View FIGURE 1 & 2View FIGURE 2

Type material: Holotype Amia hyalina  USNM 70245, 36.7 mm SL, Indonesia, Talisse Island, north of Sulawesi, Albatross Philippine Expedition, Dynamite, 9 Nov 1909, 3– 5m, digital x-ray from film. Paratypes USNM 171126, (10, 27– 33), same data as holotype, two damaged, digital x-ray from film. Other material: AMS I. 21316 –061, (2, 24– 24), Indian Ocean: Scott Reef: South Reef Lagoon, 14 ° 10 'S 121 ° 55 'E, Scott RF 3 FHT, 20 Sep 1979; 7– 10 m. CAS 127423 (SU 27423); (11, 28– 42); Philippines, Negros Oriental, Dumaguete; Jun 1931; A.W. Herre. CAS 139976 (SU 39976); (3, 18– 22); Philippines, Sulu Province, Bungau; 17 Sep 1940; A.W. Herre. USNM 171127 1 (38.1), Philippines, South Mindanao, Illana Bay, Parang, Albatross Philippine Expedition, 23 May 1908, digital xray. USNM 345019; (1, 26.1); Philippines, Oriental Negros, Just off Bonbonon Point at southern tip of island; 13 May 1978; SP 78 – 11; 0– 12 m. WAM 31215View Materials –001, (12, 18– 33), Papua New Guinea, Tab (Pig) Island, Madang Lagoon, 13 Oct 1996.

Diagnosis. A species of Foa  with a narrow reddish or brownish-red cheek mark and vertical bars on body from nape and below first dorsal fin, not past line from mid-second dorsal fin to anal fin; body otherwise semitransparent; caudal fin without markings; lower jaw without alternating color pattern.

Description. For general body shape see Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 & 2View FIGURE 2, holotype first, other material in parentheses. Range of proportions (as percentages of standard lengths): greatest body depth 45.2 (42.7–44.2); head length 39.5 (41.6–41.9); eye diameter 10.3 (12.7–13.3); snout length 9.5 (8.5 –9.0); bony interorbital width 8.4 (8.0– 8.3); upper-jaw length 21.2 (21.1–21.7); caudal-peduncle depth 16.3 (17.6–17.8); caudal-peduncle length 20.4 (20.2–20.4); first dorsal-fin spine length 3.3 (4.5 –5.0); second dorsal-fin spine length 8.7 (12.8–13.8); third dorsal-fin spine length 19.6 (19.2–20.7); fourth dorsal-fin spine length 17.4 (17.3 –19.0); spine in second dorsal fin 10.6 (10.2–11.7); first anal-fin spine length 3.8 (3.1–4.7); second anal-fin spine length 13.3 (11.6–12.4); pectoral-fin length 24.5 (21.4 –22.0); pelvic-fin length 21.8 (24.2).

Dorsal fin VII –I, 9; anal fin II, 8; pectoral fins 12; pelvic fins I, 5; principal caudal rays 9 + 8, upper and lower unbranched; pored lateral-line scales 8 (7–10), pits 14 (12–15); transverse scale rows above lateral line 1; transverse scale rows below lateral line 5; median predorsal scales 4; circumpeduncular scale rows 12 (5 + 2 + 5).

Band of villiform teeth on premaxilla; band of villiform teeth on dentary; 3 rows on the palatine and vomer; none on ectopterygoid, endopteygoid or basihyal.

Vertebrae 10 + 14; five free hypurals, one pair of slender uroneurals, three epurals, a free parhypural; 3 supraneurals; 2 supernumerary spine on first dorsal pterygiophore; posttemporal smooth on posterior margin; preopercle ridge smooth, edges smooth on posterior vertical and ventral horizontal margins; infraorbital edges smooth.

Scales on head, breast, nape and body ctenoid, pore on lateral line scale simple above with one opening, simple below with one opening; last row of scales on base of caudal fin cycloid.

Caudal fin truncate or slightly rounded; second dorsal and anal fins rounded.

Live color pattern. Figure 1View FIGURE 1 and also see photographs by Kuiter & Kozawa (2001; 92) and Allen & Erdmann (2012; 379). Head and body a semi-translucent brownish-red or reddish to pale; head with narrow brownish-red band from eye to posterior angle of dentary, cheek mark with two rows of small darker spots; lower jaw edge outlined in brownish-red without alternating light and dark marks; snout with wide band from upper edge of jaw to eye; a supraorbital band from midway between eyes onto nape; post-orbit bands, one to posttemporal, the other onto opercle; iris uniform light yellowish-brown; five vertical bars on body beginning near or above lateral-line scales anterior of the origin of line from within second dorsal fin to anal fin; breast and abdomen grading to whitish; pelvic fins with broad brownish-red mid mark, edged with white on both sides, pelvic spine with alternating darker and paler marks; first dorsal fin with white tips on first two spines, alternating narrow white bands with slightly broader brownish-red bands ending on sixth or seventh spines; second dorsal fin membrane between the spine and first soft ray with similar markings as in first dorsal fin, the remainder of membranes translucent; second anal-fin spine anal fin and membrane similar to second dorsal membrane, remainder of membranes translucent; caudal-fin rays and membranes translucent.

Post mortem color pattern. Smith and Radcliffe in Radcliffe (1912) described a specimen as: “Color in life of a cotype 4 cm. long: Ground color hyalin pearl; a brownish-red stripe from snout to eye, another from eye to throat, another across nape and three downward from base of spinous dorsal, these latter more or less olivaceous; spinous dorsal mottled finely with brownish; ventrals similarly mottled but darker; other fins immaculate; abdominal regions and lower side of head with more or less silver; iris very pale pink.”

Preserved color pattern. Various melanophore clusters on body, mostly below lateral line, extending onto caudal peduncle; melanophores on cheek with pale area extending down from mid eye to preopercle ridge, outlining dark area behind end of maxilla; scattered melanophores on head; base of pectoral fin with melanophores; 1 st dorsal dusky, 2 nd dorsal, anal and caudal fin spotted, pelvic fin dark from 2 nd ray- 5 th ray, not reaching base; or lacking color patterns on head, body or fins. Smith and Radcliffe in Radcliffe (1912) described the holotype as: “Ground color buff; a dusky brown stripe from snout to eye, another from eye to throat, a third from upper third of eye across opercles to lateral line, a fourth across nape; traces of three stripes on sides, first from in front of dorsal downward toward angle of preopercle, second from under origin of dorsal to behind pectoral base, the third under middle of spinous dorsal; slight traces of mottlings on first dorsal; ventrals mottled with grayish white; other fins hyalin.”

Distribution. This species is found in the West Pacific ( Indonesia, Philippines, north coast of Papua New Guinea and Palau) and western Timor Sea (Scott’s Reef) based on collected specimens and underwater photographs. Foa hyalina  is associated with soft corals of the genus Sinularia ( Kuiter and Kozawa 2001)  . Depths of collections range from near the surface to 12 meters.

Remarks. Figures and brief descriptions of this species are in Kuiter & Kozawa (2001; 92) as an Apogonichthys  and Allen & Erdmann (2012; 379). Eggs were present in the mouths of two specimens in CAS 127423 formerly SU 27423 indicative of oral brooding. The holotype retains some of the color pattern, mostly in the form of small melanophores. Violet Dandridge’s illustration of the holotype in Radcliffe (1912; Plate 36, fig. 3; here as Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B) has a rounded caudal fin with longer middle rays than published photographs.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


California Academy of Sciences


Western Australian Museum