Drosophila quinarensis , Penafiel-Vinueza, Ana Danitza & Rafael, Violeta, 2018

Penafiel-Vinueza, Ana Danitza & Rafael, Violeta, 2018, Five new species of Drosophilaguarani group from the Andes of southern Ecuador (Diptera, Drosophilidae), ZooKeys 781, pp. 141-163: 141

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.781.22841

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:88AFA04F-CA5B-464E-82E4-9A1DA6F50C41

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/CAA65626-0E02-4464-A97B-187887EE1F08

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:CAA65626-0E02-4464-A97B-187887EE1F08

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Drosophila quinarensis
status

sp. n.

Drosophila quinarensis  sp. n. Figs 4 A–F, 5 A–B

Type material.

Holotype ♂ (dissected, terminalia in microvial), Ecuador, Loja, Cajanuma, 2800 m, 4°6'58.9"S; 79°10'11.9"W, 19 Nov. 2015, A. Peñafiel col., A. Peñafiel & V. Rafael det. ( QCAZ-I 3286). Allotype ♀ (dissected, terminalia in microvial), Ecuador, Loja, Cajanuma, 2800 m, 4°6'58.9"S; 79°10'11.9"W, 19 Nov. 2015, A. Peñafiel col., A. Peñafiel & V. Rafael det. ( QCAZ-I 3287).

Paratypes.

6 ♂♂ and 1 ♀♀ (dissected, terminalia in microvial, descendants of isofemale line), Ecuador, Loja, Cajanuma, 2800 m, 4°6'58.9"S; 79°10'11.9"W, 19 Nov. 2015, A. Peñafiel col., A. Peñafiel & V. Rafael det. ( QCAZ-I 3288-3293, 3297). 3♀ (dissected, terminalia in microvial, descendants of isofemale line), Ecuador, Loja, Cajanuma, 2675 m, 4°6'53.7"S; 79°10'54.6"W, 19 Nov. 2015, A. Peñafiel col., A. Peñafiel & V. Rafael det. ( QCAZ-I 3298-3300).

Diagnosis.

Aristae with four dorsal and two ventral branches. Two prominent oral bristles, the second slightly shorter than the first. Thorax brown. Abdomen yellow, 2nd - 5th tergites with dorsal midline, with posterior dark pigmentation which reaches and covers the exterior margin. Cerci not fused to epandrium. Aedeagus voluminous, with two ventral asymmetrical projections covered in short spines and two dorsal projections with tiny spines. Hypandrium is shield-shaped with a sclerotized edge. Gonopod bearing one bristle. Paraphyses strongly sclerotized and joined to gonopod, bearing two small bristles.

Description.

Male. Holotype external morphology: total length (body + wings) 3.38 mm, body length 2.36 mm. Body color dark brown.

Head. Aristae with four dorsal and two ventral branches, plus terminal fork and fine hairs. Orbital plate yellowish brown, frontal length 0.29 mm; frontal index = 0.96; top to bottom width ratio = 1.7. Medial vertical seta was closer to lateral vertical seta and slightly towards the outer edge of the orbital plate, distance of or3 to or1 = 0.11, distance of or3 to vtm = 0.12, or1-or3 ratio = 1.30, or2-or1 ratio = 0.35, distance of postocellar setae = 0.68 of frontal length. vt index = 0.85. Ocellar triangle brown, 48.27% of frontal length, ocellus yellow, frontal vitta yellowish brown. Two prominent oral bristles, second slightly shorter than the first. Carina not sulcate.

Thorax. Brown, acrostichal hairs in six rows between the two anterior dorsocentral setae that decrease in number towards the rear. Medial katepisternal seta smaller than the previous seta. Wings yellow. Alar length 2.62 mm, alar width 1.29 mm. Vein dM-Cu clouded. Alar indices: alar = 1.07; C = 5.62; ac = 1.37; 4c = 0.43; 4v = 1.25; 5x = 1.20; M = 0.40 and prox. x = 0.37. Legs yellow, femora and tibiae dark brown, metatarsi and tarsi light brown.

Abdomen. Yellow, 1st tergite brown, 2nd - 5th tergites with dorsal midline and posterior dark pigmentation which reaches and covers the exterior margin, 6th tergite dark (Figure 4A).

Male terminalia. Epandrium strongly sclerotized, microtrichose, with seven lower and no upper bristles, four bristles on the ventral lobe. Cerci microtrichose not fused to epandrium. Surstylus oval with nine primary teeth on the right and ten on the left; sharp secondary teeth strongly sclerotized, in two groups, five upper and nine lower on the right, six upper and seven lower on the left; with eleven marginal bristles (Figure 4B). Hypandrium in shield-shape, with edge strongly sclerotized. Gonopod elongated bearing one bristle (Figure 4C).

Aedeagus. Aedeagus voluminous, with two ventral asymmetrical projections covered in short spines and two dorsal projections with bright tiny spines. Primitive ventral rod. Aedeagal apodeme slightly sclerotized (Figure 4 D–F). Paraphyses joined to gonopod strongly sclerotized bearing two small bristles (Figure 4C).

Variation in paratypes (dry mounted specimens). Total length (body + wings) 4.19-4.73 mm, body length 1.96-3.01 mm. Head. Frontal length 0.27-0.42 mm, frontal index = 0.66-0.85, top to bottom width ratio = 1.20-1.38; distance of or3 to or1 = 0.11-0.14, distance of or3 to vtm = 0.12-0.13, or1-or3 ratio = 0.85-1.05, or2-or1 ratio = 0.19-0.34, distance of ocellar setae = 0.69-1.03 of frontal length, distance of postocellar setae = 0.84-0.85 of frontal length, vt index = 0.87-1.12; cheek index = 6.77-8.42; vibrissa index = 0.86-1.05; eye index = 1.17-1.51. Thorax length 0.89-1.07 mm, h index = 0.84-1.21. Transverse distance of dorsocentral setae = 1.91-2.55, dc index = 0.84-0.87. Distance between apical scutellar seta = 0.95-1.09. scut index = 1.11-1.39; sterno index = 1-1.04.

Female. Allotype and paratypes (isofemale descendants). Allotype: total length (body + wings) 5.11 mm, body length 3.08 mm. Body color dark brown.

External morphology. Same as the male.

Wings yellow. Alar length 3.7 mm, alar width 1.65 mm. Vein dM-Cu clouded. Alar indices: alar = 2.24; C = 4.27; ac = 1.87; hb = 0.32; 4c = 0.56; 4v = 1.54; 5x = 1.22; M = 0.42 and prox. x = 0.39.

Like male except yellow abdomen, 1st tergite brown, 2nd - 6th tergites with dorsal midline and white butterfly-shaped areas with posterior dark pigmentation which reaches the exterior margin, leaving a white rounded lateral area.

Terminalia. Spermatheca lightly pigmented, bulb-shaped, with small indents, duct partway invaginated (Figure 4A). Ovipositor elongated, sclerotized, with 19 marginal and seven discal teeth, one long bristle, and three fine hairs (Figure 4B).

Variation in paratypes (dry mounted specimens). Total length (body + wings) 3.13-5.11 mm, body length 2.3-3.08 mm. Head. Frontal length 0.4 mm, frontal index = 0.81-0.85, top to bottom width ratio = 1.18-1.40; distance of or3 to or1 = 0.13-0.15, distance of or3 to vtm = 0.07-0.15, or1-or3 ratio = 0.54-0.62, or2-or1 ratio = 0.35-0.54, distance of ocellar setae = 0.85-0.87 of frontal length, distance of postocellar setae = 0.72-0.73 of frontal length, vt index = 0.85-1.08; cheek index = 7.35-10.16; vibrissa index = 0.84-1.11; eye index = 1-1.27. Thorax. Length 1.05-1.08 mm, h index = 0.94-1.06. Transverse distance of dorsocentral setae = 1.77-2.18, dc index = 0.68-0.70. Distance between apical scutellar setae = 0.77-0.96. scut index = 0.96-1.33; sterno index = 0.92-1.24.

Etymology.

Name refers to the Quinara district in Loja Province of Ecuador. In this district there is a legend that the treasure demanded by the Spaniards to release Atahualpa from captivity is still hidden among the old farms in the region.

Distribution.

Known only from the type locality.

Ecology unknown.

The type specimen was found in the banana-bait traps placed at the locality, which suggests that this species feeds on or breeds in fermented fruits as do many other Drosophila  species. The habitat is a well-preserved montane forest.

Relationship to other species.

The general shape of the male terminalia, especially the asymmetrical projections of the aedeagus, suggests a close relationship to Drosophila quitensis  Vela & Rafael, 2004. The main difference is in the aedeagus. The edeagus of D. quinarensis  is more elongate than in D. quitensis  .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Lauxaniidae

Genus

Drosophila