Scinax cabralensis , Drummond, Leandro De Oliveira, Baêta, Délio & Pires, Maria Rita Silvério, 2007
Drummond, Leandro De Oliveira, Baêta, Délio & Pires, Maria Rita Silvério, 2007, A new species of S cinax (Anura, Hylidae) of the S. ruber clade from Minas Gerais, Brazil, Zootaxa 1612, pp. 45-53: 46-51
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Scinax cabralensis sp. nov.
Holotype. MNRJ 42883, adult male, from the Municipality of Joaquim Felício (UTM Zone 23-585557 / 8041721 44 d 11 ' 35.432 "W, 17 d 42 ' 35.034 "S), State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, collected by L. O. Drummond in 30 November 2004.
Paratypes. MNRJ 42884, MNRJ 42887-42888, adult males, and MNRJ 42885, adult female, collected with the holotype; MNRJ 42886, adult female, from the Municipality of Buenópolis, collected by L. O. Drummond in 22 november 2004.
Diagnosis: A species of Scinax belonging to the S. ruber clade (sensu Faivovich, 2005), characterized by (1) small size for the clade (males SVL 22.5 –25.0mm); (2) a spotted pattern of coloration on dorsum, with no stripes or “parenthesis-like” marking; (3) absence of yellow flash color on the posterior surfaces of thighs and hidden portions of shanks; (4) granular skin on the dorsum and venter; (5) rounded snout in dorsal view; (6) advertisement call with a multipulsed note with low number of pulses (6–19 pulses), long duration (mean 0,64 s), and high dominant frequency (mean 3.99 kHz).
Comparison with other species. Scinax cabralensis differs from S. duartei , S. eurydice , S. fuscovarius , S. hayii , S. maracaya , S. perereca and S. similis b y the smaller size in males (22.5 –25.1 mm in S. cabralensis ; males combined SVL 27.00–50.00 mm in the other species). Scinax cabralensis differs from S. alter , S. caldarum , S. camposseabrai , S. cardosoi , S. crospedospilus , S. curicica , S. cuspidatus , S. duartei , S. eurydice , S. fuscomarginatus , S. fuscovarius , S. hayii , S. maracaya , S. perereca , S. pinima , S. similis and S. squalirostris by the spotted pattern of coloration on the dorsum. By the absence of yellow flash color on the posterior surfaces of thighs and hidden portions of shanks, Scinax cabralensis differs from S. caldarum , S. camposseabrai , S. cardosoi , S. crospedospilus , S. curicica , S. duartei , S. eurydice , S. fuscovarius , S. hayii , S. maracaya and S. perereca . Scinax cabralensis differs from S. alter , S. caldarum , S. camposseabrai , S. cardosoi , S. crospedospilus , S. curicica , S. cuspidatus , S. duartei , S. eurydice , S. fuscomarginatus , S. fuscovarius , S. hayii , S. similis , and S. squalirostris by its granular skin of the dorsum. S. cabralensis is distinguished from S. alter , S. caldarum , S. cardosoi , S. crospedospilus , S. curicica , S. cuspidatus , S. duartei , S. fuscovarius , S. hayii , S. maracaya , S. similis and S. squalirostris by the rounded format of the snout in dorsal view. Scinax cabralensis is distinguished from S. alter , S. curicica , S. cuspidatus , S. duartei , S. eurydice , S. fuscomarginatus , and S. perereca by the high number of notes (6–19) in the advertisement call (1 note in S. alter , S. curicica , S. cuspidatus , S. duartei , S. eurydice , S. fuscomarginatus , and S. perereca ); and from S. cuspidatus , S. duartei , S. eurydice , S. fuscovarius , S. hayii , and S. maracaya by the longer duration of the advertisement call (0,31– 1,01s in S. cabralensis ; 0.12– 0.15 s in S. cuspidatus ; 0.20 s in S. duartei ; 0.09– 0.11 s in S. eurydice ; 0.17– 0.20 s in S. fuscovarius ; 0.19– 0.32 s in S. hayii ; 0.28 s in S. maracaya ). From S. caldarum , S. crospedospilus , S. curicica , Scinax duartei , S. eurydice , S. fuscovarius , S. hayii , S. maracaya , and S. perereca , S. cabralensis differs by the higher dominant frequency of the advertisement call (3,7–4,22 kHz in S. cabralensis ; 2.41–2.61 in S. caldarum ; 1.2– 1.5 kHz in S. crospedospilus ; 2.6–3.6 kHz in S. curicica ; 2.15–2.85 in S. duartei ; 2.8–3.4 kHz in S eurydice ; 0.8–3.6 kHz in S. fuscovarius ; 1.2–2.8 kHz in S. hayii , 1.0– 3.5 kHz in S. maracaya ; 1.3–1.6 kHz in S. perereca ).
Description of holotype. Body slender; size small for the group (25.0 mm SVL); head approximately as large as wide ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1) and as wide as the body, its length corresponding to 36.5 % of SVL; snout rounded in dorsal view and subacuminate in lateral view ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A, B); nostrils dorsolateral, rounded, in the top of a small elevation nearly the extremity of snout; canthus rostralis slightly arched and faintly distinct; loreal region slightly concave; eyes medium sized, its diameter corresponding to 34 % of head width; tympanum distinct and rounded ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 B); supratympanic fold short; vocal sac single, median, subgular; vocal slits located laterally on mouth floor; tongue large, lance-shaped, notched posteriorly, barely free; choanae elliptical; vomerine teeth in two straight series, close to each other between the choanae; pectoral fold present.
Arms slender, forearms moderately robust; fingers slender, medium-sized, relative lengths I<II<IV<III, with no nuptial pad; inner metacarpal tubercle single, elliptical, weakly developed; outer metacarpal tubercle divided, elliptical; subarticular and supernumerary tubercles single, rounded or conical; subarticular tubercle in the fourth finger more developed than the others; fingers not webbed with poorly developed fringes; finger discs elliptical, wider than long; the disc of finger I smaller than the others; the disc of finger III as wide as the tympanum ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C).
Legs moderately robust; toes with relative lengths I<II<III=V<IV; inner metatarsal tubercle single, elliptical; outer metatarsal tubercle single, rounded; subarticular and supernumerary tubercles single, rounded ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 D); toe discs elliptical, wider than long. Webbing formula I 2 - - 2 II 2 - - 3 III 2 + - 3 - IV 2 + - 1 1 / 2 V. Skin on dorsum and venter granular with tubercles on dorsum; belly and chest granular.
Measurements of the holotype. SVL 25.0; HL 9.1; HW 8.8; IOD 3.0; END 3.0; ESD 4.3; IND 2.3; ND 0.4; TD 1.4; ED 3.0; THL 12.1; TBL 12.5; TL 6.5; FL 10.6; AL 9.1; FAL 4.3; HAL 6.8; D 3 FW 1.4; D 4 TW 1.2.
Color of the holotype. Dorsum light gray with small dark spots equally distributed. Venter cream, immaculate. Thighs and forearms with dark brown to black transversal stripes. No significant variation can be observed in the color of live and recently preserved individuals.
Variation. The snout can be subacuminate or rounded in lateral view, and in some individuals nostrils are not over an elevation. The digital webbing formula presents variation ( Tab. 1). Some pustules can be observed in the dorsum, flanks, and legs of some individuals. These pustules were probably caused by some parasite we could not identify. Color of dorsum may be olive. Variations in measurements are given in table 2.
Exemplar Fórmula Digital
MNRJ 42883 I 2 - - 2 II 2 - - 3 III 2 + - 3 - IV 2 + - 1 1 / 2 V MNRJ 42884 I 2 - - 2 II 2 - - 3 III 1 1 / 2 - 3 - IV 2 1 / 2 - 1 + V MNRJ 42885 I 2 - - 2 II 2 - - 3 III 1 1 / 2 - 3 - IV 2 1 / 2 - 1 + V MNRJ 42886 I 2 - - 2 II 2 - - 3 III 2 - - 3 + IV 2 1 / 2 - 1 + V MNRJ 42887 I 2 - - 2 + II 2 - - 3 - III 1 2 / 3 - 3 - IV 2 1 / 2 - 1 + V MNRJ 42887 I 2 - - 2 II 2 - - 3 - III 1 2 / 3 - 3 IV 2 2 / 3 - 1 + V Table 2. Range, mean, and standard deviation (SD) of some measurements (in millimeters) of Scinax cabralensis males (n= 4) and females (n= 2).
Vocalization. The advertisement call of Scinax cabralensis contains 6–19 notes. Call duration varies between 0.31 s and 1.01 s (x = 0.64 s; SD = 0.22; n = 13 calls). Intercall interval ranges from 0.73 to 5.73 s (x = 1.99 s; SD = 1.67; n = 9 intervals). Note duration ranges from 0.02 to 0.05 s (x = 0.03 s; SD = 0.01; n = 153), and internote interval from 0.01 to 0.03 s (x = 0.02 s; SD = 0.00; n = 142). Frequency amplitude varies from 1.96 kHz (range = 1.81–2.07 kHz; SD = 0.10; n = 13) to 5.52 kHz (range = 5.17–5.94 kHz; SD = 0.27; n = 13). Dominant frequency varies from 3.70 to 4.22 kHz (x = 3.99 kHz; SD = 0.15; n = 13).
A different call, resembling “clicks”, is sometimes emitted in intervals between 0.023 and 1.242 s (x = 0,513 s; SD = 0.644; n = 3) after a previous advertisement call. It is probably a territorial call containing 2 or 3 pulses. The duration of this “click call” varies between 0.12 and 0.20 s (x = 0.17; SD = 0.04; n = 3). Note duration 0.03 s (x = 0,03s; SD = 0.00; n = 8), and internote interval ranges from 0.05 to 0.06 s (x = 0.05 s; SD = 0.00; n = 5). Frequency amplitude varies from 2.58 kHZ (range = 2.41–2.76 kHz; SD = 0.17; n = 3) to 5.38 kHz (range = 5.08–5.81 kHz; SD = 0,38; n = 3). Dominant frequency varies from 3.70 to 3.88 kHz (x = 3.76 kHz; SD = 0.01; n = 3).
Natural history notes. No activity was registered during the dry season, but one female was found inside a bromeliad. Calling males were founded in high densities, during the beginning of rainy season. They called at night, perched on the emergent shrubby vegetation as well as on the ground or rocks, at the margins of temporary and permanent streams, ponds, and marshes. Dendropsophus minutus , Elachistocleis ovalis , Leptodactylus labyrinthicus , Physalaemus cuvieri , Pseudopaludicola cf. mystacalis , Pseudopaludicola saltica , Scinax squalirostris and Scinax sp. were found in activity in the same site of S. cabralensis .
Distribution. Scinax cabralensis is known only for the region of the Serra do Cabral, in the Municipalities of Joaquim Felício and Buenópolis, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, but its distribution may extend to other localities in the Espinhaço Mountain range.
Etymology. The specific name of the new species refers to the Serra do Cabral, complex of mountains where the species was found.
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