Aphonopelma gabeli Smith, 1995

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 88-97

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4C1691C-1358-4FA9-A031-E305DEE2B6A2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/66766D4C-0E8B-41E5-79A9-6EE97186F226

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Aphonopelma gabeli Smith, 1995
status

 

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma gabeli Smith, 1995  Figures 45, 46, 47, 48, 49

Aphonopelma gabeli  Smith, 1995: 100; male holotype from E of Tucson, Pima Co., Arizona, 31.956396 -110.339817 7, elev. 4055ft., no collecting date, coll. Russ Gurley; deposited in BMNH. [examined]

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma gabeli  (Fig. 45) is a member of the moderatum  species group and can be identified by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA identifies Aphonopelma gabeli  as a phylogenetically distinct monophyletic lineage (Figs 7-8), supported as the sister lineage to Aphonopelma moellendorfi  sp. n. and closely related to Aphonopelma moderatum  . Female Aphonopelma gabeli  can be distinguished from syntopic species by their unique spermathecae, noticeably large and robust chelicerae, and associated broad anterior carapace margin (Figs 45, 47). Male Aphonopelma gabeli  have an overall black body appearance with very long, thin legs. Significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma gabeli  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are PTl and M4. Male Aphonopelma gabeli  can be distinguished by possessing a smaller PTl/M3 (≤0.63; 0.57-0.63) than Aphonopelma anax  (≥0.64; 0.64-0.76), Aphonopelma armada  (≥0.65; 0.65-0.75), Aphonopelma hentzi  (≥0.67; 0.67-0.81), Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≥0.65; 0.65-0.75), Aphonopelma peloncillo  sp. n. (≥0.71; 0.71-0.82), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≥0.71; 0.71-0.87); and a smaller M1/M4 (≤0.74; 0.70-0.74) than Aphonopelma moderatum  (≥0.76; 0.76-0.81) and Aphonopelma moellendorfi  (≥0.75; 0.75-0.82). Significant measurements that distinguish female Aphonopelma gabeli  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are P1, M3, and extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Female Aphonopelma gabeli  can be distinguished by possessing a larger M3/M4 (≥0.73; 0.73-0.78) than Aphonopelma moderatum  (≤0.72; 0.67-0.72); a larger L4 scopulation extent (39%-53%) than Aphonopelma peloncillo  (32%-38%) and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (26%-37%); a smaller L4 scopulation extent than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (63%-81%); and by possessing a smaller P1/F4 (≤0.46; 0.42-0.46) than Aphonopelma armada  (≥0.47; 0.47-0.51). Females of Aphonopelma moellendorfi  are unknown and cannot be compared.

Description.

Male originally described by Smith (1995).

Redescription of male exemplar

(APH_1054; Fig. 46). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live crossing road, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Generally black or faded to brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 16.79 mm long, 15.08 mm wide; densely clothed with black pubescence appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface; foveal groove deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises gradually from foveal groove, gently arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER slightly procurved, PER recurved; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus extends slightly forward; LBl 1.90, LBw 2.05; sternum hirsute, clothed with short and medium length black, densely packed setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black/brown pubescence with numerous longer red/orange setae interspersed; possessing a dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972). Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in a mix of short black/brown pubescence with longer ventral setae. Metatarsus I slightly curved. F1 16.15; F1w 3.65; P1 6.31; T1 12.7; M1 11.71; A1 7.98; F3 13.75; F3w 4.01; P3 5.53; T3 10.31; M3 13.01; A3 7.87; F4 16.26; F4w 3.75; P4 5.95; T4 12.76; M4 16.60; A4 8.55; femur III is normal - not noticeably swollen or wider than other legs. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 67.5%; leg IV (SC4) = 47.1%. Two ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; five ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur and six spinose setae on the prolateral tibia; PTl 7.963, PTw 2.590. When extended, embolus tapers but quickly curves to the retrolateral side near apex; embolus very slender, no keels.

Variation (6).Cl 15.21-16.79 (15.667 ± 0.24), Cw 13.4-15.08 (14.075 ± 0.25), LBl 1.7-2.02 (1.872 ± 0.06), LBw 1.91-2.27 (2.075 ± 0.05), F1 15.63-17.21 (16.127 ± 0.23), F1w 3.41-3.65 (3.518 ± 0.04), P1 5.53-6.37 (6.022 ± 0.13), T1 12.7-13.55 (13.067 ± 0.12), M1 11.71-12.98 (12.328 ± 0.18), A1 7.64-8.56 (7.953 ± 0.14), L1 length 54.27-57.46 (55.497 ± 0.44), F3 13.4-14.24 (13.665 ± 0.13), F3w 3.36-4.01 (3.723 ± 0.09), P3 4.67-5.53 (5.253 ± 0.13), T3 10.02-10.89 (10.472 ± 0.13), M3 12.86-13.88 (13.28 ± 0.14), A3 7.33-7.91 (7.635 ± 0.1), L3 length 48.39-51.87 (50.305 ± 0.46), F4 14.81-17.47 (15.853 ± 0.38), F4w 3.44-3.81 (3.592 ± 0.06), P4 4.79-6.02 (5.423 ± 0.2), T4 12.64-13.39 (12.985 ± 0.12), M4 16.33-18.26 (17.022 ± 0.28), A4 8.09-9.14 (8.673 ± 0.15), L4 length 57.18-63.65 (59.957 ± 0.88), PTl 7.677-8.48 (8.083 ± 0.11), PTw 2.38-2.59 (2.525 ± 0.03), SC3 ratio 0.591-0.721 (0.663 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.361-0.471 (0.416 ± 0.02), Coxa I setae = tapered, F3 condition = normal.

Description of female exemplar

(APH_0680; Figs 47-48). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Faded brown, black, and grey, medium length setae cover body; brownish-grey, with green tint following a molt (in situ). Cephalothorax: Carapace 18.34 mm long, 15.81 mm wide; densely clothed with brown pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in medium setae; broad anterior margin of carapace; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises from thoracic furrow more steeply than male, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER very slightly procurved, PER recurved; large, robust chelicerae; clypeus extends forward on a slight curve; LBl 2.38, LBw 2.44; sternum hirsute, clothed with brown, medium length setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short black setae with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972); ventral side with shorter dark brown setae. Spermathecae: Uniquely shaped; paired and separate that taper to a pocket, with wide bases that are not fused. Legs: Hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in short, brown pubescence with longer setae interspersed. F1 15.24; F1w 4.26; P1 6.26; T1 12.11; M1 10.20; A1 7.57; F3 12.72; F3w 3.58; P3 6.26; T3 8.88; M3 10.71; A3 7.73; F4 14.9; F4w 3.83; P4 6.55; T4 12.03; M4 13.75; A4 8.49. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 79.2%; leg IV (SC4) = 52.9%. One ventral spinose seta on metatarsus III; four ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur and two spinose setae on the prolateral tibia.

Variation (6).Cl 14.69-18.34 (16.535 ± 0.53), Cw 12.65-15.81 (14.145 ± 0.5), LBl 2.07-2.41 (2.29 ± 0.06), LBw 2.29-2.82 (2.485 ± 0.08), F1 12.13-15.24 (13.288 ± 0.45), F1w 3.67-4.26 (3.917 ± 0.09), P1 5.41-6.26 (5.772 ± 0.15), T1 9.35-12.11 (10.285 ± 0.4), M1 7.41-10.2 (8.33 ± 0.43), A1 5.83-7.57 (6.647 ± 0.24), L1 length 40.18-51.38 (44.322 ± 1.6), F3 9.63-12.72 (10.783 ± 0.44), F3w 3.44-3.76 (3.575 ± 0.05), P3 4.27-6.26 (5.053 ± 0.28), T3 7.08-8.88 (7.773 ± 0.26), M3 7.78-10.71 (8.75 ± 0.41), A3 6.09-7.73 (6.593 ± 0.24), L3 length 35.81-46.30 (38.953 ± 1.56), F4 12.21-14.90 (13.065 ± 0.41), F4w 3.43-3.83 (3.642 ± 0.06), P4 4.67-6.55 (5.553 ± 0.27), T4 9.31-12.03 (10.187 ± 0.4), M4 10.5-13.75 (11.663 ± 0.48), A4 6.71-8.49 (7.168 ± 0.28), L4 length 43.83-55.72 (47.637 ± 1.7), SC3 ratio 0.725-0.805 (0.762 ± 0.01), SC4 ratio 0.397-0.529 (0.471 ± 0.02), Coxa 1 setae = tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 48.

Material examined.

United States: Arizona: Cochise: 0.1 mi. west of Portal, 31.913699 -109.143184 4, 4780ft., [APH_2356, 2/7/1961, 1♂, J. Cole, AMNH]; 0.5 miles east of Portal, 31.914884 -109.149967 4, 4846ft., [APH_2364, 1/7/1961, 1♂, J. Cole, AMNH]; 1 mile southwest of Portal, 31.903762 -109.152806 5, 4918ft., [APH_2363, 2/9/1960, 1♀, R. Zweifel, AMNH]; 1 mile west of Portal, 31.9135 -109.158499 5, 4961ft., [APH_2365, 4/7/1963, 1♂, Steve Aaron, AMNH]; 1.7 miles northeast of Portal on San Simon Rd., 31.930194 -109.12083 4, 4570ft., [APH_2377, 21/7/1961, 1♂, J. Cole, AMNH]; 15.5 miles S I-10 on Noland Rd, 32.032719 -109.186732 1, 4478ft., [APH_1337-1338, 2/8/2011, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; 2 miles northeast of Portal, 31.934159 -109.117117 5, 4534ft., [APH_2380, 10/6/1963, 1♀, Cazier and Mortenson, AMNH]; 2.5 miles southeast of Portal on Portal Rd., 31.902146 -109.10097 4, 4478 ft., [APH_2372, 6/7/1973, 1♂, R. Zweifel, AMNH]; 2.6 miles NW AZ/NM state line on Portal Rd, 31.89302489 -109.0856873 1, 4349ft., [APH_0385, 31/7/2008, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 7.7 miles S I-10 on Noland Rd, 32.145844 -109.173364 1, 3872ft., [APH_1336, 2/8/2011, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; Apache Pass Rd, S of I-10, 32.267466 -109.464574 1, 3854ft., [APH_0712, 20/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Cave Creek Canyon, 1.3 miles northeast of Ranger Station on Cave Creek Canyon Rd. near Portal, 31.896202 -109163672 4, 4961ft., [APH_2383, 11/7/1973, 1♂, A. Bush, AMNH]; Chiricahua Mtns, 31.929812 -109.382285 6, 6119ft., [APH_2367, 8/1972, 2♂, J.A.L. Cooke, AMNH]; Dos Cabezas, 32.114138 -109.920729 5, 4219ft., [APH_2378, 19/9/1954, 1♂, G. Bradt, M. Oazier, AMNH]; Fan Road, 5.5 miles NE Bowie, 32.375306 -109.447667 1, 3640ft., [APH_0393, 24/7/2008, 1♂, Kari and Hunter McWest, AUMNH]; Portal, 31.913699 -109.1414 5, 4770ft., [APH_2357, 8/7/1964, 2♂, D. Rich, AMNH]; [APH_2359, 1/8/1965, 1♂, W.J. Gerstch, AMNH]; [APH_2360, 25/6/1962, 1♂, W.J. Gerstch, AMNH]; [APH_2362, 10/7/1962, 1♀, Melinda Stebbins, AMNH]; [APH_2368, 4/7/1961, 1♂, J. Cole, AMNH]; [APH_2369, 15/8/1962, 1♀, C. Parrish and W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; [APH_2381, 14/6/1962, 1♀, W.J. Gerstch, AMNH]; Portal Rd, 31.884644 -109.071997 5, 4250ft., [APH_0390, unknown, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; S of I-10 on Noland Rd, 32.213729 -109.176179 1, 3645ft., [APH_0711, 20/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Sulphur Canyon, 9 miles west of Rodeo, 31.836758 -109.188226 5, 7060ft., [APH_2355, 23/7/1955, 1♂, Guy Miller, AMNH]; Wilcox, 32.252851 -109.83201 5, 4170ft., [APH_2382, 12/7/1954, 1♂, W.J. Gerstch, AMNH]; Graham: 0.25 miles E Hwy-191 on Tanque Rd, 32.605235 -109.682418 1, 3873ft., [APH_1329-1330, 1/8/2011, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; [APH_1481-1482, 1/8/2012, 1♀, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Austin Deskewies, AUMNH]; [APH_1489, 4/9/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 0.4 miles E Hwy-191 on Tanque Rd, 32.606204 -109.681524 1, 3891ft., [APH_1184, 25/7/2010, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 3.6 miles E Hwy-191 on Tanque Rd, 32.619274 -109.633622 1, 3623ft., [APH_1231, 8/8/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; 5.8 miles E Hwy-191 on Tanque Rd, 32.621499 -109.596498 1, 3481ft., [APH_1236, 8/8/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; along Hwy-191, 32.662275 -109.701131 1, 3530ft., [APH_1179, 25/7/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; dirt road S of US-70, 32.744869 -109.344099 1, 4088ft., [APH_0641-0642, 12/7/2009, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Hwy-366, near Hwy-191, 32.726066 -109.71822 1, 3266ft., [APH_0637-0638, 11/7/2009, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Klondyke Rd, SW of Hwy-70, 32.914146 -109.975734 1, 3110ft., [APH_0698-0699, 18/7/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; [APH_0701-0708, 18/7/2009, 2♀, 6♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Tanque Rd, near Hwy-191, 32.604126 -109.681695 1, 3887ft., [APH_0627-0632, 11/7/2009, 5♂, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; [APH_0635, 11/7/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Greenlee: 0.4 miles N Hwy-75 on Goat Camp Rd, 32.755403 -109.110492 1, 3726ft., [APH_1351, 5/8/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; New Mexico: Chaves: N of Roswell, 33.50677 -104.52311 5, 3626ft., [APH_0316, 10/7/2007, 1♀, Rick C. West, AUMNH]; rest area near Hagerman, near NM-249, 33.09694 -104.44167 2, 3559ft., [APH_0044, 20/6/2002, 1♀, Shasta Michaels, JJ East, AUMNH]; Dona Ana: 0.9 miles NE I-10 on CR-B19 (I-10 Exit 155), 32.130859 -106.626039 1, 4030ft., [APH_0538, 5/6/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; 2711 Los Misioneros, Las Cruces, 32.336008 -106.749999 2, 4170ft., [APH_1461, 27/6/2012, 1♂, Jesse Ortiz, AUMNH]; Aguirre Springs Rd, 32.43067 -106.547785 1, 5258ft., [APH_0655, 13/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; [APH_0662-0664, 14/7/2009, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-9, 31.79866 -106.907625 1, 4113ft., [APH_0653, 13/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Just outside Las Cruces, on Aguirre Spring Road, 32.431202 -106.54921 5, 5306ft., [APH_0002, 8/2003, 1♂, Roy Thibodeau, AUMNH]; Eddy: 0.5 miles W US-62/180 on CR 408 (Dark Canyon Rd), 32.28746 -104.28966 1, 3330ft., [APH_0366-0368, 22/6/2008, 3♂, Shasta Michaels, AUMNH]; 1.2 miles W US-62/180 on CR 408 (Dark Canyon Rd), 32.28969 -104.30144 1, 3350ft., [APH_0364-0365, 21/6/2008, 2♂, Shasta Michaels, AUMNH]; 1.7 miles W US-62/180 on CR-408, 32.293874 -104.309514 1, 3392ft., [APH_0542-0543, 6/6/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; 2.3 miles W US-62/180 on CR 408, 32.29345 -104.31993 1, 3434 ft., [APH_0061, 14/6/2001, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; near jct. CR-1 and US-82, 32.830265 -104.797078 1, 4228ft., [APH_0541, 6/6/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Grant: Silver City, pinyon pine habitat, 32.770075 -108.280326 4, 5944ft., [APH_1293, 7/2011, 1 juv, Ken McNeil, AUMNH]; Hidalgo: 1.6 miles S I-10 on Hwy-80, 32.213781 -108.951553 1, 4233ft., [APH_1180, 26/7/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 15.5 miles north of Rodeo, 32.049697 -109.030541 5, 3934ft., [APH_2376, 11/7/1960, 1♂, Zweifel, AMNH]; 18 miles north of Rodeo, 32.089638 -109.036588 5, 3976ft., [APH_2361, 7/7/1956, 1♂, H. Howden, AMNH]; 19.5 miles north of Rodeo, 32.11859 -109.03127 5, 4042ft., [APH_2385, 11/7/1960, 1♂, Zweifel, AMNH]; 21.5 miles north of Rodeo, 32.141862 -109.028611 5, 4124ft., [APH_2371, 11/7/1960, 1♂, Zweifel, AMNH]; 4.1 miles E Hwy-80 on Hwy-9, 31.936704 -108.970448 1, 4187ft., [APH_0678, 16/7/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 5 miles north of junction of Animas Rd. and rt. 80, 31.443254 -109.827763 5, 4678ft., [APH_2374, 23/7/1960, 1♂, R. Zweifel, AMNH]; 5 miles south of Road Forks, 32.275308 -108.794078 5, 4354ft., [APH_2384, 2/7/1962, 1♂, W.J. Gerstch, AMNH]; 6 miles north of Lordsburg, 32.436395 -108.707975 5, 4432ft., [APH_2358, 28/7/1962, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; 8 miles north of Rodeo, 31.952008 -109.030121 5, 4078ft., [APH_2370, 14/7/1963, 1♂, C. Bagwell, AMNH]; along Hwy-338, 31.807343 -108.801127 1, 4675ft., [APH_1192-1194, 26/7/2010, 3♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-80 at CR-C078, 32.101572 -108.957714 1, 4408ft., [APH_0676, 15/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-80 at Granite Gap, 32.086958 -108.977019 1, 4495ft., [APH_1483, 1/8/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Austin Deskewies, AUMNH]; along Hwy-9, just E of Continental Divide, 31.963316 -108.673824 1, 4489ft., [APH_0680, 16/7/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-9, just west of Gas Line Rd, 31.935932 -108.940821 1, 4355ft., [APH_0677, 15/7/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-90, NE of Lordsburg, 32.469585 -108.60797 1, 5005ft., [APH_0646, 12/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along US-70, SE of Hwy-92, 32.612037 -108.984613 1, 4151ft., [APH_0643-0644, 12/7/2009, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Cieanega Lake, 15.5 miles north of Rodeo, 32.049697 -109.030541 5, 3934ft., [APH_2375, 14/7/1961, 1♂, J. Cole, AMNH]; Lordsburg, vicinity of Fraggle Rock, 32.31738 -108.81833 4, 4250ft., [APH_1294, 7/2011, 1♂, Ken McNeil, AUMNH]; Rodeo, 31.950087 -109.031176 5, 4085ft., [APH_2366, 17/7/1963, 2♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; Rt. 9, 2 miles east of juncture with US 80, 31.920498 -109.070014 4, 4301ft., [APH_2387, 3/7/1958, 2♂, Robert Chew, AMNH]; Luna: 0.5 miles E Hidalgo Co. Line along I-10, 32.208983 -108.221098 1, 4547ft., [APH_1178, 23/7/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-11, N of Columbus, 31.935144 -107.670986 1, 4220ft., [APH_0650-0651, 13/7/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-180, 32.431967 -107.90736 1, 4691ft., [APH_0647-0649, 13/7/2009, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-9, 31.828861 -107.320841 1, 4141ft., [APH_0652, 13/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-9, 2.3 miles SE Grant County Line, 31.868935 -108.182075 1, 4605ft., [APH_0665, 14/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Cookes Canyon Rd, A019, 3.4 miles NW NM-26, 32.453472 -107.614333 1, 4710ft., [APH_0395, 28/7/2008, 1♂, Kari and Hunter McWest, AUMNH]; Deming, on ramp to I-10, 32.267886 -107.780667 1, 4817ft., [APH_1177, 23/7/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Little Florida Mtns, 1 miles SE on Bonita Rd from turnoff on Gap Rd, 32.15817 -107.58858 4, 4480ft., [APH_0194, 3/9/2007, 1♀, Lorenzo Prendini, Jeremy Huff, AUMNH]; Sierra: near Truth or Consequences, 0.2 miles W I-25 off Exit 79, 33.157129 -107.257152 1, 4491ft., [APH_1295, 24/7/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Shasta Michaels, AUMNH]; Socorro: Escondida, 34.05833 -106.89083 5, 4607ft., [APH_0034, 7/8/2006, 1♀, Kristin Greene, AUMNH]; Texas: Andrews: SW4001, 32.113981 -102.615814 1, 3139ft., [APH_1053-1054, 6/7/2010, 2♂, Skyler Stevens, AUMNH]; SW7000 and SW6601, 32.110219 -102.710939 1, 3233ft., [APH_1055, 6/7/2010, 1♂, Skyler Stevens, AUMNH]; SW8000 and SW3001, 32.111511 -102.566667 1, 3122ft., [APH_1050-1051, 6/7/2010, 2♂, Skyler Stevens, AUMNH]; Brewster: 1.85 miles N Ranch Rd 2627 on Hwy-385, 29.71843 -103.15894 2, 2759ft., [APH_1469, 22/6/2012, 1♂, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; 14 miles N Ranch Rd 2627 on Hwy-385, 29.86536 -103.24919 2, 3215ft., [APH_1472, 24/6/2012, 1♂, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; 14.3 miles NE jct US-90 on US-67, 30.53666 -103.39322 1, 3831ft., [APH_0029, 18/6/2001, 1♂, Jeff Owens, AUMNH]; 5.5 miles N Ranch Rd 2627 on Hwy-385, 29.76887 -103.16619 2, 2840ft., [APH_1471, 24/6/2012, 1♂, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; Crane: off Hwy 385, N or Crane, 31.41690278 -102.3563111 2, 2550ft., [APH_1386, 29/8/2011, 1 juv, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; Ector: Cowden H Ranch, 32.07805 -102.780783 6, 3316ft., [APH_0940, 2006, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; [APH_0943, 9/2008, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0946, 9/2008, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; El Paso: 3457 Red Sails Drive, El Paso, 31.79305 -106.313143 1, 3987ft., [APH_3126, 18/7/2013, 1♂, Jackie Ortegon, AUMNH]; Rest Area, 1.4 miles SE FM-793 (SE Fabens), 31.503951 -106.116307 1, 3779ft., [APH_0537, 5/6/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Gaines: Seminole, 32.72695 -102.660533 1, 3327ft., [APH_0850-0854, 9/2008, 5♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; [APH_0888, 9/2008, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Seminole, 0.4 miles NW 11th St on Hwy-214, 32.729362 -102.661669 1, 3329ft., [APH_0545, 7/6/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Courtney Dugas, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Midland: CR60, 32.010556 -102.2275 1, 2888ft., [APH_1060, 2/7/2010, 1♂, Skyler Stevens, AUMNH]; FM 1788 S, 31.762925 -102.16813 2, 2895ft., [APH_1372-1373, 27/6/2011, 2♂, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; Reeves: outside Carlsbad, 31.83806 -103.88556 1, 2780ft., [APH_0018-0021, 20/6/2002, 4♂, ATS Conference, AUMNH]; Upton: just S of Hwy 329, before FM1492 jct, 31.42758333 -102.1889667 2, 2800ft., [APH_1378, 10/8/2011, 1 juv, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; oil fields E of Hwy 329, 31.35481944 -102.0862667 2, 2715ft., [APH_1382, 10/9/2011, 1♀, Darryl Bur ton, AUMNH]; [APH_1383, 30/8/2011, 1♀, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; oil fields W of Hwy 329, 31.42420833 -102.1828 2, 2795ft., [APH_1376, 30/7/2011, 1 juv, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; [APH_1380, 6/9/2011, 1 juv, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; [APH_1390, 31/7/2011, 1 juv, Darryl Burton, AUMNH]; Ward: E of Pecos on I-20, 31.444196 -103.371451 1, 2583ft., [APH_1175, 22/7/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH.

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma gabeli  is distributed mostly throughout the Chihuahuan Desert in southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, and West Texas; this includes the northern finger-like extensions of the desert along the Rio Grande and Pecos Rivers into Socorro and Chaves Counties, New Mexico, respectively (Fig. 49A). This species is also known from adjacent sections of the High Plains and near canyon mouths of the Madrean sky islands. The species distribution model (Fig. 49B) predicts suitable habitat throughout most of Trans-Pecos Texas, the boot heel of New Mexico, and sections of southeastern Arizona, northeastern Sonora, and northwestern Chihuahua. Aphonopelma gabeli  can be found inhabiting the following Level III Ecoregions: Chihuahuan Deserts, High Plains, Arizona/New Mexico Mountains, Southwestern Tablelands, and Madrean Archipelago (Fig. 1F). Specimens accompanied with precise georeferenced locality data have been collected at elevations ranging from 775 to 1620 meters in short grass prairie, desert grassland, and desert scrub communities; at higher elevations, habitats are sometimes associated with various oaks and junipers. Aphonopelma gabeli  has been observed in syntopy (burrows located within a few meters of each other) with Aphonopelma armada  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma parvum  sp. n., and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  and can probably be found alongside Aphonopelma chalcodes  in Cochise and Graham Counties, Arizona. Burrows are typical of that for North American tarantulas (i.e., circular and generally covered by a thin veil of silk) and specimens can be readily collected by pouring a small amount of water into their burrows. Burrows are plugged during the winter months. The breeding period is late spring and early summer (June-August); adult males have been observed in large numbers at night along dirt roads in Graham County, Arizona and Eddy County, New Mexico. The data in Hamilton et al. (2011) and other preliminary mtDNA data suggests that Aphonopelma gabeli  recently expanded its distribution into present-day portions of the Chihuahuan Desert, likely following the desert’s appearance in the United States as the climate warmed and dried during the late Holocene (see Van Devender 1990).

Conservation status.

Landscape fragmentation due to oil and natural gas production has raised concern about the conservation status of some species in the Permian Basin of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico ( Leavitt and Fitzgerald 2013). Aphonopelma gabeli  , however, is one of the most common and widely distributed tarantulas in the United States and is frequently encountered in areas that have been developed for such production (D. Burton 2011, pers. comm.). This species is secure.

Remarks.

Aphonopelma gabeli  females and juvenile males are easily differentiated from Aphonopelma armada  by the flared metatarsal scopulae and prolateral coxa I setae of Aphonopelma armada  ; from Aphonopelma anax  by spermathecae and palpal bulbs, as well as prolateral coxa I setae; from Aphonopelma hentzi  by its phenotypic appearance and prolateral coxa I setae; from Aphonopelma moderatum  by their unique phenotypic color and banding; from Aphonopelma peloncillo  by its phenotypic appearance; from Aphonopelma vorhiesi  by their black appearance; and from Aphonopelma parvum  due to the extreme small size of the miniature species. Other important ratios that distinguish males: Aphonopelma gabeli  possess a larger F4L/W (≥4.29; 4.29-4.60) than Aphonopelma hentzi  (≤4.24; 3.62-4.24); by possessing a smaller L1/L4 (≤0.95; 0.91-0.95) than Aphonopelma moderatum  (>0.95; 0.95-0.99) and Aphonopelma moellendorfi  (≥0.96; 0.96-1.00); by possessing a larger L4 scopulation extent (36%-47%) than Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (20%-36%) and smaller than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (66%-76%); by possessing a smaller F1/M3 (≤1.24; 1.18-1.24) than Aphonopelma anax  (≥1.28; 1.28-1.43), Aphonopelma armada  (≥1.26; 1.26-1.33), and Aphonopelma peloncillo  (≥1.33; 1.33-1.49). Other important ratios distinguish females: Aphonopelma gabeli  possess a larger T3/T4 (≥0.73; 0.73-0.79) than Aphonopelma armada  (≤0.73; 0.64-0.73) and Aphonopelma moderatum  (≤0.71; 0.63-0.71); by possessing a larger L3 scopulation extent (72%-80%) than Aphonopelma peloncillo  (58%-68%) and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (49%-69%); by possessing a larger CL/CW (≥1.14; 1.14-1.20) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤1.14; 1.09-1.14). For both males and females, certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no others are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional PCA morphospace, males of Aphonopelma gabeli  separate from Aphonopelma anax  , Aphonopelma armada  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  along PC1~2, but do not separate from Aphonopelma moderatum  , Aphonopelma moellendorfi  , Aphonopelma chalcodes  , or Aphonopelma peloncillo  . Female Aphonopelma gabeli  do not separate from any of their syntopic species or phylogenetic sister lineages in PCA morphospace. Females of Aphonopelma moellendorfi  are unknown and cannot be compared. Interestingly, Aphonopelma gabeli  males separate from Aphonopelma anax  , Aphonopelma armada  , and Aphonopelma hentzi  in three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), but do not separate from Aphonopelma moderatum  and Aphonopelma moellendorfi  . Aphonopelma gabeli  females separate from Aphonopelma anax  , but do not separate from Aphonopelma armada  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , and Aphonopelma moderatum  . PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥87% of the variation in male analyses and ≥96% of the variation in female analyses. It is also important to note the tremendous variation in spermathecae shape that can be seen across Aphonopelma gabeli  populations (Fig. 48). Previous taxonomic work considered this variation enough to split and describe separate species; this is clearly not an effective character due to the large amounts of subtle variation that is possible. This species was first identified as a new species by Jung (1975) but was not formally described until Smith (1995). The type locality for Aphonopelma gabeli  ("east of Tucson") is vague and is probably located closer to Willcox or Safford, Arizona.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Aphonopelma

Loc

Aphonopelma gabeli Smith, 1995

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E. 2016

2016
Loc

Aphonopelma gabeli

Pocock 1901

1901