Remenus daniellae Verdone & Kondratieff, 2018

Verdone, Chris J. & Kondratieff, Boris C., 2018, Holomorphology And Systematics Of The Eastern Nearctic Stonefly Genus Remenus Ricker (Plecoptera: Perlodidae), Illiesia 14 (5), pp. 81-125 : 99-107

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Remenus daniellae Verdone & Kondratieff

sp. n.

Remenus daniellae Verdone & Kondratieff , sp. n.

( Figs. 42–67 View Fig View Figs View Figs View Figs View Figs View Figs View Fig View Figs View Fig View Fig ) Plecoptera TaxonName:502852

Material examined: Holotype ♂: Tennessee, Sevier Co., tributary to Le Conte Creek, Twin Creeks Uplands Research Lab , GRSM, N 35.68706, W 83.50096, 16 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff ( NMNH) GoogleMaps . Paratypes: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Ball Branch, Old Cataloochee Turnpike, GRSM, N 35.71817, W 83.09251, 25 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 2♂, 3♀ ( CSUIC); GoogleMaps Same location, 14 May 2017, [emerged 18 May 2017], C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂, 3♀, 3 exuvia ( CSUIC); GoogleMaps Same location, 20 May 2017, C. Verdone, D. Fuller, 3♂, 2♀ ( CSUIC); GoogleMaps Right Fork Cove Creek, Rte 284, [N 35.62104, W 83.05193], 23 May 1993, B.C. Kondratieff, R. F. Kirchner, 2♂, 1♀ ( CSUIC). GoogleMaps Swain Co., Collins Creek, Collins Creek Picnic Area , Hwy 441, GRSM, N 35.56752, W 83.09251, 14 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂ ( CSUIC); GoogleMaps Gunna Creek , at confluence with Spence Cabin Branch, GRSM, N 35.55120, W 83.73220, 3 June 2003, B.D. Heinold, C. Favret, 1♂ ( INHS); GoogleMaps Proctor Branch, Twentymile Creek Trail, GRSM, N 35.48558, W 83.83684, 5 June 2003, B.D. Heinold, 1♂ ( INHS) GoogleMaps . Tennessee, GoogleMaps Blount Co., Anthony Creek , E Cades Cove Campground, Anthony Creek Trail at 3 rd footbridge going upstream, GRSM, N 35.58680, W 83.75160, 26 May 2001, R. E. DeWalt, B.D. Heinold, 1♂, 2♀ ( INHS). GoogleMaps Sevier Co., Greenbriar Cove, Smoky Mtns. , [N 35.70704, W 83.38294], 15 June 1939, A.C. Cole, 1♂ ( INHS); GoogleMaps Le Conte Creek , Gatlinburg , [N 35.70164, W 83.51361], 14 June 1940, T.H. Frison, 1♂, 3♀ ( INHS); GoogleMaps Le Conte Creek , ATBI Plot, Twins Creek , GRSM, [N 35.68500, W 83.49888], 8 May–25 May 2010, C. R. Parker, 2♂ ( CSUIC); GoogleMaps Little Laurel Branch, Ramsey Cascade Trail. GRSM, N 35.70270, W 83.35654, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 4♂, 4♀ ( CSUIC); GoogleMaps tributary to Le Conte Creek, Twin Creeks Uplands Research Lab , GRSM, N 35.68706, W 83.50096, 16 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 11♂, 9♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps .

Additional material not paratypes. North Carolina, Haywood Co., Ball Branch, Old Cataloochee Turnpike, GRSM, N 35.71817, W 83.09251, 14 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 3L ( CSUIC); Mt. Sterling Creek, Old Cataloochee Turnpike, GRSM, N 35.70819, W 83.09658, 10 July 1983, B.C. Kondratieff, 2♀ ( CSUIC); tributary to Hemphill Creek, 5 km WNW Jonathan, pumphouse spring below Purchase Knob House, GRSM, N 35.58220, W 83.07370, 31 May 2003, R.E. DeWalt, 2L ( INHS). Tennessee, Sevier Co., Le Conte Creek, Gatlinburg, [N 35.70164, W 83.51361], 14 June 1940, T.H. Frison, 6L ( INHS).

Distribution. USA – NC, TN ( Fig. 41 View Fig )

Etymology. The patronym honors the senior author’s wife, Danielle M. Fuller, for her valued support and patience. The proposed common name is the “Danielle’s Stripetail”.

Male. ( Fig. 42 View Fig ). Macropterous; forewing length 9.3– 10.4 mm (n = 10) ( Fig. 43 View Figs ). Body length, 8.0– 9.8 mm (n = 10). General body color yellow-gold with light brown markings. Dorsum of head typical of genus ( Fig. 44 View Figs ). Pronotum light brown, covered in regularly spaced setae, with pale, glabrous rugosities mediolaterally ( Fig. 44 View Figs ); medial pale area widest medially ( Fig. 44 View Figs ). Abdominal terga with anterior margin darkened ( Fig. 45 View Figs ); rarely darkened laterally. Hemitergal lobes short, not separated from 10 th tergum, with long trichoid sensilla and 0–4 minute sensilla basiconica on each lobe ( Figs. 45– 48 View Figs View Figs ). Epiproct length ~ 170–270 μm; width ~ 82–89 μm (n = 3); epiproct clavate (club- shaped) and lightly sclerotized ( Figs. 45–46 View Figs ); covered in dense, thick palmate hair-like spinulae; when produced forward rarely exceeding the anterior margin of the basal anchor; clavate in dorsal and lateral aspects, widest near the apical ¼ and typically bearing a short translucent tube at the apex ( Figs. 49–52 View Figs View Figs ). Base of epiproct with sparse palmate hair-like spinulae with between 4–10 seta arising from a common base ( Fig. 53 View Figs ). Paragenital plates short, rounded, or triangular ( Figs. 45 View Figs , 49–50 View Figs ). Basal cowl covered in dense lightly pigmented spinulae ( Figs. 45–46 View Figs ).

Female. Macropterous; forewing length 11.2–11.7 mm (n = 10). Body length, 9.2–10.2 mm (n = 10). General color and morphology similar to the male. Abdominal terga pale, without darkened anterior pigmentation. Subgenital plate broadly rounded ( Fig. 54–56 View Figs ), occasionally with a posteromedial emargination ( Fig. 56 View Figs ); lightly sclerotized, with regularly spaced setae, extending ½–⅘ over sternum 9; posterolateral margins convex; basolateral margins convergent posteriorly; basolateral crease typically curved, concave posteriorly, extending ~ ¼ length anteriorly into sternum 8 ( Figs. 54–56 View Figs ).

Ovum. Shape typical of genus ( Figs. 57–60 View Figs ). Length 434–435 μm; width 324–355 μm (n =3).

Larva. ( Fig. 61 View Fig ). Body length 8.3–10.8 mm, (n = 3). Head ( Fig. 62 View Figs ), lacinia ( Fig. 63 View Figs ), mandibles ( Fig. 64 View Figs ), and pronotum ( Fig. 62 View Figs ) typical of genus. Mature male larva with a short ovoid process on abdominal tergum 10 outlining the developing epiproct ( Fig. 65 View Figs ). Basal cercal segments with whorls of both short and long setae ( Fig. 66 View Fig ).

Diagnosis. Males of R. daniellae are morphologically similar R. kirchneri , both of which lack a medial dorsal sclerite. However, R. daniellae can be distinguished by details of the epiproct and terminalia. Males of R. daniellae possess an epiproct that is clavate in dorsal and lateral aspects, which is widest towards the apical ¼ and bears a short translucent tube at the apex. Whereas the epiproct of R. kirchneri is dorsoventrally flattened, widest medially or near the basal ¼ and lacks a translucent tube at the apex. Additionally, the new species lacks sensilla basiconica on the 9 th tergum and has 4 or fewer sensilla basiconica on each hemitergal lobe. Remenus kirchneri occasionally lacks sensilla basiconica on the 9 th tergum, but consistently has 12–20 on each hemitergal lobe.

Females of R. daniellae are most similar to R. kirchneri . Separation of these species may require associated males. Generally, the subgenital plate of R. kirchneri is parallel sided basally, whereas in R. daniellae , the subgenital plate is typically convergent. Based on presently available records, the ranges of these two species do not overlap. Remenus daniellae occurs west of the French Broad River, whereas R. kirchneri inhabits the region to the east ( Fig. 115 View Fig ). As such, morphology paired with geographic location should help inform identification of these two similar species.

Mature larvae of R. daniellae can be separated from R. kirchneri and R. duffieldi by the presence of long setae on the basal cercal segments. However, this character is shared by R. bilobatus which is sympatric in some locations.

Biological notes. Occasionally, the epiproct of R. daniellae is moderately to highly reduced, or appears flaccid and deflated, possibly due to insufficient hemolymphatic pressure ( Fig. 67 View Fig ), an apparent aberrancy not observed in any other species of Remenus . Kondratieff and Nelson (1995) reported R. bilobatus from Haywood County, North Carolina based on two females collected in 1985 from Mt. Sterling Creek in GRSM. This location is 1.1 km from the type locality of R. daniellae . These specimens have been re-examined and have been determined as R. daniellae based on the subgenital plate morphology, habitat similarity and proximity to the paratype locality at Ball Branch.

No life history or biological studies have been conducted on this species. Remenus daniellae is known only from 12 locations in GRSM in North Carolina and Tennessee. This species has been documented from 1 st –3 rd order streams with drainage areas ranging from 0.47–11.07 km 2. The average elevation of occurrence localities is 875.1 m (SD ± 285.7 m). Based on the material examined, emergence occurs from mid-May to mid-July. Existing records are limited, but this species probably inhabits many other streams within GRSM, which possesses more than 3400 km of high quality stream habitats. The type locality ( Fig. 68 View Fig ) of this new species is located in what was the heart of the Chimney Tops 2 fire that burned more than 46 km 2 in December 2016. The effects of this event on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community are unknown; however, stonefly species richness at the type locality six months later was relatively high. Other stoneflies collected with the holotype included Alloperla nanina Banks, 1911 , A. usa Ricker, 1952 , Amphinemura wui (Claassen, 1936) , Isoperla dewalti Verdone & Kondratieff, 2017 , Leuctra grandis Banks, 1906 , L. sibleyi Claassen, 1923 , Sweltsa lateralis (Banks, 1911) , S. mediana (Banks, 1911) , S. urticae ( Ricker, 1952) , Tallaperla anna (Needham & Smith, 1916) , and T. laurie ( Ricker, 1952) .


Great Smoky Mountains National Park


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Illinois Natural History Survey


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics