Tetramorium chefketi Forel

Csösz S., Radchenko, A. & Schulz, A., 2007, Taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic Tetramorium chefketi species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1405, pp. 1-38: 18-22

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21169

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/672C4BEB-8337-D5B4-06A0-29E7FF904566

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scientific name

Tetramorium chefketi Forel
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4. Tetramorium chefketi Forel  HNS  , 1911 (figs 32-38)

Tetramorium caespitum var. chefketi Forel  HNS  , 1911: 332 ([[worker]]); TYPE MATERIAL: LECTOTYPE [[worker]] and PARALECTOTYPE [[workers]] designated below, for the locality details see lectotype designation (3[[workers]] / MHNG); raised to species rank: Agosti & Collingwood 1987a: 56; Senior synonymy fixed as the first reviser act hereby. (ICZN 1999. Art. 24.2.2.).

Tetramorium caespitum var sarkissiani Forel  HNS  , 1911: 332. ([[worker]]); TYPE MATERIAL: LECTOTYPE [[worker]] and PARALECTOTYPE [[workers]] designated below, for the locality details see lectotype designation (3[[workers]] / MHNG); junior synonymy fixed as the first reviser act hereby. (ICZN 1999. Art. 24.2.2.). New synonymy

Tetramorium caespitum st turcomanica Santschi  HNS  1921a: 111 [mispelled as Tetramorium caespitum st. turcomana  HNS  : Emery (Sic!)]; first available use of Tetramorium caespitum caespitum var turcomanica Emery  HNS  , 1909: 702 ([[worker]], [[queen]]); TYPE MATERIAL: SYNTYPES “ Dschilarik ” [now TURKMENISTAN] (1[[worker]], 1[[queen]], / MSNG);  raised to species rank: Tarbinsky1976: 109; junior synonym of T. forte Forel  HNS  : Dlussky et al. 1990: 202; not Radchenko 1992b: 52. New synonymy

Tetramorium taurocaucasicum Arnoldi  HNS  , 1968: 1813 ([[worker]], [[queen]], [[male]]); TYPE MATERIAL: HOLOTYPE [[worker]], [ UKRAINE], “ Crimea, Gurzuf , 16.vi.1948, K. Arnoldi ” [original label is in Russian] ( ZMMU);  PARATYPES, 14 [[workers]], 4 [[queens]] and 3 [[males]] from the nest of the holotype,  and from Yalta (Crimea),  Tuapse ,  Novorossiysk (NW Caucasus, RUSSIA)  and GEORGIA ([[worker]], [[queen]], [[male]] ZMMU)  ; junior synonym of T. forte  HNS  : Dlussky et al. 1990: 202, Atanasov & Dlussky 1992: 152, Radchenko 1992b: 51. New synonymy

Redescription of worker (figs 35-38). Medium to large size, CS 869 [740, 972]. Whole body and appendages dark brown to black. Head nearly square, CL/CW 1.01 [0.97, 1.04], with very feebly convex sides, straight occipital margin and rounded occipital corners. Eyes small, EYE 0.171 [0.165, 0.184]. Frons moderately narrow, FR/CS 0.37 [0.35, 0.39], frontal lobes usually wider, FL/FR 1.03 [1.0, 1.09]. Scape long, SL/CS 0.82 [0.78, 0.87], without longitudinal dorsal carina basally, smooth and shiny. Promesonotal dorsum slightly convex, metanotal groove rather deep. Propodeal teeth long. Petiolar node cubic in profile, NOH/NOL 0.86 [0.76, 0.97], petiole relatively low and long, and PEH/NOL 1.52 [1.37, 1.69]. General appearance coarsely rugose, ground surface microreticulate. Head dorsum longitudinally rugose and microreticulate, occiput and sides rugoso-reticulate, ground surface microreticulate. Alitrunk dorsum, mesopleuron and dorsum of petiolar node rugoso-reticulate, ground surface coarsely microreticulate, dorsum of postpetiole longitudinally rugulose and microreticulate. Polygonal striation continuous on 1st gastral tergite (see fig. 8.). Ventral surface of head with several short and few longer straight setae, arising posterior to buccal cavity (see fig. 5.).

Redescription of gyne (figs 32-34). Large size, CS 1121 [1060, 1180]. Whole body and appendages black. Head wider than long, CL/CW 0.92 [0.89, 0.95] with sides and occipital margin straight, and widely rounded occipital corners. Frons moderately narrow, FR/CS 0.38 [0.36, 0.40], frontal lobes as wide as frons, or slightly wider FL/FR 1.01 [1.0, 1.03]. Scape long, SL/CS 0.77, without longitudinal dorsal carina basally, smooth and shiny. Head wider than scutum, MW/CS 0.94 [0.88, 1.01]. Propodeal teeth long. Dorsal crest of petiolar node straight in frontal view; in profile, node with flattened dorsal surface. Petiole and postpetiole relatively narrow, WAIST 0.90 [0.86, 0.96]. General appearance coarsely rugose, ground surface microreticulate, dull. Head dorsum, occiput and sides rugoso-reticulate, ground surface microreticulate. Frons longitudinally rugose and microreticulate. Scutum and scutellum longitudinally rugose, scutellum more or less smooth medially. Sides of alitrunk, rugoso-reticulate and microreticulate, ventral part of katepisternum always rugulose, or microreticulate. Dorsum of petiolar node and postpetiole coarsely reticulate and microreticulate. Polygonal striation disrupted on 1st gastral tergite, superficially microreticulate basally. Ventral surface of head with several short and few longer straight, or few C-shaped setae arising posterior to buccal cavity.

Redescription of male. Whole body and appendages black. Head with convex sides, rounded occipital margin and widely rounded occipital corners. Head as wide as scutum. Propodeal teeth short, propodeum angulate in profile. Dorsal crest of petiolar node in frontal view with sharp, slightly emarginate, transversal edge. Head, alitrunk and waist coarsely sculptured, ground surface microreticulate, dull. Head rugoso-reticulate, ground surface microreticulate. Scutum and scutellum longitudinally rugose. Sides of alitrunk longitudinally rugose. Dorsum of petiolar node and postpetiole coarsely reticulate. Polygonal striation disrupted on 1st gastral tergite.

Lectotype designation of Tetramorium chefketi Forel  HNS  , 1911.

In order to avoid any further nomenclatural problems it is necessary to designate a lectotype. We investigated three syntype workers mounted on one pin, labeled as: “ T. caespitum L. ” [/] “ Bou Youk Dere ” [/] “ Bosphore europeen (Forel)” [-] “ v. chefketi Type For  HNS  ” [-] “v. T. chefketi For  HNS  ” [-] Typus [-] Coll. Forel. 

These data match the original description (Forel 1911: 332.). The lectotype is positioned on the distal end of the upper card (this is mentioned on the reverse side of lectotype label). The lectotype is in good condition, except that the left funiculus (excluding the first segment), the left foreleg and the tarsus of the right hind leg are missing.

Morphometric data of the lectotype of T. chefketi Forel  HNS  , 1911:

CL: 990; CW: 990; FR: 370; FL: 385; SL: 810; ML: 1150; MW: 660; PEW: 360; PEH: 365; NOH: 220; NOL: 230; PEL: 225; PPW: 415; PPL: 230; PPH: 355; SPL: 135; SPSP: 230.

Lectotype designation of Tetramorium caespitum var. sarkissiani Forel  HNS  , 1911

In order to avoid further nomenclatural problems it is necessary to designate a lectotype. We investigated three type workers mounted on one pin, labeled as: “ T. caespitum L.” [/] “v. sarkissiani  HNS  ” [/] “type” [/] “[[worker]] Ismid Asia mineure ” [/] “(Forel)” [-] “v. T. sarkissiani For  HNS  ” [-] Typus [-] coll. Forel. 

These data match the original description (Forel 1911: 332.). The lectotype is positioned on the distal end of the upper card (this is mentioned on the reverse side of lectotype label). The lectotype is in good condition.

Morphometric data of the lectotype of T. caespitum var sarkissiani Forel  HNS  , 1911:

CL: 760; CW: 755; FR: 275; FL: 290; SL: 615; ML: 875; MW: 475; PEW: 225; PEH: 260; NOH: 150; NOL: 180; PEL: 200; PPW: 260; PPL: 195; PPH: 240; SPL: 85; SPSP: 160.

Material examined (67 nest series including 308 workers, 37 gynes and 22 males). BULGARIA - Blagiograd (1[[worker]] / MIZ)  ; Burgas (1 [[queen]] / MIZ)  ; Kocerinovo (1[[worker]] / MIZ)  ; GEORGIA - nr. 341, Kvarely (Kvareli) (1 [[queen]], 2[[workers]] / MIZ)  ; GREECE - Olympgebirge, 3-5km W. Litohoro , Prov.: Pieriá, 500-700mH , 13.05.1996. nr.191. leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock (9[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Vlasti , 18.07.1979. leg. Holgersen (1[[worker]] / MSNM)  ; KAZAKHSTAN - Koksengir, 30 km W Kizyldjar, Karag. [Karaganda Prov.] (4[[workers]] / ZISP)  ; Pogodaevo, 60 km NW Uralska (1 [[queen]] / ZISP)  ; Zapadno-Kazahstanskaya obl. Okr. Serebrjakova , (1[[worker]] / ZISP)  ; KYRGYZSTAN - Frunze, Con Aryk 13.6.1982. 1000m , leg. J. Odehnal (2[[queens]],3[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; MACEDONIA - Tetovo, Zelino, prov. 30.05.1998. leg. Rozner (1[[queen]] / HNHM)  ; TURKEY - Aksaray- 50km NW Aksaray 10km NW Acipinar 1000mH, Artemisia Steppe, Strassenrand 02.06.1993. nr.981. leg. Schulz (10[[males]],6[[workers]],8[[queens]] / PCAS)  ; Ankara 20km SW. 04.08.1973. leg. Bacestrieri (1[[worker]] / MSNM)  ; Ankara Basbereket ca 30 km W Ankara 14.5.1998. leg. P. Bilek (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Ankara , 05.04.1947 leg. C.Kosswig (33[[workers]] / NHM)  ; Artvin ca 30 km S Artvin on the road Artvin-Tortum 25.5.1998. leg. P.Bilek (5[[workers]],4[[males]],4[[queens]] / PCAS)  ; Artvin, 10km NW Sarigl 50km SW Artvin 1300-1500mH 28.06.1993. nr.1166. leg. Schulz (1[[queen]] / PCAS)  ; Aydintepe vil. Guemueshane 1200mH , 01.07.1975. nr.11. leg. Osella (3[[workers]], 4[[queens]], 1[[male]] / MSNM)  ; Ayranci 20 km SW 1100mH , Prov. Mersin, 07.05.1997. nr.220. & nr.T685. leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock, M. Sanetra (12[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Calecit vil. Pukeva Sorgente , 01.07.1972. leg. Osella (1[[worker]] / MSNM)  ; Denizli-Kizikbeli Gecidi 20km SE Denizli 1250mH, Steppe 22.05.1993. nr.900. leg. Schulz (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Dinitzli 50km SW 1000mH, Strassenrand 19.08.1992. nr.798. leg. Schulz (3[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Giresun-Bulancak 15km W Giresun Strandgebiet 04.07.1989. leg. Schulz (2[[queens]],2[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Guemueshane , Bayburc , 05.06.1958 leg. E.S.Brown (1[[worker]] / NHM)  ; Istambul , 14.07.1968. leg. Poldi (3[[workers]] / MSNM)  ; Izmir-Zeytinlik, Boz Dag 10km NE Oedemis , 70km SEE Izmir, Kastanienstreuwiese 18.05.1993. nr.854. leg. Schulz (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Kars Karakurt 23.5.1998. leg. P. Bilek (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Kars Sarikamish 24.5.1998. leg. P. Bilek (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Kars-Dagpinar 25km SE Kars 1800mH, Steppe mit Vulkangesteinen 23.06.1993. nr.1122. leg. Schulz (3[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Kastamon Kastamonu env. 30.5.1998. leg. P. Bilek (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Kastamonu-Seydiler 30km S Inebolu, 50km N Kastamonu, 1200mH, Strassenrand 04.07.1993. nr.1213., nr.1214. & nr.1215. leg. Schulz (3[[workers]], 9[[queens]], 3[[males]] / PCAS)  ; Kayseri-Sultan Salz Suempfe 10km W Develi, 40km S Kayseri Artemisia Steppe 1000mH , 01.06.1993. nr.965. leg. Schulz (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Kirobasi 8 rkm S, 900mH , Prov. Mersin, 07.05.1997. nr.206. leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock, M. Sanetra (9[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Kizikadag, 70km W Antalya 1300-1500mH, Steppe 21.05.1993. nr.890. leg. Schulz (3[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Konya - 40km S Beysehir 15km W Seydisehir 1400mH, Laub-Tannenmischwald 90% 05.06.1993. nr.1092. leg. Schulz (3[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Konya-Belören 04.06.1993. nr.1007. & nr.1005. leg. Schulz (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Konya - Eregli Suempfe 15km NW Eregli 1000mH, Steppe und Ueberschwemmungsg 02.06.1993. nr.991. & nr.992. leg. Schulz (13[[workers]] / 1 [[queen]] PCAS)  ; Kuecuekgezbeli 6 km W, ca. 100 km SE Kayseri, 1700mH , Prov. Adana, 10.05.1997. nr.274. leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock, M. Sanetra (4[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Mersin - 30-40km NW Mersin zwischen Arstankoey und Yenikoey 1000-1500mH , 29.05.1993. nr.940. leg. Schulz (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Mersin - Arslankoy 45km N Mersin 2000mH, Tannenwald und Wiese 30.05.1993. nr.951. leg. Schulz (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Mersin-Gülek 31.05.1993. nr.954 leg. Schulz (3[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Osmeneli vil. Blekik , 13.07.1972. leg. Osella (5[[workers]] / MSNM)  ; Prov. Kayseri, 10 km E Bakirdagi, ca. 80 km SE Kayseri, 1500mH , 10.05.1997. nr.272. leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock, M. Sanetra (9[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Prov. Kayseri, 12 km W Develi, 1000mH , 10.05.1997. nr.270 leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock, M. Sanetra (9[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Prov. Kayseri, 2 rkm NE Incesu, 30 km SW Kayseri, 1100mH , 10.05.1997. nr.267. & nr.268. leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock, M. Sanetra (21[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Sarkisla 15 rkm S, ca. 80km SW Sivas, 1400mH , Prov. Sivas, 09.05.1997. nr.273. leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock, M. Sanetra (3[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Sertavul Gecidi, 1600mH , Prov. Mersin, 07.05.1997. nr.214. & nr.684. leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock, M. Sanetra (9[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Sinop - 5km S Kabali 30km S Sinop 500mH, Kiefernwald 50% Suedhang 03.07.1993. nr.1207. leg. Schulz (6[[workers]], 3[[males]] / PCAS)  ; Tavsanli , Prov. Kütahya 01.05.1982. leg. Heinze (9[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Yellibeli Gecidi 5km S. 27km N. Emenek , Prov. Konya, 1800mH , 05.05.1997. nr.171. & nr.T678. leg. A. Schulz, K. Vock, M. Sanetra (12[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; Yozgat Akdagmadeni 16.5.1998. leg. P. Bilek (6[[workers]] / PCAS)  ; RUSSIA - Lysaja Gora , okr. Anapy, Kub. Obl. [NW Caucasus] (3[[workers]] / ZISP)  ; UKRAINE -“ nr. 253 ” leg. Radchenko (3[[workers]] / NHM)  ; Aluschta (Crimea) 13- 15.v. 1900 leg. Kuznetzov (10[[workers]] / ZISP  ; 1[[worker]] / MIZ)  ; Kerch, Tavr. g. (Crimea) (1[[worker]] / ZISP)  ; Krim, Kara-Dah, E Kurortne, 100-500mH , 15.08.1995. leg. Sanetra (6[[workers]] / PCAS, 3[[workers]] / MHNG)  ; Semidvor ’e, Yaltinsky uezd , Krim (1[[worker]] / ZISP)  .

Morphometrics: (131 workers and 11 gynes measured).

Diagnosis. Workers of T. chefketi  HNS  can be separated from related species by the lack of psammophore, relatively small eyes, (EYE, Table 1.), long and smooth scape (SL/CS, Table 1.) without dorsal carina basally, coarse body sculpture and cubic petiolar node (NOH/NOL and PEH/NOL, Table 1.). Workers of T. chefketi  HNS  mostly resemble those of T. rhodium  HNS  and T. sanetrai  HNS  n. sp., but SL/CS (Table 1.) gives appropriate discrimination between them. Discriminant D(3a) function between workers of T. chefketi  HNS  vs. T. exile  HNS  n. sp. and T. chefketi  HNS  vs. T. anatolicum  HNS  n. sp. proves the-separation (see differential diagnosis of T. exile  HNS  n. sp.).

Gynes of T. chefketi  HNS  can be distinguished by lacking of psammophore, long and smooth scape (SL/CS, Table 2.), wide scutum (MW/CS, Table 2.), relatively narrow petiole and postpetiole (WAIST, Table 2.), and rugoso-reticulate katepisternum. Gynes of T. chefketi  HNS  mostly resemble those of T. sanetrai  HNS  n. sp., but SL/CS (Table 2.) gives appropriate discrimination between them. For further combination of morphometric characters see Table 1-2.

Distribution. SE Europe (Greece, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania), S Ukraine, south of the European part of Russia, NW Caucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, N Kazakhstan, SW Siberia, to the east - to Kyrgyzstan and Altai Mts.

Taxonomic notes. The nomenclatural uncertainty of T. forte  HNS  originally was caused by Forel (1904). He described this taxon based on workers from southern France, on workers and gynes from Crimea, and on gynes and males from Georgia; type localities originally are given as: “Cette variété se trouve dans le midi de l’Europe (Camargue, Nice, Drôme, Palavas prés Montpellier). Au Musée Zoolog. Ac. Imp. Sc, elle se trouve de Crimée (Alupka, 1 [[queen]], 2.vi.1889; mont Kastel, 1 [[queen]], 26.vi.1900; Alushta, 15 [[workers]], 13-15.v. 1900. N. Kuznecov!) et de Transcaucasie (les [[queens]] et [[male]] douteux): (Gouv. Kutais, Artwin, 1 [[queen]], 23.vi.1898; K. Derjugin!). ” (Forel 1904: 371.). From this we infer that Forel described workers and sexual forms from different nests.

One of the authors (AR) investigated Eastern workers and males from the original type series (Crimea and Caucasus) deposited at ZISP, and definitely concluded that gynes and males were T. caespitum (L.)  HNS  s. l., but workers were T. forte  HNS  . Arnoldi (1968) described a new species, T. taurocaucasicum  HNS  , based on all three castes from Crimea and Transcaucasus. He also noted that Forel’s syntype gynes of T. forte  HNS  from Crimea belong to T. caespitum  HNS  , however “... several workers [e.g. from Forel’s type series, AR] belong to my described species...’ (loc. cit, p. 1815, translation from Russian, AR). Finally, Arnoldi believed that the ìtrueî T. forte  HNS  was a S European species. Under the name ìtaurocaucasicumî this species was also included into the key to the identification of the ants of the European part of former USSR (Arnoldi & Dlussky, 1978). Later Atanassov & Dlussky (1992) considered taurocaucasicum  HNS  as junior synonym of T. forte  HNS  , that was confirmed by Radchenko (1992b), based on the investigation of the type material of both T. forte  HNS  (workers from Crimea), and T. taurocaucasicum  HNS  .

The fact that T. forte  HNS  was described from distant parts of Europe makes additional complication on its nomenclature. Thus, west and east European authors (Emery 1909, Santschi 1936, Bernard 1967, Collingwood 1978, Schulz 1996, Seifert 1996, etc. vs. Ruzsky 1905, Dlussky et al. 1990, Atanasov & Dlussky 1992, Radchenko 1992a, 1992b, Radchenko et al. 1998, Czechowski et al. 2002) determined from the south-western and the south-eastern Europe two assuredly different species under the name “Tetramorium forte”.

In order to solve the complexity on the taxonomy of T. forte  HNS  Güsten et al. (2006) designated the lectotype of T. forte  HNS  from the syntype series from Albaron, Camargue, France, which conforms to T. forte  HNS  as recognized by West European authors.

So, what is the species wrongly recognized by Eastern authors as T. forte  HNS  ? A direct comparison of the type specimens of T. chefketi  HNS  , T. caespitum var. sarkissiani  HNS  , T. turcomanicum  HNS  , “ T. forte  HNS  ” from Crimea and T. taurocaucasicum  HNS  does not show any morphological or morphometrical differences between these taxa. Tetramorium chefketi  HNS  and T. caespitum var. sarkissiani  HNS  are synonyms and were published on the same date in the same work (Forel 1911: 332.) the senior synonymy of Tetramorium chefketi Forel  HNS  , 1911 is now fixed as the first reviser act (ICZN 1999. Art. 24.2.2.) in this paper.

Radchenko (1992a) considered T. turcomanicum  HNS  as a good species, but material, referred by him to T. turcomanicum  HNS  , apparently belong to T. sulcinode  HNS  (see notes under T. sulcinode  HNS  ). Radchenko (1992a, 1992b), examined the syntype workers of T. moravicum Kratochvil  HNS  , 1944 (ZMMU), and synonymised it with "eastern T. forte  HNS  " (i.e. T. chefketi  HNS  acording current paper). However, further reinvestigations of types and non-type material of T. moravicum  HNS  show the heterospecifity of these species.

ZMMU

ZMMU

MIZ

MIZ

PCAS

PCAS

MSNM

Italy, Milano, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale

ZISP

Russia, St. Petersburg, Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute

HNHM

Hungary, Budapest, Hungarian Natural History Museum

NHM

United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]

MHNG

Switzerland, Geneva, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle