Virola macrocarpa A. C. Sm. Brittonia 2: 476. 1938.

Santamaria-Aguilar, Daniel & Lagomarsino, Laura P., 2022, New Species of Virola (Myristicaceae) from South America, PhytoKeys 197, pp. 81-148 : 81

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Virola macrocarpa A. C. Sm. Brittonia 2: 476. 1938.


Virola macrocarpa A. C. Sm. Brittonia 2: 476. 1938.


Colombia. Boyacá: [Municipality Muzo] [El Umbo] El Humbo , ca. 130 mi N of Bogotá, alt. ca. 1100 m, 15 Mar. 1933 [fr], A. E. Lawrence 675 (holotype: B, destroyed; lectotype, designated here: MO-2 sheets [accession 1068405, 1068404, barcodes MO-100018, MO-100024]; isolectotypes A [barcode 00039901; image!], F-2 sheets [barcodes F0360189F, F0360190F; image!], G-2 sheets [barcodes G00341083, G00341085; image!], K [barcode K000575178; image!], S [S-R-6995], US-2 sheets [barcodes US00098908, US00098909; image!]; photo of the B specimen at P [barcode 02026667; image!]) .


Endemic to Colombia ( Boyacá).


Virola macrocarpa was described by Smith based on a specimen collected by the Scottish immigrant Alexander E. Lawrance in the Andes of Boyacá, Colombia ( Smith and Wodehouse 1938). In the protologue, Smith mentions that the type is deposited in the herbarium of the Botanisches Museum, Berlin-Dahlem (B), and F, M, S, US; there are additional, duplicates at A, G, K, and MO. Because the material at B was destroyed during World War II, we designate the material deposited at Missouri Botanical Garden (MO) as lectotype for this name, according to Art. 9.11 of ICN ( Turland et al. 2018). This specimen is mounted on two sheets that are properly labelled as being parts of the same specimen (i.e., "Sheet 1 of 2," "Sheet 2 of 2) according to ICN Art. 8.3 ( Turland et al. 2018). One of these sheets shows the adaxial side of leaves and the infrutescence axes (MO-1068404; sheet 1 of 2), while the other (MO-1068405; sheet 2 of 2) includes fragments of both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces and a single dehiscent fruit that is attached, with six additional fruits inside the packet. This second sheet is annotated in Smith’s handwriting. These specimens were distributed under the name of V. sebifera .

The name Virola macrocarpa was applied to collections from Costa Rica and Panama that now correspond to V. allenii , V. amistadensis , and V. otobifolia , as well some collections from Colombia and Ecuador that now correspond to V. alvaroperezii , V. calimensis , and V. cogolloi .

It is important to mention that, following our species concept, this name has been widely used to identify specimens, and is thus frequent in the literature and specimen databases. As circumscribed here, V. macrocarpa is known only from the type collection and is restricted to Colombia. We believe that the identity of following and others specimens identified as V. macrocarpa should be evaluated when more collections are available, including: D. Cárdenas et al. 2772 (fr.; COL, MO); A. Gentry & E. Rentería 24055 (fr.; COL, MO), S. E. Hoyos-Gómez & A. Upegui 130 (fr.; COL).