Hypacostemmini Linnavuori & Al-Ne’amy, 1983, Linnavuori & Al-Ne'amy, 1983

Zahniser, James N. & Dietrich, Chris H., 2013, A review of the tribes of Deltocephalinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 45, pp. 1-211: 97-100

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Hypacostemmini Linnavuori & Al-Ne’amy, 1983


Hypacostemmini Linnavuori & Al-Ne’amy, 1983 

Fig. 29 View Fig

Type genus: Hypacostemma Linnavuori, 1961   .

Large, greenish leafhoppers.


Hypacostemmini are large, greenish leafhoppers. They can be identified by their large size (7-10 mm), highly reticulated apical venation of the forewing, appendix reduced in size, tectiform configuration of the forewings, and style apex foot-like, sharply angled medially with apex projecting laterally and darkly sclerotized.


HEAD. Head subequal to or wider than pronotum. Discal portion of crown glabrous with radial or longitudinal striae. Anterior margin of head shagreen. Frontoclypeus not tumid; texture shagreen. Clypellus parallel-sided or widening apically; apex following or slightly surpassing normal curve of gena. Lorum subequal to or wider than clypellus near base. Antennal bases near middle or posteroventral (lower) corners of eyes. Antennae short, less than 1.5 x width of head or long, 1.5 x width of head or longer. Gena obtusely incised laterally; with fine erect seta beside laterofrontal suture. Antennal ledge weakly developed (carinate or weakly carinate). Ocelli present; close to eyes; on anterior margin of head.

THORAX. Pronotum lateral margin carinate; lateral margin shorter than basal width of eye.

WINGS. Forewing macropterous; appendix restricted to anal margin, reduced in size; with 3 anteapical cells; veins not raised; without reflexed costal veins; A1-A2 crossvein absent or present; apical venation highly reticulate.

LEGS. Profemur with AM 1 seta only; intercalary row with one row of five or more fine setae; row AV with short, stout setae. Protibia dorsal surface rounded, convex. Metafemur apex macrosetae 2+2+1. Metatarsomere I not expanded apically; plantar setae simple, tapered.

MALE GENITALIA. Valve articulated with pygofer; lateral margin short, articulating with pygofer at a point. Pygofer basolateral membranous cleft present; macrosetae well differentiated into several rows. Subgenital plates free from each other; articulated with valve; macrosetae uniseriate laterally. Style broadly bilobed basally; median anterior lobe pronounced; apex foot-like, sharply angled medially with apex projecting laterally, darkly sclerotized. Basal processes of the aedeagus/connective absent or reduced. Aedeagus with single shaft and gonopore. Connective anterior arms somewhat divergent, Y - or U -shaped; articulated with aedeagus.

FEMALE GENITALIA. Pygofer with numerous macrosetae. Ovipositor not protruding far beyond pygofer apex. First valvula convex, dorsal sculpturing pattern strigate, concatenate, or reticulate; sculpturing reaching dorsal margin; without distinctly delimited ventroapical sculpturing. Second valvula abruptly broadened medially or subapically; with dorsal median tooth; teeth on apical 1/3 or more; teeth small, regularly or irregularly shaped.

Geography and ecology

Distribution: Afrotropical ( South Africa). Specimens have been collected at lights and swept from trees and bushes. Recorded host plant families include Urticaceae   , Sapindaceae   , and Anacardiaceae ( Theron, 1987)   .


Hypacostemmini contains the type genus and 5species.Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Hypacostemma   is related to a group of South African genera including Bonaspeiini and some undescribed genera sampled in the analyses here ( Cameroon 142 and Ghana 114). This group is in turn related to Selenocephalini   .

More detailed phylogenetic analyses of these genera, including more representatives of other genera in the diverse Bonaspeiini, are needed.

Selected references

Linnavuori & Al-Ne’amy (1983), Theron (1987).

Included genera

Hypacostemma Linnavuori, 1961  


Australian Museum