Deltocephalinae Dallas, 1870

Zahniser, James N. & Dietrich, Chris H., 2013, A review of the tribes of Deltocephalinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 45, pp. 1-211: 19-29

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2013.45

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:41B10E4D-7DAB-40CA-A8FE-4ECA078E04A3

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3844599

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6903BC00-A35C-FFFA-AC6D-E7FC2E28FEB5

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scientific name

Deltocephalinae Dallas, 1870
status

 

Deltocephalinae Dallas, 1870  

Note

Because of the size and morphological diversity of this subfamily, nearly all of the characters listed below, which are the most common states in Deltocephalinae   , occur in different states in some members of the subfamily.

Diagnosis

Small to large, usually wedge-shaped leafhoppers. Head with ocelli on the anterior margin close to eyes; frontoclypeus not inflated, without carinae; lateral frontal sutures extending to ocelli; antennal ledges reduced or absent; gena with a fine erect seta laterad of lateral frontal suture; gena large, mostly concealing proepisternum. Forewing macropterous to brachypterous; if macropterous, with apices overlapping at rest; with 3 anteapical cells; often with 1 or more crossveins between A1 and claval suture; inner apical cell tapered distally, not extended to wing apex. Profemur AM 1 seta distinct; row AV with short stout setae extending from base to 1/2 to 2/3 length of femur; intercalary row with numerous thin setae arranged in one row. Mesotrochanter with apical posteroventral stout seta. Metafemur macrosetal formula usually 2+2+1 with penultimate pair close-set. Metatibia usually anteriorly-posteriorly compressed, ventral side with median ridge. Male pygofer with basolateral oblique membranous cleft. Valve produced posteriorly, lateral margins short, articulated with pygofer laterally. Subgenital plates articulated with each other and with valve; triangular, more or less depressed or flattened; with dorsal slot or fold articulating with style. Connective Y -shaped or ‘linear’ (with anterior arms closely appressed), rarely T -shaped (with arms widely divergent); without anteromedial lobe or process. Style broadly bilobed basally; apophysis not elongate. First valvula convex to relatively straight; dorsal sculpturing pattern reaching or not reaching dorsal margin; sculpturing pattern strigate, concatenate, reticulate, imbricate, maculose, or granulose. Second valvula with basal fused section as long as or longer than distal paired blades; with or without median dorsal tooth; usually with small to large, regularly or irregularly shaped dorsoapical teeth on apical 1/3 or more; teeth sometimes restricted to apical 1/4, or absent.

Included Tribes and Subtribes:

Acinopterini Oman, 1943

Acostemmini Evans, 1972

Arrugadini Linnavuori, 1965

Athysanini Van Duzee, 1892  

Bahitini Zahniser & Dietrich, 2013

Bonaspeiini Zahniser & Dietrich, 2013

Chiasmini   Distant, 1908

Cicadulini Van Duzee, 1892  

Cochlorhinini Oman, 1943

Deltocephalini Dallas, 1870  

Dorycephalini Oman, 1943

Drabescini Ishihara, 1953

Drabescina Ishihara, 1953

Paraboloponina Ishihara, 1953

Drakensbergenini Linnavuori, 1979

Eupelicini Sahlberg, 1871

Eupelicina Sahlberg, 1871

Paradorydiina Evans, 1936

Faltalini Zahniser & Dietrich, 2010

Fieberiellini Wagner, 1951  

Goniagnathini Wagner, 1951  

Hecalini   Distant, 1908

Glossocratina Dmitriev, 2002

Hecalina   Distant, 1908

Hypacostemmini Linnavuori & Al-Ne’amy, 1983

Koebeliini Baker, 1897

Grypotina Haupt, 1929

Koebeliina Baker, 1897

Limotettigini Baker, 1915

Luheriini   Linnavuori, 1959

Macrostelini Kirkaldy, 1906  

Magnentiini Linnavuori, 1978

Mukariini Distant, 1908

Occinirvanini Evans, 1966

Opsiini Emeljanov, 1962  

Achaeticina Emeljanov, 1962

Circuliferina Emeljanov, 1962

Eremophlepsiina Dmitriev, 2006

Opsiina Emeljanov, 1962

Paralimnini Distant, 1908  

Aglenina Dmitriev, 2004

Paralimnina Distant, 1908  

Pendarini Dmitriev, 2009

Penthimiini Kirschbaum, 1868

Phlepsiini Zahniser & Dietrich, 2013

Scaphoideini Oman, 1943

Scaphytopiini Oman, 1943  

Selenocephalini   Fieber, 1872

Adamina Linnavuori & Al-Ne’amy, 1983

Dwightlina McKamey, 2003

Ianeirina Linnavuori, 1978

Selenocephalina Fieber, 1872

Stegelytrini Baker, 1915  

Stenometopiini Baker, 1923

Tetartostylini Wagner, 1951  

Vartini   Zahniser & Dietrich, 2013

Key to Tribes

1. Crown sharply produced anteriorly ( Fig. 48A View Fig ); head narrower than pronotum; gena not incised laterally below eye ( Fig. 48C View Fig ), visible behind eye in dorsal view ( Fig. 48A View Fig ); frontoclypeus elongate ( Fig. 48C View Fig ); forewing with numerous reflexed costal veins ( Fig. 48B View Fig ); connective a transverse bar with two lateral arms directed obliquely laterad, stem absent ( Fig. 48G View Fig ); usually with pair of long processes articulated with connective( Fig.48G,J View Fig ); Nearctic,Neotropical ...................... Scaphytopiini  

– Without the above combination of characters; crown variable; head width variable; gena incised laterally below eye (exceptions: some Acostemmini, Opsiini   , Stegelytrini   , Scaphoideini, and Vartini); forewing with or without reflexed costal veins; connective not as above; usually without long processes articulated with connective (exceptions: Adamina, some Scaphoideini).................2

2. Connective T -shaped, bar-shaped, or platelike or, if Y-shaped, with arms forming broadly obtuse angle (e.g., Figs 8G View Fig , 25G View Fig , 33G View Fig , 53G View Fig ); style more or less linear, not broadly bilobed at base (e.g., Figs 8G View Fig , 25G View Fig , 33G View Fig , 53G View Fig )..................................................................................................................3

– Connective with anterior arms somewhat or not at all divergent, connective Y - or U -shaped (e.g., Figs 11G View Fig , 52G View Fig ) or ‘linear’ with anterior arms closely appressed (e.g., Fig. 17G View Fig ); style broadly bilobed at base (e.g., Fig. 11G View Fig ).........................................................................................................................7

3. Head much narrower than pronotum; profemur row AM with numerous preapical macrosetae; metatibia dorsal surface with supernumerary macrosetae between rows PD and AD, especially basally; pro- and mesotibia row PD and often row AD with numerous (> 6) macrosetae; forewing appendix often large, extending around apex;Palearctic, Oriental ..................................... Stegelytrini  

– Head slightly narrower to wider than pronotum; profemur row AM with not more than 2 preapical macrosetae; metatibia dorsal surface without supernumerary macrosetae; pro- and mesotibia with <6 macrosetae; forewing appendix reduced or absent...........................................4

4. Anterior margin of head usually with a single distinct transverse carina between ocelli; epistomal suture keeled ( Fig. 9C View Fig ) or evident from change in texture on frontoclypeus; subgenital plates completely or partially fused to each other and/or to valve (if completely articulated then pronotum produced dorsally, with longitudinal crest, Ikelibeloha   ); Madagascar..................Acostemmini (part)

– Anterior margin of head shagreen, glabrous, or with several irregular striae or carinae, without single distinct carina between ocelli; epistomal suture not keeled; subgenital plates not fused, articulated with valve..........................................................................................................................................5

5. Forewing acuminate apically ( Fig. 8B View Fig ); head narrower than pronotum ( Fig. 8A View Fig ) (exception: Cariancha   ); connective bar-shaped or plate-like, without well-defined stem ( Fig. 8G View Fig ); Nearctic, Neotropical ...................................................................................................................Acinopterini

– Forewing rounded apically; head as wide as or wider than pronotum; connective with welldeveloped anterior arms posterior stem...........................................................................................6

6. Connective with median, darkly sclerotized Y - or T -shaped ridge following stem and arms of connective ( Fig. 25G View Fig ); forewing central anteapical cell not strongly constricted medially; female pregenital sternite VIII not concealed and folded beneath sternite VII,movably articulated with sternite VII( Fig.25J View Fig );Palearctic, Nearctic ( Fieberiella florii   introduced in NorthAmerica).......... Fieberiellini  

– Connective evenly sclerotized throughout ( Fig. 33G View Fig ); forewing central anteapical cell constricted medially ( Fig. 33B View Fig ); female pregenital sternite VIII folded beneath and concealed by sternite VII, sternites not articulated with each other; Neotropical ............................................... Luheriini  

7. Subgenital plates fused to each other ( Figs 9F View Fig , 26F View Fig ); valve straplike, fused to pygofer laterally ( Fig. 9D, F View Fig ) OR not readily apparent (fused to plates); connective fused with aedeagus ( Figs 9H View Fig , 26H View Fig ).....................................................................................................................................................8

– Subgenital plates usually free; valve present, articulated with pygofer laterally and usually articulated with subgenital plates; connective articulated with or fused to aedeagus; rarely with plates fused and connective fused with aedeagus, and if so then body slender or relatively small in size, clypellus tapering apically ( Deltocephalini   : Miradeltaphus   , Yuanamia   )............................9

8. Anterior margin of head with a distinct transverse carina between ocelli; forewings tectiform, not overlapping at rest ( Fig. 9A View Fig ); forewing appendix reduced or absent (9B); valve strap-like, fused to pygofer laterally ( Fig. 9D, F View Fig ); Afrotropical (especially diverse in Madagascar), Oriental ( India) ..................................................................................................................Acostemmini (part)

– Anterior margin of head without transverse carina; forewing, if macropterous, with apices overlapping at rest ( Fig. 26A View Fig ) and appendix extending around wing apex ( Fig. 25A View Fig ); valve not readily apparent, fused to subgenital plates; Palearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental, and Australian .......................................................................................................................... Goniagnathini  

9. Head strongly produced, elongate or spatulate ( Figs 18A View Fig , 21A View Fig , 22A View Fig , 23A View Fig ); gena acutely incised laterally below eye ( Figs 18C View Fig , 21C View Fig , 22C View Fig , 23C View Fig ); profemur intercalary row absent or with few scattered setae; metafemur macrosetal formula 2+0 or 2+1; metatarsomere I shorter than metatarsomeres II and III combined, expanded apically; metatibia straight throughout length and distinctly bent distally in dorsal view...................................................10

– Without above combination of characters; head produced or not; gena obtusely incised (e.g., Fig. 11C View Fig ) or not incised laterally below eye; profemur intercalary row more or less welldelimited and with several to many long fine setae; metafemur macrosetal formula usually 2+2+1; metatarsomere I longer than metatarsomeres II and III combined, usually not expanded apically; metatibia slightly arcuate throughout its length in dorsal view...................................15

10. Aedeagus movably hinged between base and shaft ( Fig. 14H View Fig ); connective with anterior arms closely appressed ( Fig. 14G View Fig ); first valvula dorsal sculpturing maculose to granulose, submarginal; second valvula teeth obtusely triangular, serrate, uniformly shaped; Old World .... ............................................................................... Chiasmini   (part, Listrophora   , some Chiasmus   )

– Aedeagus without hinge; connective with anterior arms separate (Y -shaped); first valvula dorsal sculpturing pattern variable; second valvula teeth variable.............................................11

11. Ocelli on crown.............................................................................................................................12 – Ocelli on anterior margin of head..................................................................................................13

12. Macropterous; crown encroaching onto eyes ( Fig. 22 View Fig A-C); frontoclypeus with median longitudinal carina ( Fig. 22C View Fig ); Palearctic ........................................Eupelicini (part, Eupelicina)

– Brachypterous ( Fig. 21 View Fig A-B); crown not encroaching onto eyes; frontoclypeus and clypellus tumid, without longitudinal carina ( Fig. 21 View Fig B-C); Afrotropical ( South Africa, Lesotho) ............... ...........................................................................................................................Drakensbergenini

13. Macropterous; hindwing submarginal vein evanescent apically; valve fused to pygofer ( Fig. 23D View Fig ); male pygofer without basolateral cleft ( Fig. 23D View Fig ); style base connected or articulated only laterally with apical part ( Fig. 23J View Fig ); Old World ....................Eupelicini (part, Paradorydiina)

– Brachypterous or macropterous, hindwing submarginal vein complete; valve articulated to pygofer; male pygofer with basolateral cleft; style base broadly fused with apical part (e.g., Fig. 27G View Fig )........14

14. Aedeagus with terminal processes (e.g., Fig. 27 View Fig H-I); first and second valvulae humpbacked dorsally; first valvula with distinctly delimited ventroapical sculptured patch; second valvula without teeth; Nearctic .................................................. Hecalini   (part, Attenuipyga   , Neoslossonia   )

– Aedeagus without terminal processes ( Fig. 18 View Fig H-I); first and second valvulae not humpbacked dorsally; first valvula without distinctly delimited ventroapical sculptured patch; second valvula with distinct teeth; Palearctic .......................................................................................Dorycephalini

15. Anterior margin of pronotum exceeding eyes in dorsal view ( Fig. 35A View Fig ); integument black, shiny, punctate ( Fig. 35 View Fig A-B); Afrotropical, Oriental .................................................................Magnentiini

– Anterior margin of pronotum not exceeding eyes in dorsal view; integument rarely completely black and punctate....................................................................................................................................16

16. Antennal ledge strong, forming distinct ledge, sometimes seemingly continuous with anterior margin of head ( Figs 19C View Fig , 45C View Fig ); protibia dorsal side flat, margins carinate; forewing appendix large, extending around wing apex................................................................................................17

– Antennal ledge absent or represented by weak carina not forming ledge; protibia rounded dorsally; forewing appendix usually smaller, not extending around wing apex...........................................18

17. Large, robust leafhoppers, not squat or dorsally rounded or ventrally flattened ( Fig. 19 View Fig A-B); ocelli on anterior margin of head (19C); frontoclypeus texture longitudinally striate or rugose ( Fig. 19C View Fig ); Palearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental, Australian .....................Drabescini (part, Drabescina)

– Robust and squat, dorsally rounded, ventrally flattened leafhoppers ( Fig. 45 View Fig A-B); ocelli on crown distant from eyes ( Fig. 45B View Fig ); frontoclypeus texture glabrous or finely shagreen; Cosmopolitan .. ...............................................................................................................................Penthimiini

18. Crown and face strongly rugose ( Fig. 10 View Fig A-C); body greater than 7 mm in length; Neotropical ............. ............................................................................................................................................Arrugadini

– Crown and face shagreen, glabrous, or striate, not rugose, or if rugose then body less than 7 mm in length..............................................................................................................................................19

19. Aedeagus bifurcate, with 2 gonopores............................................................................................20

– Aedeagus with one shaft and gonopore............................................................................................21

20. Face ( Fig. 36B View Fig ) strongly depressed, nearly horizontal, sometimes concave posteroventrally in profile, sometimes inflated anterodorsally; anterior margin of head often with one or more carinae or sharp ridges; antennal bases near anterodorsal (upper) corners of eyes ( Fig. 36C View Fig ); stem of connective short; Afrotropical, Oriental ....................................................Mukariini (part)

– Face oblique, not strongly depressed, not concave in profile; anterior margin of head without carinae (foliaceous in Chlidochrus   ); antennal bases near middle or posteroventral (lower) corners of eyes; stem of connective longer; Cosmopolitan .................................................. Opsiini  

21. Head often somewhat produced ( Fig. 36A View Fig ); face flattened or frontoclypeus inflated medially or anteriorly, lying in horizontal plane in lateral view ( Fig. 36 View Fig B-C); antennal bases near anterodorsal (upper) corners of eyes ( Fig. 36C View Fig ); eyes large ( Fig. 36C View Fig ); antennae often long, longer than width of head; profemur row AV setae absent; outer anteapical cell often confluent with or nearly touching costal vein ( Fig. 36B View Fig ); Oriental, feeding on bamboo ..........................Mukariini (part)

– Without above combination of characters; head produced or not; face flattened or not, not distinctly inflated anteriorly, lying in horizontal plane in lateral view or not; size of eyes and antennae variable; profemur row AV setae present or absent; outer anteapical cell usually not touching or confluent with costal vein......................................................................................22

22. Connective Y -shaped and fused to aedeagus ( Fig. 16 View Fig G-H); male pygofer with one or more pairs of teeth, spines, or processes ( Fig. 16 View Fig D-E); male pygofer side excavated medially, scoop-like ( Fig. 16E View Fig ); male segment X long, sclerotized laterally, sometimes sclerotized ventrally and/or dorsally ( Fig. 16 View Fig D-E); second valvulae with a median dorsal tooth; Nearctic, Neotropical ( Cochlorhinus pluto   introduced in Chile) .........................Cochlorhinini

– Connective shape variable, but not Y -shaped and fused to aedeagus; male pygofer with or without processes; male pygofer side variable; male segment X variable; second valvulae with or without dorsal tooth on shaft......................................................................................................23

23. Metatarsomere I with platellae on plantar surface; ocelli distant from eyes, at least 4 x own diameter from adjacent eye (e.g., Fig. 30C View Fig ).............................................................................24

– Metatarsomere I without platellae on plantar surface; ocelli usually close to eyes (exceptions: some Athysanini   , Chiasmini, and Faltalini)..................................................................................26

24. Head not produced anteriorly ( Fig. 30A View Fig ); crown rounded to face ( Fig. 30B View Fig ) or anterior margin of head carinate, not foliaceous; Palearctic, Oriental, Nearctic ( Grypotes puncticollis   introduced to northeastern North America) ..............................Koebeliini, in part (Grypotina)

– Head strongly produced, foliaceous anteriorly ( Figs 31 View Fig A-C, 37A-C).....................................25

25. Ocelli on face ( Fig. 31C View Fig ); antennae not very long; forewing veins pustulate, appendix absent ( Fig. 31 View Fig A-B); Nearctic (western North America) ..........................................Koebeliini (part, Koebeliina)

– Ocelli on crown ( Fig. 36A View Fig 1-A View Fig 2 View Fig ); antennae very long; forewing veins not pustulate, appendix present; Australian (Western Australia) .......................................................................Occinirvanini

26. Color often greenish or bluish with red or orange longitudinal stripes ( Fig. 56 View Fig A-B); crown produced, pointed ( Fig. 56A View Fig ); gena not incised laterally below eye, visible behind the eye in dorsal view ( Fig. 56 View Fig B-C); frontoclypeus elongate ( Fig. 56C View Fig ); profemur intercalary row setae thick and extending to or basad of middle of profemur; forewing macropterous, truncate apically (56B); apodemes of male sternite II long, subrectangular, flared apically, directed posterolaterally ( Fig. 56J View Fig ); connective with anterior arms closely appressed ( Fig. 56G View Fig ); male segment X tube-like, protruding from pygofer, often well-sclerotized ( Fig. 56 View Fig D-E, K); Afrotropical, Oriental ....................... Vartini  

– Color variable; crown produced or not; gena usually incised laterally below eye, not visible behind eye in dorsal view (exception: some Scaphoideini); frontoclypeus variable, usually not very elongate; profemur intercalary row setae fine;if macropterous, forewing usually not truncate apically; apodemes of male sternite II not as above; connective variable; male segment X variable.......................27

27. Clypellus parallel-sided or tapering apically (e.g., Fig. 17C View Fig ); connective linear, triangular, or racquetlike in shape, with anterior arms closely appressed anteriorly (e.g., Figs 17G View Fig , 42G View Fig )......................28

– Clypellus variable; connective usually Y -shaped (e.g., 54G) or U -shaped (e.g., Fig. 52G View Fig ), with anterior arms separated (exception: some Athysanini   , Scaphoideini)...............................................32

28. Subgenital plates fused with valve and apex of plate with sharply pointed process ( Fig. 55F View Fig ); connective articulated posteriorly with a pair of long paraphyses ( Fig. 55G View Fig ); female sternite VII ovate, sometimes very long; Palearctic, Afrotropical .......................... Tetartostylini  

– Subgenital plates usually articulated with valve, apices without sharply pointed processes; paraphyses present or absent; female sternite VII not ovate, not very long................................29

29. Connective fused with aedeagus ( Fig. 17G View Fig )................................................................................30

– Connective articulated with aedeagus ( Fig. 42G View Fig )......................................................................31

30. Body elongate, somewhat depressed; anterior margin of head transversely striate or carinate; first valvula dorsal sculpturing pattern maculose to granulose and distinctly submarginal, with distinctly delimited ventroapical sculptured area; second valvula without dorsal teeth; ovipositor protruding well beyond pygofer apex; Nearctic ( Mexico), Neotropical ..............Faltalini (part, Tenucephalus   )

– Body not elongate or depressed; crown rounded to face, anterior margin shagreen; first valvula sculpturing pattern imbricate (scale-like) and reaching dorsal margin, without distinct apicoventral sculptured area; second valvula with irregular teeth; ovipositor not protruding far beyond pygofer; Cosmopolitan ............................................................................................... Deltocephalini  

31. Aedeagus movably hinged between base and shaft ( Fig. 14H View Fig ) (exceptions: Baileyus   , some Gurawa   , Paraphrodes   ); ovipositor protruding beyond pygofer apex (exceptions: Gurawa   , Baileyus   , Omaranus   , Paraphrodes   ); first valvula dorsal sculpturing pattern maculose to granulose, submarginal; second valvula teeth uniformly shaped, obtusely triangular, serrated; Cosmopolitan ........................................................................................................... Chiasmini   (part)

– Aedeagus entire, not movably hinged; ovipositor not protruding far beyond pygofer; first valvula dorsal sculpturing pattern usually imbricate, reaching dorsal margin; second valvula teeth not uniformly obtuse and triangular, serrated or not; Cosmopolitan ................................ Paralimnini  

32. Macropterous, forewing with 2 anteapical cells ( Fig. 34B View Fig ); usually small, slender leafhoppers ( Fig. 34 View Fig A-B); Cosmopolitan .......................................................................................... Macrostelini  

– Macropterous to brachypterous, if macropterous then usually with 3 anteapical cells; if with 2 anteapical cells, then larger, more robust leafhoppers...........................................33

33. Small to medium sized, slender, elongate leafhoppers ( Fig. 15A View Fig ); usually yellow, ochraceous, or pale green, often with paired black or brown markings or spots on head ( Fig. 15 View Fig A-C); subgenital plate often with row of macrosetae distant from lateral margin, with numerous long fine setae laterally ( Fig. 15F View Fig ); male pygofer incised dorsally nearly to base ( Fig. 15 View Fig D-E); male segment X elongate and sclerotized dorsally ( Fig. 15 View Fig D-E) (not elongate in Knullana DeLong   ); Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropical ....................................................................................... Cicadulini  

– Size and color variable; subgenital plate macrosetae variable, with or without long fine setae; male pygofer dorsal incision variable; male segment X usually not elongate and strongly sclerotized.......................................................................................................................................34

34. Macropterous to brachypterous, if macropterous then with appendix large, extending around forewing apex; aedeagus movably hinged between base and shaft ( Fig. 14H View Fig ) (exceptions: Leofa   , Picchusteles   ); ovipositor extending well beyond pygofer apex (exception: Paraphrodes   ); first valvula dorsal sculpturing pattern granulose to maculose, submarginal; second valvula teeth uniformly shaped, obtusely triangular and serrated; Cosmopolitan ................. Chiasmini   (part)

– Macropterous to brachypterous, if macropterous, with appendix not large or extending around forewing apex; aedeagus not movably hinged; ovipositor length variable; first valvula dorsal sculpturing variable; second valvula teeth not obtusely triangular and serrated................................35

35. Crown narrow, width between eyes less or equal to median width of eye ( Fig. 54A View Fig ); crown completely shagreen to base; pronotum lateral margin not carinate; male pygofer declivous, directed posteroventrally, with few macrosetae, basolateral cleft absent or not membranous ( Fig. 54D View Fig ); ovipositor extending far beyond pygofer; first valvula with distinctly delimited ventroapical sculptured area; second valvula without teeth; Cosmopolitan ..................Stenometopiini

– Crown not very narrow; discal portion of crown texture usually glabrous or striate (rarely shagreen in some Athysanini   [e.g., Anoterostemma   ], some Pendarini [ Chlorotettix   and Copididonus   ], and Limotettigini); pronotum lateral margin usually carinate; male pygofer shape variable, basolateral cleft present, membranous; ovipositor not protruding far beyond pygofer apex; first valvula without distinctly delimited ventroapical sculpturing; second valvula with teeth...................................36

36. Dorsoventrally depressed or flattened leafhoppers (e.g., Fig. 24B View Fig ); head strongly or sometimes weakly produced; crown broad, more or less parabolically shaped ( Figs 24A View Fig , 28A View Fig ); crown to face transition acutely angled; anterior margin sometimes foliaceous ( Figs 24B View Fig , 28B View Fig ); face lying slightly obliquely to horizontal plane ( Figs 24B View Fig , 28B View Fig ); lateral margin of pronotum long, nearly as long or longer than least width of eye ( Figs 24A View Fig , 28A View Fig ); first valvula dorsal sculpturing maculose to granulose, distinctly submarginal; second valvula without dorsal teeth (exception: Glossocratus   )...37

– Not particularly dorsoventrally depressed or flattened; head not strongly produced; crown broad or not, rarely parabolically shaped; crown to face transition less acute; face usually lying in a more upright plane; lateral margin of pronotum usually shorter than least width of eye; first valvula dorsal sculpturing variable; second valvulae with teeth.............................38

37. Ocelli close to eyes, closer to eyes than lateral frontal sutures ( Fig. 28C View Fig ); male apodemes of abdominal sternite I long, narrow, as long as apodemes of sternite II ( Fig. 28J View Fig ); male apodemes of abdominal sternite II large, spatulate ( Fig. 28J View Fig ); first and second valvulae humpbacked dorsally; second valvula concave ventrally; Cosmopolitan .................................. Hecalini   (part)

– Ocelli relatively distant from eyes, usually 3-4 x their diameter from ocellus or more (exception: some Faltala   , Bonamus   ), sometimes absent or obscure; male apodemes of abdominal sternite I short or undeveloped; male apodemes of abdominal sternite II short or undeveloped; first and second valvulae not strongly humpbacked dorsally; second valvula not concave ventrally; Nearctic, Neotropical .......................................Faltalini (part)

38. Body usually broad and robust ( Fig. 13 View Fig A-B); forewings brachypterous to submacropterous ( Fig. 13 View Fig A-B) (exception: Renosteria   ); hindwings when present narrowed anteriorly-posteriorly when outstretched or otherwise reduced in size ( Fig. 13 View Fig J-K) (exception: Renosteria   ); connective U - or sometimes Y - shaped with stem often very short or absent ( Fig. 13G View Fig ); male segment X broad and sclerotized; ovipositor usually distinctly protruding beyond pygofer apex ( Fig. 13B View Fig ); Afrotropical ( South Africa) ...........................................................Bonaspeiini

– Body shape variable; forewings usually macropterous; hindwings not narrowed anteriorlyposteriorly when outstretched; connective variable; male segment X variable; ovipositor usually not protruding far beyond pygofer apex.........................................................................................39

39. Anterior margin of head with 2 or more distinct carinae or with several distinct transverse striations (e.g., Fig. 50C View Fig ); antennal ledge with oblique carina (e.g., Fig. 49C View Fig ); medium to large-sized leafhoppers......................................................................................................................................40

– Anterior margin of head without carinae or distinct transverse striations (rarely with single transverse carina), texture shagreen or glabrous, crown rounded to face; antennal ledge absent or represented by weak carina; size variable...............................................................44

40. Antenna long, at least as long as half length of body; antennal pits near upper (anterodorsal) corners of eyes, large and encroaching onto frontoclypeus ( Fig. 20C View Fig ) (exception: Nirvanguina   ); profemur row AV setae reduced or absent, usually with fine setae; Afrotropical, Oriental, Australian ...................................................................................Drabescini (part, Paraboloponina)

– Antenna not very long; antennal pits near lower corners of eyes (exception: Selenocephalini   [Dwightlina]), not very large or encroaching onto frontoclypeus); profemur row AV with distinct stout setae.......................................................................................................................................41

41. Profemur row AM often with 1 or more extra macrosetae basad of AM 1; pygofer usually with macrosetae reduced in number or absent (e.g., Fig. 52D View Fig ) (exception: Adamina); connective stem usually very short or absent, connective U -shaped ( Fig. 52G View Fig ); male segment X usually broad and well-sclerotized dorsally; Afrotropical, Palearctic, Oriental .......................... Selenocephalini  

– Profemur row AM usually without extra macrosetae basad of AM 1; connective stem present, relatively long, connective Y -shaped; male segment X variable, usually not very broad or large.............42

42. Head distinctly narrower than pronotum ( Fig. 46A View Fig ); antennal ledges carinate ( Fig. 46C View Fig ); lorum long, relatively large ( Fig. 46C View Fig ); clypellus long, widening apically ( Fig. 46C View Fig ); pronotum lateral margin long, longer than half basal width of eye; forewing often with brown irrorate markings; profemur row AM sometimes with one or more setae basad of AM 1; nymph with pygofer short, with 6 rows of abdominal macrosetae ............................Phlepsiini (part)

– Head usually as wide as or wider than pronotum; antennal ledges variable; lorum not very large; clypellus usually not particularly long; pronotum lateral margin short, usually less than half basal width of eye; forewing coloration variable; profemur row AM only AM 1 seta; nymph variable...........................................................................................................................43

43. Medium to large sized, robust leafhoppers ( Fig. 12 View Fig A-B); often predominantly brown in color ( Fig. 12 View Fig A-B); crown usually short, broad ( Fig. 12A View Fig ); often with anterior margin of head distinctly upturned, raised, or with several transverse carinae ( Fig. 12 View Fig B-C); clypellus widening apically, parallelmargined, or tapering apically ( Fig. 12C View Fig ), sometimes distinctly tumid ( Fig. 12C View Fig ); forewing often with strongly pigmented reflexed costal veins ( Fig. 12B View Fig ); pygofer often with processes ( Fig. 12D View Fig ); aedeagus often with apical processes ( Fig. 12 View Fig H-I); Nearctic, Neotropical ..................Bahitini (part)

– Without the above combination of characters; Cosmopolitan ......................... Athysanini   (part)

44. Aedeagus with single, unpaired sclerotized apophysis (= ‘dorsal connective’) projecting dorsally from atrium, membranously connected to segment X ( Fig. 32 View Fig H-I); male pygofer dorsal margin thickened, declivous, and often ending in ventrally directed curved hook or spine ( Fig. 32D View Fig ); Palearctic, Oriental, Australian, Nearctic, Neotropical ............................................Limotettigini

– Without the above combination of characters..........................................................................45

45. Large, yellow to greenish species ( Fig. 29 View Fig A-B); forewing veins greenish ( Fig. 29 View Fig A-B); forewing venation highly reticulated apically ( Fig. 29B View Fig ); Afrotropical ( South Africa) ........Hypacostemmini

– Color variable; forewing venation rarely highly reticulate, but if so, reticulate portion not restricted to forewing apex............................................................................................................46

46. Ocelli on face below anterior margin of head ( Fig. 51C View Fig ), distant from eyes;Afrotropical ................... ............................................................................................. Selenocephalini   (part, Ianeirini: Ianeira   )

– Ocelli on anterior margin of head, close to eyes......................................................................47

47. Head distinctly narrower than pronotum ( Fig. 46A View Fig ); antennal ledge carinate ( Fig. 46C View Fig ); lorum long, relatively large ( Fig. 46C View Fig ); clypellus long, widening apically ( Fig. 46C View Fig ); pronotum lateral margin longer than half basal width of eye ( Fig. 46A View Fig ); forewing often with brown irrorate markings ( Fig. 46 View Fig A-B); profemur row AM sometimes with one or more setae basad of AM 1; nymph with pygofer short, with 6 rows of abdominal macrosetae ............................Phlepsiini (part)

– Head width variable; antennal ledge variable; lorum not very large; clypellus usually not particularly long; pronotum lateral margin usually less than half basal width of eye; forewing coloration variable; profemur row AM without one or more macrosetae basad of AM 1; nymph variable.......48

48. Medium to large sized, robust leafhoppers (12A-B); often predominantly brown in color (12A- B); crown usually short, broad (12A); often with anterior margin of head distinctly upturned, raised (12B-C); clypellus widening apically, parallel-margined, or tapering apically (12C), sometimes distinctly tumid (12C); forewing often with strongly pigmented reflexed costal veins (13B); pygofer often with processes (12D); aedeagus often with apical processes (12H- I); Nearctic, Neotropical ....................................................................................Bahitini (part)

– Size variable; color variable; anterior margin of head usually not upturned, raised; clypellus usually widening apically or parallel-sided, not tumid; forewing with or without reflexed costal veins; pygofer with or without processes; aedeagus with or without apical processes.....................49

49. (Note: the following characters are not present in all included genera, but some combination of most of these characters is present in all): Head narrower than pronotum, produced anteriorly ( Fig. 47A View Fig ); frontoclypeus long, narrow ( Fig. 47C View Fig ); antennae long, longer than width of head; body slender ( Fig. 47A View Fig ); head and wings often with brown, orange, ochraceous, or ivory markings ( Fig. 47 View Fig A-B); forewing with one or more darkly pigmented reflexed costal veins ( Fig. 47B View Fig ); profemur row AV setae absent or reduced (not stout); metatibia row PD macrosetae long, as long as or longer than 0.5x length of protibia; male or female pygofer with dense tufts of long fine or regular setae ( Fig. 47D View Fig ); subgenital plate apex membranous or long, digitate, somewhat membranous or weakly sclerotized; subgenital plates with long fine setae laterally ( Fig. 47F View Fig ); basal processes of aedeagus or connective often present, connected or articulated to base of aedeagus or apex of connective stem ( Fig. 47J, M View Fig ); Cosmopolitan ................Scaphoideini

– Without some combination of above characters.............................................................................50

50. Ground color yellowish or greenish OR forewing with numerous brown, tawny, or reddishbrown ramose or reticulate pigment lines, or connected dots forming such lines ( Fig. 44 View Fig A-B); head as wide as or wider than pronotum; male pygofer often with a spine or process arising from dorsal side; nymph crown-face transition carinate; face of nymph with longitudinal carina in upper part; nymph pygofer elongate; Nearctic, Neotropical .....................Pendarini

– Without the above combination of characters; Cosmopolitan ...................... Athysanini   (part)

AM

Australian Museum

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

PD

Dutch Plant Protection Service, Culture Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria