Penthimiini Kirschbaum, 1868

Zahniser, James N. & Dietrich, Chris H., 2013, A review of the tribes of Deltocephalinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 45, pp. 1-211: 142-145

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Penthimiini Kirschbaum, 1868


Penthimiini Kirschbaum, 1868 

Fig. 45 View Fig

Type genus: Penthimia Germar, 1821   .

= Thaumatoscopini Baker, 1923  .


Penthimiini are medium sized to large, squat, robust, often black or brown leafhoppers; often with ventral part of face and/or entire ventral side flattened and dorsal side convex. They can be identified by the ocelli on the crown and often distant from the eyes, strong antennal ledge, dorsally flattened and carinate protibia, and forewing with appendix large and extending around the wing apex.


HEAD. Head subequal to, wider than, or distinctly narrower pronotum. Discal portion of crown glabrous with radial or longitudinal striae. Anterior margin of head with numerous transverse striations or carinae, or foliaceous. Head and pronotum usually sloping anteriorly. Face short, broad. Frontoclypeus tumid or not; texture striate or glabrous. Clypellus widening apically; apex following or slightly surpassing normal curve of gena. Lorum subequal to or wider than clypellus near base. Antennal bases near upper or anterodorsal corners of eyes. Antennae short, less than 1.5 x width of head. Gena obtusely incised laterally; with fine erect seta beside laterofrontal suture. Antennal ledges strongly developed (with a distinct ledge); sometimes forming lateral part of anterior margin of head. Ocelli present; distant from eyes; on crown.

THORAX. Pronotum lateral margin carinate; lateral margin shorter or longer than basal width of eye.

WINGS. Forewing macropterous or submacropterous; sometimes coriaceous, setose, punctate, or tuberculate; appendix large and extending around wing apex or rarely restricted to anal margin; with 3 anteapical cells; veins not raised; without reflexed costal veins; A1-A2 crossvein absent or present; apical venation not highly reticulate.

LEGS. Profemur with AM 1 seta only or with AM 1 and with one or more additional proximal setae; intercalary row with one row of five or more fine setae; row AV usually with thin, hair-like setae or without setae, more rarely with short, stout setae or with relatively long macrosetae. Protibia dorsal surface flat, AD and PD margins sharply carinate or at ~90º (not rounded). Metafemur apex macrosetae 2+2+1. Metatarsomere I not expanded apically, plantar setae simple, tapered.

MALE GENITALIA. Valve articulated with pygofer; lateral margin short, articulating with pygofer at a point. Pygofer basolateral membranous cleft present; macrosetae well differentiated into several rows. Subgenital plates free from each other; articulated with valve; without macrosetae or macrosetae scattered, irregularly arranged. Style linear, median anterior lobe not pronounced or broadly bilobed basally, median anterior lobe pronounced. Basal processes of the aedeagus/connective absent or reduced or present, connected or articulated to connective or near base of aedeagus. Aedeagus with single shaft and gonopore. Connective anterior arms somewhat divergent, Y - or U -shaped; articulated with aedeagus.

FEMALE GENITALIA. Pygofer with numerous macrosetae. Ovipositor not protruding or rarely protruding (e.g., Penthimidia   ) far beyond pygofer apex. First valvula convex; dorsal sculpturing pattern strigate, concatenate, or reticulate; sculpturing reaching dorsal margin; without distinctly delimited ventroapical sculpturing. Second valvula abruptly broadened medially or subapically or broad, gradually tapered; with or without dorsal median tooth; teeth on apical 1/3 or more; teeth large, regularly shaped or small, regularly or irregularly shaped.

Geography and ecology

Distribution: cosmopolitan, poorly represented in North America. Penthimiini are collected on trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation.


Penthimiini contains46 genera and 203species.It is a relatively early diverging lineage of Deltocephalinae   but has the typical derived deltocephaline characters of the male genitalia (pygofer with basolateral membranous cleft, Y -shaped connective, and style broadly bilobed basally). The phylogenetic analyses included 4 exemplars of the tribe as circumscribed here ( Penthimia   , Penthimidia   , Penthimiola   , and Jafar   included in analyses; Citorus Stål, 1866   is removed from the tribe based on these analyses). Parsimony analyses resolved the former 3 exemplars as monophyletic and sister to Magnentius Singh-Pruthi, 1930   , while ML and Bayesian analyses resolved Penthimidia   and Penthimiola   together and Penthimia   in an uncertain position elsewhere in the tree. It is unclear why Penthimia   does not always group with other penthimiines in phylogenetic analyses, but based on the morphological evidence supporting Penthimiini as a taxon, we suspect that the phylogenetic placement of Penthimia   in the ML and Bayesian analyses is artifactual. Jafar   was also included for the first time and grouped with one or two undescribed African genera, somewhat distant from other Penthimiini but with no branch support. Because its phylogenetic position is uncertain, and because it possesses several characters diagnostic for the tribe (large and robust body, ocelli on crown, inflated frontoclypeus, strong antennal ledges, and dorsally flattened and bicarinate protibiae), it is retained in the tribe pending further study.

Citorus   , which was previously included in Penthimiini based on its body shape and large forewing appendix, was found with strong branch support to be more closely related to Selenocephalini   ( Dwightla   and Selenocephalus   ). Based on the phylogenetic results and on some morphological characters that differ from Penthimiini (anterior margin of the head with distinct sharp carinae, ocelli on anterior margin of head and close to eyes, antennal ledge not very strong or ledge-like) it is transferred to Selenocephalina here. The squat, robust body form and large appendix are similar to Penthimiini but these are apparently convergent characters in this case.

Selected references

Evans (1966, 1972), Linnavuori (1977).

Included genera

Alopenthimia Evans, 1972  

Amberbakia Distant, 1912  

Chanohirata Hayashi & Machida, 1996  

Chinaella Evans, 1935  

Ectopiocephalus Kirkaldy, 1906  

Eovulturnops Evans, 1947  

Eupenthimia Evans, 1972  

Eusallya Evans, 1972  

Foroa Linnavuori, 1977  

Gressittella Evans, 1972  

Haranga Distant, 1908  

Irenaella Linnavuori, 1977  

Jafar Kirkaldy, 1903  

Kronos Distant, 1917  

Ledroides Dammerman, 1910  

Macutella Evans, 1972  

Malichus Distant, 1918  

Megalopenthimia Evans, 1954  

Musosa Linnavuori, 1977  

Neodartellus Evans, 1955  

Neodartus Melichar, 1903  

Neopenthimia Evans, 1972  

Neovulturnus Evans, 1937  

Nielsoniella Linnavuori, 1977  

Nortoides Evans, 1972  

Nubelella Evans, 1972  

Nubelloides Evans, 1972  

Osella Evans, 1972  

Penthimia Germar, 1821  

Penthimidia Haglund, 1899  

Penthimiella Evans, 1972  

Penthimiola Linnavuori, 1959  

Penthimiopsis Evans, 1972  

Pentria Evans, 1972  

Piorella Evans, 1972  

Platyscopus Evans, 1941  

Reticuluma Cheng & Li, 2005  

Sidelloides Evans, 1972  

Tambila Distant, 1908  

Thaumatopoides Evans, 1947  

Thaumatoscopus Kirkaldy, 1906  

Tolasella Evans, 1972  

Tomaloides Evans, 1972  

Uzelina Melichar, 1903  

Vertigella Evans, 1972  

Vulturnus Kirkaldy, 1906  


Australian Museum


Dutch Plant Protection Service, Culture Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria






Penthimiini Kirschbaum, 1868

Zahniser, James N. & Dietrich, Chris H. 2013


Thaumatoscopini Baker, 1923 .