Pendarini Dmitriev, 2009

Zahniser, James N. & Dietrich, Chris H., 2013, A review of the tribes of Deltocephalinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 45, pp. 1-211: 139-142

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2013.45

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:41B10E4D-7DAB-40CA-A8FE-4ECA078E04A3

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3844674

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6903BC00-A3C4-FF6B-AC84-E7172F55FC50

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Pendarini Dmitriev, 2009
status

 

Pendarini Dmitriev, 2009 

Fig. 44 View Fig

Type genus: Pendarus Ball, 1927   .

Diagnosis

Pendarini are medium sized to large ochraceous, yellowish, greenish, or brownish leafhoppers, sometimes with brown irrorate markings or ramose pigment lines. As nymphs, they are distinguished from other Deltocephalinae   by the carinate crown-face transition, face with medial longitudinal carina in upper part, acrometope with anterior margin tracing anterior carina of head, abdomen with 4-6 longitudinal rows of very short macrosetae, and pygofer elongate ( Dmitriev, 2009). Adults often have male pygofer

with an acute apex and with one or more spines or teeth, and the aedeagus often with single or paired apical or preapical processes.

Description

HEAD. Head subequal to or wider than pronotum. Discal portion of crown glabrous with radial or longitudinal striae, or completely shagreen to base. Anterior margin of head shagreen or foliaceous. Frontoclypeus not tumid; texture shagreen. Clypellus parallel-sided or widening apically; apex following or slightly surpassing normal curve of gena. Lorum subequal to or wider than clypellus near base. Antennal bases near middle or posteroventral (lower) corners of eyes. Antennae short, less than 1.5 x width of head. Gena obtusely incised laterally; with fine erect seta beside laterofrontal suture. Antennal ledges absent or weakly developed (carinate or weakly carinate). Ocelli present; close to eyes; on anterior margin of head.

THORAX. Pronotum lateral margin carinate; lateral margin shorter than half basal width of eye.

WINGS. Forewing macropterous or submacropterous; appendix present and restricted to anal margin or rarely absent or reduced ( Dorydiella   ); with 3 anteapical cells; veins not raised; without reflexed costal veins; A1-A2 crossvein absent or present; apical venation not highly reticulate.

LEGS. Profemur with AM 1 seta only; intercalary row with one row of five or more fine setae; row AV with short, stout setae. Protibia dorsal surface rounded, convex. Metafemur apex macrosetae 2+2+1. Metatarsomere I not expanded apically; plantar setae simple, tapered.

MALE GENITALIA. Valve articulated with pygofer; lateral margin short, articulating with pygofer at a point. Pygofer basolateral membranous cleft present; macrosetae well differentiated into several rows; sometimes elongate or extended posteriorly; often with one or more spines or processes arising dorsally or ventrally. Subgenital plates free from each other; articulated with valve; macrosetae uniseriate laterally. Style broadly bilobed basally; median anterior lobe pronounced. Aedeagus with single shaft and gonopore. Connective anterior arms somewhat divergent, Y - or U -shaped; stem shorter than arms; articulated with aedeagus.

FEMALE GENITALIA. Pygofer with numerous macrosetae. Ovipositor not protruding far beyond pygofer apex. First valvula convex; dorsal sculpturing pattern strigate, granulose, or maculose; sculpturing reaching dorsal margin; without distinctly delimited ventroapical sculpturing. Second valvula broad, gradually tapered; with or without dorsal median tooth; teeth on apical 1/3 or more; teeth small, regularly or irregularly shaped.

Geography and ecology

Distribution: Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Species of this tribe feed on a variety of plants including grasses, herbs, and woody hosts, including conifers. Several species apparently alternate between woody oviposition hosts and herbaceous food plants. Some Pendarus   and Paraphlepsius   species specialize on single species of perennial grasses. Chlorotettix   species feed on grasses and sedges.

Remarks

Pendarini was recently described by Dmitriev (2009) based on nymphal characters and contains 8 genera and 249 species. Five genera ( Bandaromimus   , Tropicanus   , Ileopeltus   , Chlorotettix   and Copididonus   ) are added to the tribe here based on the results of our phylogenetic analyses and based on observations of nymphs of Chlorotettix   which share the elongate pygofer of other Pendarini. A clade including representatives of Paraphlepsius Baker, 1897   , Dorydiella Baker, 1897   , Bandaromimus Linnavuori, 1959   , Tropicanus DeLong, 1944   , Chlorotettix   , and Copididonus   was consistently resolved in all analyses and received moderate branch support in Bayesian analyses. Pendarus   was not included in the analyses but is undoubtedly related to this group. Ileopeltus   is included based on the comments of Cwikla (1988b) suggesting the genus is closely related to Chlorotettix   . Further study is needed to determine if other genera should be placed in this tribe and to discover additional morphological characters to aid in its diagnosis. The tribe is an exclusively New World group as currently understood.

Selected references

DeLong (1945), Hamilton (1975a), Cwikla (1988a, b), Dmitriev (2009).

Included genera

Bandaromimus Linnavuori, 1959   placement nov. (transferred from Athysanini   )

Chlorotettix Van Duzee, 1892   placement nov. (transferred from Athysanini   )

Copididonus Linnavuori, 1954   placement nov. (transferred from Athysanini   )

Dorydiella Baker, 1897  

Ileopeltus Cwikla, 1988   placement nov. (previously unplaced in Deltocephalinae   )

Paraphlepsius Baker, 1897  

Pendarus Ball, 1927  

Tropicanus DeLong, 1944   placement nov. (transferred from Athysanini   )

AM

Australian Museum