Tradescantia umbraculifera Hand.-Mazz., Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 79: 204. 1908.

Pellegrini, Marco O. O., 2018, Wandering throughout South America: Taxonomic revision of Tradescantiasubg. Austrotradescantia (D. R. Hunt) M. Pell. (Commelinaceae), PhytoKeys 104, pp. 1-97: 51-57

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.104.28484

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scientific name

Tradescantia umbraculifera Hand.-Mazz., Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 79: 204. 1908.
status

 

13. Tradescantia umbraculifera Hand.-Mazz., Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 79: 204. 1908.  Figs 32, 33

Tradescantia fluminensis var. pubescens  C.B.Clarke in De Candolle & De Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 3: 295. 1881. Lectotype (designated here). BRAZIL. Provincia de St. Paul and Rio, southern Brazil, fl., 1861-1862, J. Weir s.n. (K barcode K000363269!). Syn. nov.

Type material.

Lectotype (designated by Hassemer et al. 2017). BRAZIL. São Paulo: Campinas, fl., Jan 1900, J. Campos Novaes 1218 (WU barcode WU0061328!; isolectotype: US barcode US00046114!).

Description.

Herbs ca. 30-80 cm tall, with an indefinite base, terrestrial, rupicolous or epiphytes. Stems prostrate with ascending apex, succulent to slightly fibrous, little to densely branched; internodes 2.8-10 cm long at base, distally shorter, light to medium to dark green or reddish-purple to vinaceous, glabrous to sparsely pilose, with a leaf-opposed longitudinal line of short, uniseriate, hyaline to light brown hairs in the terminal portion of the stems. Leaves distichously-alternate, sessile; ptyxis involute; sheaths 0.5-2.3 cm long, light to medium to dark green or reddish-purple to vinaceous, glabrous to pilose to sparsely hispid, margin densely setose, hairs hyaline to light brown; blades 3.8-19.1 × 1-3.5 cm, linear lanceolate to lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, flat, chartaceous, sometimes membranous, glabrous on both sides or adaxially glabrous and abaxially pilose, hairs hyaline to light brown, adaxially medium to dark green, abaxially light to medium green, rarely vinaceous, turning dark brown to black when dry, base truncate to amplexicaulous or round, margins green, ciliolate to ciliolate, flat, apex acuminate to caudate; midvein conspicuous, adaxially impressed, secondary veins conspicuous, adaxially slightly impressed to impressed, abaxially prominent, becoming more evident on both sides when dry. Synflorescences terminal or axillar in the distal portion of the stems, composed of a solitary main florescence, 1-4 per leaf axis. Inflorescences (main florescences) consisting of a pedunculate double-cincinni fused back to back; peduncles 0.5-4.3 cm long, light to medium to dark green, glabrous to pilose, with a dense longitudinal line of short, uniseriate, hyaline to light brown hairs; cincinni bracts 0.5 –1.5(–2.3– 6.2) × 0.2 –1(– 1.4) cm, similar to each other, cordate to broadly cordate, rarely lanceolate, spathaceous, rarely leaf-like, glabrous or pilose to sparsely hispid, medium to dark green, abaxially light to medium green, base cordate to obtuse, saccate, margins ciliolate to ciliolate, flat, apex acute, rarely acuminate; double cincinni (4 –)8– 12-flowered. Flowers 1.3-2.2 cm diam., pedicels 0.5-1.2 mm long, white to vinaceous, rarely green, glabrous to sparsely glandular-pubescent; floral buds ellipsoid; sepals 5.2-8.1 × 2-3.7 mm, dorsally keeled, green, glabrous or pilose, with hairs generally along the keel and at the base of the sepals close to the pedicel, hyaline to light brown; petals 0.7-1.2 × 0.3-0.6 cm, white; filaments 4.7-6.8 mm long, anthers 0.8-1 × 0.9-1.2 mm; ovary 1.2-2 × 0.8-1.3 mm, style 4.5-6.2 mm long; pistil longer than the stamens. Capsules 2.5-3.8 × 2.1-2.7 cm. Seeds 1.6-1.9 × 1.2-1.5 mm, testa grey to greyish-brown, not cleft towards the embryotega, costate; hilum longer than ½ the length of the seed.

Specimens see.

ARGENTINA. Chaco: 1° de Mayo, Colonia Benítez, fl., 10 Nov 1973, A.G. Schulz s.n. (CORD no. 469148, CTES no. 203094). Corrientes: Ituzaingó, Desembocadura del Arroyo Garapé em el Río Paraná, 45 km al E de Ituzaingó, fl., fr., 24 Apr 1975, A. Schinini et al. 11243 (CTES). Misiones: Apostoles, San Jose, fl., 11 Feb 1947, A.M.B. Huidobro 4981 (K, LIL); Cainguás, Salto Marvilla, fl., 4 May 1999, N.B. Deginani et al. 998 (CORD, CTES, SI); Candelaria, Cerro Azul, fl., fr., 16 Feb 1947, A.M.B. Huidobro 5282 (K, LIL); Loreto, fl., 12 May 1946, J.E. Montes 2223 (K, LIL); road from Bonpland to Oberá, fl., 23 Feb 1984, T.M. Pedersen 13668 (L); Picada Guemes, fl., fr., 21 Feb 1947, A.M.B. Huidobro 4859 (K, LIL); Profundidad, fl., 19 Sep 1974, A. Krapovickas et al. 25711 (CTES); Candelaria-Loreto, fl., fr., 22 Jul 1949, J.E. Montes 4222 (LIL, LP); Concepción de la Sierra, fl., 3 Feb 1948, A. Schinini 6979b (CORD, CTES); Eldorado, ruta 17, desvio 2 km a San Pedro, fl., 20 Jan 1973, A. Schinini & A. Fernandez 5933 (CORD, CTES); ruta 17, 89 km E de Eldorado, fl., 22 Jan 1973, A. Schinini & A. Fernandez 6002 (CORD, CTES); General Manuel Belgrano, 12 km S de Bernardo de Irigoyen, ruta 14, Cerro Tigre, fl., 15 Feb 1970, V. Maruñak 107 (CORD, CTES, LP); Guaraní, Predio Guaraní, picada al Arroyo Soberbio, fl., 15 Mar 1994, S. Tressens et al. 4881 (CORD, CTES); rumbo cerca de Papael Misionero, fl., 28 Apr 1999, S. Tressens et al. 6279 (CTES, K); Iguazú, Rio Paraná, 10 km S de Puerto Iguazú, frente a Puerto Bertoni, fl., 28 Mar 1970, A. Krapovickas et al. 15780 (CORD, CTES); Parque Nacional Iguazú, Sendero Macuco, fl., 6 Aug 1991, R. Vanni et al. 2666 (CORD, CTES); fl., 23 Apr 1996, J. Herrera 174 (CTES); Leandro M. Alem, 2 km al NE de Cerro Azul, fl., 10 Mar 1969, A. Krapovickas et al. 15070 (CORD, CTES); Libertador General San Martín, Predio UNLP, valle del arroyo Cuña Pirú, fl., fr., 19 Jul 1998, F. Biganzoli et al. 126 (LP, SI); Montecarlo, Arroyo Piray Guazú y ruta 12, fl., 15 Feb 1980, A. Schinini 19909 (CTES); San Ignacio, fl., 3 Feb 1947, J.E. Montes 822 (BA, LIL); Posadas, Jardín Botánico, fl., 17 Jul 2001, M. Grabiele 5 (CORD, CTES, MNES); San Pedro, 89 km E de Eldorado, fl., 22 Jan 1973, A. Schinini & A. Fernandez 6014 (CORD, CTES); ruta provincial 17, desvío 5 km a Tobuna por ruta provincial 224, fl., 26 Jan 1973, A. Schinini & A. Fernandez 6100 (CORD, CTES); entre San Pedro y Puerto Piray, 20 km de San Pedro, ruta provincial 16, fl., 28 Feb 1995, F.O. Zuloaga et al. 5063 (CORD, CTES, SI); cruzando el Puente sobre el Yabotí hacia los obrajes, ruta proyectada 102, fl., 9 May 1999, N.B. Deginani et al. 1213 (CORD, CTES, SI); Santa Anna, fl., 1907, s.leg. s.n. (LP no. 19175). BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: s.loc., fl., fr., 1816-1821, A. Saint-Hilaire D 548 (P); Aiuruoca, PCH-Aiuruoca, área de vazão reduzida, RPPN Cachoeira do Tombo, fl., 26 Mar 2009, P.H.A. Melo & D.M. Torres 3392 (ESAL, RB); Caldas, fl., 23 Mar 1868, A.F. Regnell 1445 (US); Cambuquira, Fazenda Esplanada, fl., fr., 25 Mar 2004, M.C. Weyland Vieira 2025 (RB); Carrancas, Serra de Bicas, fl., 30 Apr 1999, A.O. Simões et al. 821 (UEC); Lima Duarte, Parque Estadual da Serra do Ibitipoca, trilha entre a Gruta do Fugitivo e Gruta dos Três Arcos, fl., 11 Mar 2004, R.C. Forzza et al. 3173 (CEPEC, K, MBM, NY, RB, SPF, UEC); entre a Gruta dos Viajantes e a Gruta dos Três Arcos, fl., 20 Jan 2005, R.C. Forzza et al. 3965 (K, MBM, RB, SPF, UEC); Gruta dos Três Arcos, fl., 17 Mar 2005, R. Dias-Melo et al. 234 (CEPEC, NY, RB); Gruta dos Viajantes, córrego Monjolinho, fl., 25 Jan 2010, R. Mello-Silva 3239 (RB, SPF); São Thomé das Letras, próximo ao Pico do Gavião, fl., 22 Feb 1999, M.C. Assis et al. 596 (RB, SPF); APA São Thomé, Vale do Can tagalo, fl., 4 Feb 2015, E.R. Sattelmayer 22 (HUSC, RB). Paraná: Adrianópolis, Ponte do Ribeira, fl., fr., 20 Feb 1981, G. Hatschbach & A. Martínez 43629 (CORD, MBM, US); Rio Itapeva, fl., 19 Feb 1981, G. Hatschbach & A. Martínez 43622b (CORD, MBM, US); Antonina, Rio Cotia, fl., 24 Mar 1966, G. Hatschbach 14155 (MBM, P, RFA, US); Arapongas, Fazenda Solana, fl., 19 Feb 2009, M. Ferreira Jr. & E.M. Francisco 3 (FUEL); praça da igreja matriz, fl., 18 Jun 1988, L.V. Koga 10 (FUEL, HURB); Cerro Azul, cabeceira do Rio do Tigre, fl., 18 Jul 1984, G. Hatschbach 48100 (MBM, US); fl., 24 Apr 1987, G. Hatschbach et al. 51236 (MBM, US); Cornélio Procópio, Parque Estadual Mata São Francisco, fl., fr., 13 Mar 2009, G.M. Ferreira 358 (FUEL, UNIFIL); Foz do Iguaçú, Parque Nacional do Iguaçú, fl., 25 Apr 1949, J. Falcão 96 (RB); fl., 19 Feb 1960, E. Pereira 5364 (HB, RB); Londrina, Pirapó, fl., s.dat., G. Tessmann 1938 (FUEL, US); Londrina, estrada Paiquere, próximo à Fazenda Figueira, fl., 7 Feb 2003, D.A. Estevan et al. 1259 (FUEL); Fazenda Santa Helena, fl., fr., 5 Mar 2009, E.M. Francisco 2020 (FUEL); Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, fl., fr., 8 Mar 2010, E.F.S. Rossetto & E.M. Francisco 52 (FUEL); Mauá da Serra, Estância Manain, fl., fr., 1 Apr 2008, V.M. Cotarelli & E.M. Francisco 70 (FUEL); Rio Três Bocas, fl., fr., s.dat., R. Hertel s.n. (MBM no. 181892, US barcode US00046118); Rio Branco do Sul, Serra do Caete, fl., 10 Jan 1978, G. Hatschbach 40703 (MBM, US); fl., fr., 18 Feb 1981, G. Hatschbach & A. Martínez 43603 (CORD, MBM, US); Santo Antônio da Platina, Morro da Telepar, fl., 30 Jan 1974, R. Kummrow 516 (K, MBM); Sapopema, fl., 5 Apr 1996, L.P. Félix & A. Leforge 11 (RB, UEC); Telêmaco Borba, Fazenda Monte Alegre, estrada para a foz, fl., 20 Apr 2005, T.I.N. Azevedo et al. 81 (FUEL); estrada para a Ilha Surubim, fl., 20 Nov 1989, J.A. Pimenta et al. s.n. (FUEL no. 7628); à beira do Ribeirão Varanal, fl., 20 Apr 2005, T.I.N. Azevedo et al. 86 (FUEL); fl., 30 May 2006, T.I.N. Azevedo & S.I. Azevedo 324 (FUEL). Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia, Maciço do Itatiaia, Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, estrada para o Pico das Agulhas Negras, fl., 15 Feb 1995, J.M.A. Braga et al. 2015 (RB); estrada região do planalto, fl., fr., 31 Jan 1966, S.V. Andrade 730 (RB); fl., 23 Jan 2012, M.O.O. Pellegrini 192 (RB); fr., 10 Jun 2012, M.L.O. Trovó et al. 569 (RB); fl., 2 Feb 2014, L.S.B. Calazans et al. 241 (RB); fl., 7 Feb 2015, R.G. Barbosa-Silva et al. 421 (RB); Agulhas Negras, fl., 17 Apr 1971, I.S. Gottsberger & G.K. Gottsberger 122-17471 (UB, US); Resende, Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, BR-485, Brejo da Lapa, fl., fr., 22 Feb 2014, L.S.B. Calazans et al. 241 (HRCB, RB, VIES); Rio de Janeiro, Realengo, fl., s.dat., C.V. Freire 397 (R); Teresópolis, Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, fl., fr., 16-17 Oct 1958, R. Schnell 8256 (BR, P); fl., 10 Jul 1966, A. Lourteig 1854 (K, P, R); fl., 3 Aug 1966, D.R. Hunt 6482 (K, US); fl., 5 Jul 1970, J. Barcia 82 (R); trilha para a Pedra do Sino, fl., 05 Dec 2001, F. Feres et al. 19 (RB, UEC); fl., fr., 12 Sep 2014, L.S.B. Calazans et al. 453 (RB); trilha do Rio Soberbo, fl., 22 Aug 2010, M. Nadruz et al. 2471 (RB). Rio Grande do Sul: Derrubadas, Tenente Portela, Parque Estadual do Turvo, Salto Yucunã, fl., 17 Mar 1977, K. Hagelund 11236 (CORD); fl., Mar 1980, J. Mattos et al. 21283 (HAS); fl., 1980, J.E.A. Mariath s.n. (CORD no. 467395, ICN no. 50979); Maquiné, Reserva Biológica da Serra Geral, Vale Linha Encantada, fl., Nov 2003, M.L. Abruzzi 5151 (HAS); São Leopoldo, Morro Sapucaia, fl., 5 Aug 1949, B. Rambo 42798 (HBR); fl., fr., 11 Oct 1955, B. Rambo 57048 (HBR). Santa Catarina: Blumenau, Morro do Sapo, Parque Nacional Serra do Itajaí, fl., 05 Nov 2012, L.A. Funez 1285 (FURB, HAVAT); Morro do Cachorro, fl., 31 Jan 2014, A.L. Gasper et al. 3439 (FUEL, FURB); Dona Emma, Gruta Nossa Senhora de Fátima, fl., 26 Jan 2012, L.A. Funez 309 (FURB); RPPN Bugerkopf, trilha principal, fl., fr., 6 Feb 2013, L.A. Funez 1681 (FURB); Florianópolis, trilha na margem sul da lagoa, Lagoa do Peri, fl., 3 Mar 2016, F.A. Silva Filho 963 (FLOR, RB); Ibirama, fl., 20 Oct 1953, R.M. Klein 614 (HBR, US); fl., 20 Sep 1956, R. Reitz & R.M. Klein 3692 (HBR, K, MBM, NY, UPCB); Itaiópolis, Arroio das Pombas, fl., 3 Feb 2010, A. Korte & A. Kniess 1631 (FURB); Itapiranga, Laranjeiras, SC-66, fl., 14 Feb 2009, M. Verdi et al. 1631 (FURB); Jaraguá do Sul, Serra do Jaraguá, fl., 31 Aug 1997, P. Schwacke 13350 (RB); Luiz Alves, Braço Joaquim, fl., 22 Mar 1956, R. Reitz & R.M. Klein 2886 (HBR, US); Mondaí, fl., 4 Feb 2009, M. Verdi et al. 2638 (FURB, RB); Linha Cascalho, fl., 5 Mar 2009, M. Verdi et al. 1746 (FURB, RB); Linha Capirara, BR-283, fl., 9 Mar 2009, M. Verdi et al. 77 (FURB, LUSC); Nova Teutônia, fl., 8 Apr 1944, F. Plaumann 444 (RB); Palmitos, 24 km E of Mondai, fl., 25 Feb 1957, L.B. Smith & R. Klein 11828 (HBR, NY, US); Paraíso, Rio das Flores, fl., 1 Mar 1964, A. Castellanos 24799 (CORD, K, RB); São Miguel D’Oeste, Peperi, fl., fr., 1 Mar 1964, R.M. Klein 5107 (HBR); Romelândia, Esperança, fl., 2 Mar 2009, A. Stival-Santos & S. Silveira 439 (FURB, RB); São Bento do Sul, Ano Bom/ Braço Esquerdo, fl., 29 Jan 2010, S. Dreveck & F.E. Carneiro 1667 (FURB); Timbó, Castelo dos Padres, fl., 2 Oct 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini et al. 429 (RB); Vidal Ramos, Sabiá, fl., 14 Jun 1957, R. Reitz & R.M. Klein 4284 (HBR, US); fl., 26 Nov 1957, R.M. Klein 2233 (HBR, NY, US). São Paulo: s.loc., fl., 1816-1821, A. Saint-Hilaire D 632 (P); Atibaia, Pedra Grande, fl., 29 Jan 1986, N. Taroda & K. Yamamoto 18324 (UEC); Barra do Turvo, 10 km de Barra do Turvo em direção a Pariquera-açú, fl., fr., 14 Feb 1995, J.P. Souza et al. 89 (ESA, SP, UEC, UFP); Cananéia, Parque Estadual da Jacupiranga, fl., fr., 24 Mar 2005, M. Carboni et al. 119 (ESA, UEC); Iepê, Fazenda C.A.P.I., about 5 km E of Porto Alvorada, along the rio Paranapanema, fl., 9 Feb 1965, G. Eiten et al. 5998 (EAC, INPA, MO, NY, SP, UB, US); Ilhabela, Parque Estadual da Ilhabela, trilha da Água Branca, fl., 23 Aug 1995, A. Rapini 48 (SP, SPF, UEC, UFP); São Paulo, Eldorado Paulista, Parque Estadual Jacupiranga, Núcleo Cedro, fl., fr., 14 Feb 1995, H.F. Leitão Filho et al. 33267 (HRCB, SP, SPF, UEC); Jardim Botânico e Parque do estado, fl., fr., 10 Aug 1967, R. Faria 40 (SP); Serra da Cantareira, fl., 13 Apr 1901, s.leg. 300 (SP); Serra da Cantareira, no Horto Florestal, fl., 30 Mar 1967, J. Mattos 14542 (HAS, K, RB, SP). PARAGUAY. Without province: s.loc., fl., s.dat., Fleischer s.n. (P barcode P02174039). Alto Paraná: s.loc., fl., 1909-1910, K. Fiebrig 6236 (K, L, US); Ciudaded del Este, Puerto Presidente Stroessner, fl., May 1983, L.C. Stutz 1773 (CORD, U, US); Puerto Embalse, fl., Mar 1942, L. Jiménez 122 (SCP); fl., Mar 1942, C.V. Pavetti Morin 488 (SCP); Vivero Florestal Itaipú, fl., 13 Jul 1980, G. Caballero Marmori 739 (CORD, CTES). Canindeyú: Jejui-mi, a unos 1500 m al N de la caseta, fl., 8 May 1996, G. Marín & B. Jiménez 191 (BM, CORD, CTES, FMB, PY). Guairá: Colonel Independencia, propriedad Vurtz, fl., 6 Oct 1967, A. Lourteig 1931 (P, US); Arroyo Guazú, camino a San Gervasio, fl., 27 Mar 1993, A. Schinini et al. 28031 (CORD, CTES); Reserva Ybytyruzú, fl., 27 Feb 2011, M. Vera et al. 2741 (FCQ); Tebicuary, Azucarera Paraguaya, fl., Jul 1942, C.V. Pavetti Morin 1186 (SCP); Villarica, Santa Barbara, fl., 26 Feb 1876, B. Balansa 590 (K, P). Paraguarí: Ybycui Na tional Park, fl., 24 Jan 1989, E.M. Zardini & A. Aguayo 10090 (K, LP, MO, PY); fl., 15 May 1989, A. Aguayo 183 (CORD, US).

Distribution and habitat.

Argentina and Brazil (states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) and Paraguay; in the Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and Chaco domains (Fig. 33). It can be found growing as terrestrial and epiphyte understorey in shaded and moist forests.

Phenology.

It was found in bloom and fruit throughout the year but peaking between August and February.

Etymology.

The epithet “umbraculifera” means "carrying several umbrellas", making reference to the many inflorescences per leaf axil this species generally produces and, most importantly, to the its small spathaceous cincinni bract.

Conservation status.

Tradescantia umbraculifera  possesses a wide EOO (ca. 764,678.067 km2), forming dense subpopulations in shady and moist understorey. Thus, in accordance with the IUCN recommendations ( IUCN 2001), it should be considered Least Concern (LC).

Comments.

Tradescantia umbraculifera  is a member of the T. fluminensis  group ( Pellegrini 2017), due to its indefinite base, prostrate stems (Fig. 32A), involute ptyxis, leaf-blades with impressed secondary veins (Fig. 32C), saccate cincinni bracts (Fig. 32 E–G) and seeds not cleft towards the embryotega (Fig. 32K). Furthermore, dried specimens of T. umbraculifera  acquire a peculiar dark brown to black colouration, which is recorded in T. subg. Austrotradescantia  for T. chrysophylla  , T. cymbispatha  and some specimens of T. fluminensis  . Nonetheless, it is one of the most peculiar species in T. subg. Austrotradescantia  , due to its generally acuminate to caudate leaf-blades (Fig. 32C), numerous inflorescences per leaf axis (Fig. 32E, F), spathaceous cincinni bracts (Fig. 32 E–G), white to vinaceous pedicels (Fig. 32H), pistil longer than the stamens (Fig. 32G) and hilum longer than ½ the length of the seed (Fig. 32K). This combination of characters differentiates T. umbraculifera  from all remaining species of T. subg. Austrotradescantia  . Smaller specimens of T. umbraculifera  can be more easily confused with T. fluminensis  but can be easily differentiated based on inflorescence and seed characters. Despite the distinction between T. umbraculifera  and T. fluminensis  being generally clean-cut, some specimens were especially challenging to certainly identify. This is mainly due to the presence of leaf-like, instead of spathaceous cincinni bracts (easily observable in herbarium specimens) and intermediate floral features between the two species (observable only in fresh specimens; Fig. 32J), such as: the colour of the pedicels, shape of the petals, length and density of the filaments hairs and pistil length. These specimens are hypothesised to represent naturally occurring hybrids between both species, since they were observed in areas where both T. umbraculifera  and T. fluminensis  were known to occur. However, due to the lack of reproductive, hybridisation and cytological studies, I have chosen to tentatively recognise these specimens under a broader sense of T. umbraculifera  . Further studies might confirm my assumptions of the natural occurrence of hybrids between T. umbraculifera  and T. fluminensis  . Despite the small morphological resemblance, herbarium specimens of T. umbraculifera  have been previously confused in Southern Brazil with T. tenella  . Both species share only a handful of morphological characters, all of them being synapomorphies of the T. fluminensis  group. Tradescantia umbraculifera  can be easily differentiated from T. tenella  due to its robust habit (vs. generally small in T. tenella  ), indefinite base (vs. definite), prostrate stems (vs. erect), sessile leaves (vs. subpetiolate), 1-4 main florescences per leaf axil (vs. always 1), cincinni bracts spathaceous and equal (vs. leaf-like and unequal) flowers 1.3-2.2 cm diam. (vs. 0.4-1 cm diam.), petals always white (vs. ranging from white to pink), pistil longer than the stamens (vs. equal), seeds with costate testa (vs. rugose) and hilum longer than ½ the length of the seed (vs. shorter than ½ the length of the seed).

Despite being in different morphological groups, herbarium specimens of T. umbraculifera  have also been confused with T. crassula  . This might be due these species robust habit, sessile leaves, sepals with hairs restricted to the dorsal keels, petals always white, pistil longer than the stamens and hilum longer than ½ the length of the seed. Nonetheless, T. umbraculifera  can be easily differentiated by its indefinite base (vs. definite in T. crassula  ), prostrate stems (vs. erect), 1-4 main florescences per leaf axil (vs. always 1), cincinni bracts spathaceous and saccate (vs. leaf-like and non-saccate) and seeds not cleft towards the embryotega (vs. cleft).

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Liliopsida

Order

ORDO

Family

FAMILIA

Genus

Tradescantia