Parasmittina abrolhosensis

Ramalho, Laís V., Taylor, Paul D., Moraes, Fernando Coreixas, Moura, Rodrigo, Amado-Filho, Gilberto M. & Bastos, Alex C., 2018, Bryozoan framework composition in the oddly shaped reefs from Abrolhos Bank, Brazil, southwestern Atlantic: taxonomy and ecology, Zootaxa 4483 (1), pp. 155-186: 165-166

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4483.1.6

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:05A08470-9473-4147-B54B-AB0C90173572

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6C3EF226-FFAF-7905-FF43-FC09FDC4FC37

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Parasmittina abrolhosensis
status

n. sp.

Parasmittina abrolhosensis  n. sp.

( Figs 3HView FIGURE 3, 4A–DView FIGURE 4)

Parasmittina  sp. nov. 2: Bastos et al., 2018: table 1.

Material examined. Abrolhos Bank, Bahia State, Brazil: Holotype: MNRJ-Bry1359, Parcel dos Abrolhos, 4 m depth, February 2014, col. R. Moura, G. Amado-Filho & A. Bastos  ; Paratype: MNRJ-Bry1347, California Reef, 25 m depth, March 2015, col. F.C. Moraes, R. Moura, G. Amado-Filho & A  . Bastos ; MNRJ-Bry1380, Parcel dos Abrolhos, 4 m depth, February 2014, col. R. Moura, G. Amado-Filho & A. Bastos. 

Etymology. Alluding to the type locality (Abrolhos Bank).

Diagnosis. Autozooids rectangular to polygonal with a granular frontal wall, imperforate except for small marginal areolar pores; orifice circular with a peristome developed latero-proximally, 3 or 4 oral spines, U-shaped pseudosinus, a pair of condyles, large, hooked and downwardly curved, and a tall and narrow anvil-shaped lyrula. Three different kinds of avicularia: a single or a pair of elongate avicularia with rostrum elongate and serrated, ending in a rounded tip; small avicularia located singly and randomly on the frontal wall or near the orifice; an infrequent giant, spatulate avicularium located near the orifice. Ovicell globose, large, with ooecial surface perforated by small and circular pores.

Description. Encrusting colonies, uni to multilamellar. Autozooids rectangular to polygonal (312–396–471 µm long x 280–308–360 µm wide), forming a circular patch of zooids around the ancestrula. Frontal shield granular, imperforate except for 14–18 large areolar pores ( Figs 3HView FIGURE 3, 4A, C, DView FIGURE 4). Orifice circular (93–106–113 µm long (including pseudosinus) x 75 –84–99 µm wide) with peristome developed mainly latero-proximally, forming a U-shaped pseudosinus; a pair of large, hooked condyles, curved downwardly; lyrula tall, narrow, anvil-shaped; oral spines distal to the orifice numbering 3–4 ( Fig. 4A, CView FIGURE 4). Frontal avicularia diverse: (1) single or a pair of elongate avicularia (121–142–178 µm long) with rostrum slightly elevated on the surface, slightly serrated and curved, ending in a rounded tip, located laterally to orifice and directed proximally, crossbar complete (usually broken) ( Fig. 4A, BView FIGURE 4); (2) a similar-shaped avicularium that is smaller (79–90–106 µm long), randomly directed and located on the frontal wall or near the orifice ( Fig. 3HView FIGURE 3); (3) occasional giant, spatulate avicularia with smooth rostrum, located lateral to the orifice and directed proximally ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4). Ovicell globose, wider than long (170–183–204 µm long x 219–236–253 µm wide), large relative to zooid size, extending onto the distal zooid and hiding the distal part of the maternal zooid orifice; ooecial surface perforated by small and circular pores ( Fig. 4DView FIGURE 4).

Geographic distribution. Abrolhos Bank, Bahia State, Brazil ( Bastos et al. 2018; present study).

Remarks. Parasmittina spathulata ( Smitt, 1873)  has an elongate avicularium very similar to P. abrolhosensis  n. sp. but not serrated, and also has short condyles, a medium-sized truncate lyrula, undeveloped peristome and two to four oral spines.

Parasmittina serrula Soule & Soule, 1973  , recorded from Hawaii, Vanuatu, Belize and Jamaica, shares with P. abrolhosensis  n. sp. lateral avicularia that are elongate and serrated, 3–4 distal oral spines, and an orifice with a narrow lyrula and large condyles; however, P. serrula  has a circular orifice with denticulated condyles (six denticles visible: see Tilbrook 2006), a very large spatulate avicularium with serrated edges and another small avicularium, a rostrum that is acutely triangular, finely denticulate and directed proximally.

Similarly, P. serruloides Harmelin et al., 2009  has an elongated and serrated lateral avicularium, but it also has condyles with coarsely denticulate tips (2–5 teeth), lyrula medium-sized, and lacks the spatulate and larger avicularium.

Another species with elongate, slim and lateral avicularia is P. areolata ( Canu & Bassler, 1927)  described from Hawaii, Belize and Jamaica ( Soule & Soule 1973; Winston 1984). This species has a variable number of oral spines (up to six) and an orifice with a narrow lyrula and strongly hooked condyles, but differs from P. abrolhosensis  n. sp. in having larger zooids (800–840 µm long x 340–420 µm wide), long, thin, almost straight, lateral avicularia (220–300 µm long) and giant avicularia (500 µm long) with a deep concave rostrum and broad spoon-shaped tip. Soule & Soule (1973) described small avicularia (120–160 µm long) located at the top of the distal rim orifice in P. areolata  , another feature not observed in the Abrolhos material.

Parasmittina uncinata Soule & Soule, 1973  shares with P. abrolhosensis  n. sp. a slim lateral avicularium, but it has 2–3 oral spines, an orifice with a narrow, acute or truncate lyrula, small avicularia distal to the orifice (similar to P. areolata  ), and lacks medium-sized suboral or frontal avicularia. Parasmittina parviuncinata Soule & Soule, 1973  has slim and elongated lateral avicularia, but the orifice lacks a lyrula, and there are two oral spines and additional small acute marginal avicularia.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Bryozoa

Class

Gymnolaemata

Order

Cheilostomatida

Family

Smittinidae

Genus

Parasmittina

Loc

Parasmittina abrolhosensis

Ramalho, Laís V., Taylor, Paul D., Moraes, Fernando Coreixas, Moura, Rodrigo, Amado-Filho, Gilberto M. & Bastos, Alex C. 2018

2018
Loc

P. abrolhosensis

Ramalho & Taylor & Moraes & Moura & Amado-Filho & Bastos 2018

2018
Loc

P. abrolhosensis

Ramalho & Taylor & Moraes & Moura & Amado-Filho & Bastos 2018

2018
Loc

P. serruloides

Harmelin et al. 2009

2009
Loc

Parasmittina serrula

Soule & Soule 1973

1973
Loc

P. serrula

Soule & Soule 1973

1973
Loc

Parasmittina uncinata

Soule & Soule 1973

1973
Loc

Parasmittina parviuncinata

Soule & Soule 1973

1973