Borinken Konstantinov & Konstantinova

Konstantinov, A. S. & Konstantinova, A. A., 2011, New genus and species of flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) from Puerto Rico, with comments on flea beetle diversity in the West Indies and a key to the West India, ZooKeys 155, pp. 61-87: 61

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Borinken Konstantinov & Konstantinova

gen. n.

Borinken Konstantinov & Konstantinova  ZBK  gen. n. Figs 1-14


Body length 1.08-1.18 mm, width 0.70-0.81 mm, elongate, relatively flat in lateral view (2.18 times as long as thick). Color brown without metallic luster, legs slightly lighter and antennae, except last antennomere, darker, almost black.

Head (Figs 4, 5) flat in lateral view. Frons and vertex forming nearly straight line (Fig. 5) in lateral view. Facial part of head elongate. Supraorbital pore situated near outer corner of antennal callus, poorly visible. Antennal calli well developed, slightly longer than wide, oblique, separated from each other by wide midfrontal sulcus. Supracallinal sulcus deep, convex. Suprafrontal and supraantennal sulci well developed, deep. Supraorbital sulcus slightly impressed. Orbit as wide as transverse diameter of eye. Interantennal space nearly as wide as transverse diameter of eye and as transverse diameter of antennal socket. Frontal ridge narrow, lowering in front of anterofrontal ridge. Anterofrontal ridge not separated from frontal ridge, long and swollen. Two ridges situated laterally of frontal ridge from lower margin of antennal socket to outer corner of mouth. Long seta situated at beginning of each ridge under antennal socket. Another long seta located on both sides of frontal ridge. Eyes small, slightly protruding laterally, 0.72 times as wide as long. Vertex covered with few large and deep punctures. Labrum with six setiferous pores, apically slightly incised. Labium with three palpomeres per palpus, distal palpomere longer than wide (Fig. 6). Maxillary palpus with four palpomeres, distal palpomere conical, slightly longer than preapical, sensilla patch with three setae (Fig. 8). Antenna with 11 antennomeres. First antennomere slightly wider and much longer than second and rest of antennomeres separately. Third and fourth antennomeres much thinner than second. Antennomeres gradually widening distally (Fig. 7).

Pronotum (Fig. 1) 1.34 times wider than long (measured in middle), without impressions, covered with large, deeply impressed punctures. Sides weakly rounded and relatively narrowly explanate, with maximum width in front of middle. Marginal anterolateral callosity situated perpendicularly to midline of body, 3.71 times shorter than lateral margin. Posterolateral callosity protruding laterally. Basal margin evenly convex, slightly extends posteriorly, with distinct border. Procoxal cavity open. Intercoxal prosternal process relatively narrow and parallel-sided in middle, with longitudinal ridge bordered by two deep grooves laterally, abruptly expanding beyond procoxae. Scutellum flat, wider than long, apex sharply triangular, sides straight. Mesocoxae separated by both meso- and metasterna. Mesosternum not covered by metasternum, horizontal (Fig. 9). Metasternum (Fig. 9) protruding anteriorly between mesocoxae, wide, nearly flat at apex.

Elytron (Fig. 1) widest near mid-length. Humeral callus absent. Elytral punctures arranged in nine rows not counting scutellar row. Punctures large, about as large as space between rows. Elytral apex narrowly rounded, surrounded by distinct border. Epipleura broad, slightly oblique, gradually narrowing posteriorly, not attaining sutural margin of elytron. Elytron with sensilla distributed evenly throughout surface, others concentrated in single sensilla patches (Fig. 14). Elytra fused. Elytral lock consists of longitudinal groove along its suture (Fig. 14). Wings absent.

Pro- and mesofemora normally round, only slightly flat dorsoventrally. Metafemur robust, flat dorsoventrally, fairly symmetrical (Fig. 10), 2.15 times as long as wide. Pro- and mesotibiae cylindrical, slightly wider in distal 1/3, without spurs apically. Metatibia (Figs 1, 9) straight in dorsal and lateral views, generally cylindrical, gradually widening distally (in dorsal view), dorsal surface convex nearly to apex. Apical spur long, slightly shorter than tarsal claw. Claw appendiculate near base. Third tarsomere deeply incised (Fig. 11). First metatarsomere as long as two following tarsomeres together.

Abdomen with five distinctly visible sternites. Apical sternite shorter than three preceding sternites combined, without appendages basally. Basal sternite longer than four following sternites together.

Median lobe of aedeagus (Fig. 12) simple, robust, slightly and evenly curved in lateral view, without any sculpture ventrally.

Type species.

Borinken elyunque  Konstantinov & Konstantinova, new species.


This genus is based on the native Taino Indian name for the Island of Puerto Rico, Borinquen  . The name is masculine.

Diagnosis and comparison.

Borinken  is very different from other flea beetle genera that are known to occur in mosses in the New World ( Kiskeya  in the West Indies, Nicaltica  Konstantinov, Chamorro-Lacayo and Savini in Nicaragua, and Ulrica  Scherer in the West Indies and Central and South America). Based on the general shape of the body, shape of the base of the pronotum without a lobe extending posteriorly, general shape of the metatibia and tarsal claw, Borinken  is similar to Benedictus  Scherer, which inhabits mosses in Asia and does not occur in the New World ( Sprecher-Uebersax et al. 2009). It can be easily distinguished from that genus by the unique shape and details of the head, subquadrate apical antennomeres, and absence of the prebasal impression on the pronotum.

Borinken  is also very different from any other West Indian or New World flea beetle genera. Among New World genera it is somewhat similar to Centralaphthona  Bechyn√© based on the presence of antennal calli, lack of the prebasal groove on the pronotum, regular elytral striae and open procoxal cavities. Borinken  can be easily differentiated from Centralaphthona  by the following features: elongate facial part of head (normally short in Centralaphthona  ); antennal calli longer than wide (usually shorter than wide in Centralaphthona  ); apical antennomeres much wider than basal (about same width in Centralaphthona  ); vertex, pronotum, and elytra strongly punctured (punctation normally small in Centralaphthona  ; overall, this kind of coarse punctation is rare among flea beetles); apex of metatibia convex up to tarsomere (flat in Centralaphthona  ).