Mycotretus chilensis Crotch, 1876

Pecci-Maddalena, Italo Salvatore De Castro & Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano, 2017, Redescription of two species and proposal of a new synonym in the genus Mycotretus Lacordaire, 1842 (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Tritomini), Zootaxa 4282 (1), pp. 147-165: 149-153

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4282.1.9

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C027C2B6-4D35-41B2-80FC-527D00C15A95

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6F32B419-FFD9-FFB3-F3B5-F71CFE42829B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Mycotretus chilensis Crotch, 1876
status

 

Mycotretus chilensis Crotch, 1876 

Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 3View FIGURE 3 A –D, 4A –D, 5 and 7D.

Mycotretus chilensis Crotch 1876: 454  . Type locality: Chile (possibly mislabeled); Gemminger & Harold 1876: 3692 [distribution]; Kuhnt 1909: 75 [distribution]; Blackwelder 1945: 466 [distribution]; Guérin 1952: 182 [description by Crotch (1876) and distribution]; Alvarenga 1994: 22 [information on type series and distribution]; Skelley & Cekalovic 2001: 221 [comments on distribution].

Mycotretus bicinctus Guérin 1949: 236  , fig. 9, new synonym. Type locality: Brasil, São Paulo, Parque da Cantareira; Alvarenga 1994: 21 [information on type series and distribution]; Campaner et al. 2008: 242 [list of Erotylidae  types deposited at MZUSPAbout MZUSP]. 

Adult diagnosis. There are two distinct color patterns in M. chilensis  , a sexual dimorphism which works for most individuals. In the first pattern, observed in the lectotype and in most males, the pronotum usually has a small black band anteriorly ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A and 1D, red arrow) instead of circular spots, and four circular free black spots on disc; the first transverse elytral black band reaches the anterior elytral edge ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A and 1D); the second black band is more elongated and the posterior outline is less sinuate ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A and 1D) in comparison to females; both the first and second transverse bands begin at mesal sutural edge but do not reach the elytral outer edges ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 B and 1E); the ventral coloration in fully pigmented males can be reddish-brown to blackish, mainly in the meso- and metaventrite ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 F). In the second color pattern, observed in most females, the pronotum usually has two circular black spots on the anterior portion and four circular free black spots on disc ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 G, 4A), which is similar to the pronotal color pattern of M. trifasciatus  ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 A,D, 4E). The elytra have two wide and sinuate transverse black bands: the first on the anterior half, which reaches the anterior elytral edge close to scutellar shield ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 G, white arrow) and does not reach the outer elytral edges ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 H); the second transverse black band extends from the mesal sutural edge to the outer edges ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 G –H); the ventral coloration is homogeneously yellowish-brown even in fully pigmented females. Penis ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A) with flagellum (in internal sac) well-developed and sinuate (length mean: 1.65 mm, n = 2, from the beginning of virga to the end of its head) with a median membranous portion containing a slight sinuosity (length mean: 0.15 mm, n = 2; Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A, black arrow). Both flagellum and sinuosity are shorter compared to those of M. trifasciatus  (compare to Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A, sinuosity shown by black arrow).

Redescription. Length (in mm) = 3.73–5.71 (4.83 ± 0.53, n = 21). Body elongate, widest at the anterior third of elytra, TL/EW = 1.67–2.03 (1.77 ± 0.073), GD/EW = 0.63–0.82 (0.69 ± 0.04), glabrous and glossy, dorsal coloration whitish, yellowish or reddish-brown with transverse black bands. Ventral coloration homogeneously yellowish-brown (usually females) or blackish on the meso- and metaventrite (usually males) in fully pigmented individuals; head with the same background color of the remainder body but without black spots or marks; mouthparts usually yellowish to reddish-brown, mentum plate with an almost black outline; antennae yellowish to reddish-brown, antennomeres VI to XI blackish.

Head. Glabrous; punctation single, fine and sparse; frontoclypeal suture present but interrupted at middle. Clypeus. Shallowly and arcuately emarginated. Antennae. Left antenna measured in one individual: FL 0.65 mm, CL 0.5 mm, CL/FL 0.77; length of antennomeres (in mm), from antennomere one to eleven, as follows: 0.18, 0.1, 0.18, 0.1, 0.1, 0.07, 0.07, 0.11, 0.12, 0.16. Eyes. Glabrous (GW 0.36 mm), finely granulate. Mouthparts. ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 A –D) Labrum free, highly sclerotized, pubescent, slightly emarginated at middle. Mandibles short and broad, outer apical edge with a distinct depression containing setae; apex with two teeth; mandibular base emarginated, with an additional outgrowth above mola; mola well-developed, horseshoe-shaped, naked and distinctly costate; there is a soft and pubescent prostheca above mola with an additional tuft of setae. Maxillae with cardo subtriangular and stipes elongated; galea shorter but wider than lacinia, somewhat widened towards apex, which is densely pubescent; lacinia much longer and narrower than galea, densely pubescent at apex, with a highly sclerotized but barely visible hook; basal maxillary palpomeres almost as long as the next two together, apical palpomere semicircular and approximately 2.4× wider than long. Labium with apical palpomere of labial palps club-shaped (asymmetrical); mentum pentagonal, strongly sclerotized and bearing setae at middle; paraglossae slightly sclerotized and pubescent; glossa strongly sclerotized.

Thorax. Pronotum. ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 A) Subtrapezoidal with edges bordered and sides moderately arcuate, convergent anteriorly. PW/PL = 2.08–2.76 (2.31 ± 0.16), widest anteriorly in both sexes; shiny, punctation single and interspaces microreticulate; punctures separated by a distance of about 3–6 puncture-widths at disc, each puncture bearing a very short minute seta (barely visible even at a magnification of 150×); anterior edge slightly convex at middle and anterior angles sharp; color pattern: with a small and narrow anterior black band instead of circular spots ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A and 1D) (n = 15; seven individuals were dissected, six being males and one a female) or with two circular anterior black spots and four circular free black spots on disc ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 G and 4A) (n = 9; four individuals were dissected and were females). Scutellar shield. (BW 0.29 mm), subpentagonal, glabrous, bearing a few punctures. Elytra. EL/EW = 1.27–1.60 (1.38 ± 0.07), EL/PL = 3.18–4.06 (3.66 ± 0.28); strongly margined anteriorly, moderately convex, with seven conspicuous longitudinal rows of punctures ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 B, counted from the elytral suture toward elytral outer edges); punctures separated by about 2–4 puncture-widths; interspaces between rows microreticulate and with fine and sparse punctures, each puncture bearing a minute seta (barely visible at magnification of 150×); color pattern of males and females as in the diagnosis. Hind wings. Developed, apparently functional. Prosternum. Convex; anterior margin smooth and pubescent; notosternal sutures distinct and entire; procoxal cavities ovate; prosternal process abruptly expanded apically, shallowly emarginated at apex; procoxal lines shorter and nearly straight; there is a pair of secretory pores on the prosternal process ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 C). Mesoventrite. Small, convex, mesocoxal lines straight to slightly arched; anterior edge sinuate, medially lobed. Metaventrite. Convex, glabrous, finely punctate, interspaces of punctures microreticulate; approximately 2.32× as long as mesoventrite; metacoxal lines conspicuous, approximately 0.73× as long as metaventrite; discrimen ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 F, arrow) approximately 0.79× as long as metaventrite. Metendosternite well-developed ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 D), hardened but still translucent, convex; central sclerotization of the anterior processes ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 D, red arrow) approximately 0.21× as long as the central sclerotization of the stalk ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 D, big black arrow); inner outline of laminae with a conspicuous ear-shaped extension ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 D, small black arrows). Legs. Procoxae oval, mesocoxae almost globular and metacoxae transverse, cigarette-shaped. Femora elongated, smooth, without spines or other outgrowths. Tibiae long, somewhat widened apically; apex with a crown of wide flat setulae, two apical spurs on meso- and metatibiae and one reduced apical spur on protibiae. Tarsi densely pubescent.

Abdomen. Elongated; punctation coarse, shallow; interspaces, granulate; vestiture of sparse, slender setae. Coxal lines conspicuous and not continuous around coxae (approximately 0.75× the length of the first abdominal ventrite). Length of ventrites one to five as follows (in mm, from base to apex of each ventrite at the longitudinal midline): 0.72, 0.42, 0.26, 0.28, 0.42. Male terminalia. ( Figs. 5View FIGURE 5 A –C) Penis elongate, slightly curved ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A, pen); basal portion with a short sclerotized projection that is linked to the apophyses; internal sac with a welldeveloped flagellum ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A, “fla”) (length mean: 1.65 mm, n = 2, from beginning of virga to end of head), with a short sinuosity at middle that is accompanied by a membranous enlargement ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A, black arrow; length mean: 0.15 mm, n = 2); the flagellum and sinuosity are shorter than those of M. trifasciatus  (compare to Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A –B). Apophyses ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A, “apo”) approximately 1.5× longer than penis (n = 2). Tegmen ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 B) strongly sclerotized, with a membranous portion on its dorsum; parameres reduced and strongly sclerotized, with densely pubescent outgrowths, dilated and then acute at apex ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 B, arrows). Tergite IX and segment X well sclerotized ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 C); anteroventral edge of segment IX with a truncate subgenital plate ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 C, black arrow). Female terminalia. ( Figs. 5View FIGURE 5 D –F) Resembles that of M. trifasciatus  . Gonostyli and gonocoxites strongly sclerotized ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 D, black and red arrow, respectively). Spermatheca ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 E) oval, membranous to strongly sclerotized; bursa copulatrix developed. Tergite VIII sclerotized and sternite VIII with a conspicuous median strut ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 F, arrow; displaced to the right during dissection).

Lectotype, here designated (UMZC). ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A –C) “TYPE [blue label, printed] \ TYPE [printed], chilensis Reiche  [handwritten] \ LECTOTYPE [red label, printed], Mycotretus chilensis Crotch, 1876  [handwritten]”.

Other examined specimens. 1 specimen ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP) “HOLOTIPO [red label, printed] \ Cantareira., S. Paulo. [printed], 1938 [handwritten] \ Coll. J. Guérin., S. Paulo., Brasil. [printed], 18336 [handwritten] \ Mycotretus bicinctus J. Guer  [handwritten], J. Guerin det. [printed] 1949 [handwritten]”  ; 3 specimens ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP, on the same pin, including two dissected female) “PARATIPO [red label, printed] \ Cantareira. S. Paulo [printed], 1938 [handwritten] \ Coll. J. Guérin., S. Paulo., Brasil. [printed], 17030 [handwritten] \ Cantareira, S. Paulo, 4.I.38, Coll. Zellibor-Hauff [printed] \ Mycotretus bicinctus J. Guer  [handwritten], J. Guerin det. [printed] 1949 [handwritten]”  ; 2 specimens ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP) “PARATIPO [red label, printed] \ Cantareira. S. Paulo [printed], 11937 [handwritten] \ Coll. J. Guérin., S. Paulo., Brasil. [printed], 17198 [handwritten] \ Cantareira, S. Paulo, 30.11.37, Coll. Zellibor-Hauff [printed] \ Mycotretus bicinctus J. Guer  [handwritten], J. Guerin det. [printed] 1949 [handwritten]”  ; 1 specimen ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP) “PARATIPO [red label, printed] \ Cantareira. S. Paulo [printed], 10936 [handwritten] \ Coll. J. Guérin., S. Paulo., Brasil. [printed], 0 526 [handwritten] \ Mycotretus bicinctus J. Guer  [handwritten], J. Guerin det. [printed] 1949 [handwritten] \ 33 [orange label, handwritten]”  ; 1 specimen ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP) “PARATIPO [red label, printed] \ Hansa. S. Catarina. [printed], 11943 [handwritten] \ Coll. J. Guérin., S. Paulo., Brasil. [printed], 16338 [handwritten] \ Mycotretus bicinctus J. Guer  [handwritten], J. Guerin det. [printed] 1949 [handwritten]”  ; 1 specimen ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP) “ Jabaquara., S. Paulo. [printed], 4949 [handwritten] \ Coll. J. Guérin., S. Paulo., Brasil. [printed], 18433 [handwritten] \ Mycotretus bicinctus J. Guer  [handwritten], J. Guerin det. [printed] 1949 [handwritten]”  ; 1 male ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP, dissected) “CANTAREIRA [handwritten], S. Paulo – SP, Brasil [printed], 31-viii- 1960 [handwritten], Col: E. Amante [printed]”  ; 1 specimen (MZUSP) “Est. biol. Boraceia, Salesópolis SP, 14- 18.XI.1973, Exp. Mus. Zool.”; 1 specimen ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP) “ BRASIL, Rio Vermelho , Est ° Sta. Catar., Col.: DIRINGS [printed], DEZ 1950 [date printed on label back]”  ; 1 specimen ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP) “ BRASIL, Itatiaia, Est ° R. Janeiro., Col.: DIRINGS [printed], JAN 1960 [date printed on label back]” 1 specimen ( MCNZAbout MCNZ) “ Tenente, Portela, RS, 11/IX/ 1990 [handwritten], leg. [printed] \ Col. MCNAbout MCN [printed], 155021 [handwritten]”  ; 1 male ( UFPR, dissected) “ Coleção M. Alvarenga [printed] \ BRASIL, Rio de Janeiro, D.F. CORCOVADO [printed], 12.XII.1955 [handwritten], D. Zajclw leg. [printed] / Mycotretus bicinctus  [handwritten] C. Lopes-Andrade det. [printed] / DZUPAbout DZUP 279313View Materials [printed]”  ; 1 specimen ( UFPR) “ Coleção M. Alvarenga [printed] \ REPRESA RIO GRANDE, Guanabara Brasil [printed], X.1965 [handwritten], F.M. Oliveira [printed] / DZUPAbout DZUP 279318View Materials [printed]”  ; 1 female (UFPR, dissected) “Coleção M. Alvarenga [printed] \ Amparo, S. Paulo, P. Rech [handwritten] / DZUP 235894 [printed]”; 1 female ( UFPR, dissected) “ Coleção M. Alvarenga [printed] \ REPRESA RIO GRANDE, Guanabara Brasil [printed], X.1966 [handwritten], F.M. Oliveira [printed] / DZUPAbout DZUP 279320View Materials [printed]”  ; 2 specimens ( CELC, including one dissected male) “ Brasil: MG, Viçosa, " Mata do Paraíso ", 26.xi.2014, leg Pecci-Maddalena, Í.S.C. [printed] \ ex Lentinus brumalis    ; 6 specimens ( CELC, including one dissected male) “ Brasil: MG, Viçosa, " Mata do Paraíso ", 02.xii.2014, leg. Pecci-Maddalena, Í.S.C. [printed] \ Fungo 1 Bicho 1 [printed] \ ex Lentinus brumalis    ; 2 males ( CELC, both dissected) “ Brasil: MG, Viçosa, " Mata do Paraíso "; xii.1999, leg. C. Lopes- Andrade & FZ Vaz-de-Mello ”  ; 2 females ( CELC, both dissected) “ Brasil: MG, Viçosa, " Mata do Paraíso ", 08.xii.2014, leg. Pecci-Maddalena, Í.S.C & Lopes-Andrade, C. \ Bicho 9 Fungo 9 \ ex Mycena  sp.”. 

Ecology. Mycotretus chilensis  has been collected in basidiomes of Lentinus brumalis (Pers.) Zmitr.  ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A – D; Polyporaceae  ) and Mycena  sp. ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 F; Mycenaceae  ). Mycotretus chilensis  and M. trifasciatus  are sympatric in Cantareira and Jabaquara, in the state of São Paulo; Rio Vermelho, in Santa Catarina; and Viçosa, in Minas Gerais. They were also found to be syntopic in Viçosa, where they were caught together on the same fungi in two field collections (see examined material). Like M. trifasciatus  , M. chilensis  has usually been collected during summer (see examined material).

Distribution. Southern and southeastern Brazil and a doubtful record from Chile ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8, green diamonds and black question mark).

Remarks. The lectotype was not dissected but we think it is probably a male, because its color pattern was observed in mostly males with gender confirmed by dissection. Likewise, the holotype of M. bicinctus  (junior synonym of M. chilensis  ) was not dissected but we think it is a female. It is worth mentioning that one paratype of M. bicinctus  with the same color pattern as the holotype was dissected and it is a female. The body of the lectotype is slightly more elongated than that of other specimens examined by us. The visibility of elytral rows of punctures on different specimens studied depends on the degree of pigmentation of specimens and the exact number of rows may be hard to establish. As we discuss below, the record of M. chilensis  for Chile is probably a case of a mislabeled specimen.

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MCNZ

Porto Alegre, Museu de Ciencias Naturais da Fundacao Zoo-Botanica do Rio Grande do Sul

MCN

McNeese State University

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Erotylidae

Genus

Mycotretus

Loc

Mycotretus chilensis Crotch, 1876

Pecci-Maddalena, Italo Salvatore De Castro & Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano 2017
2017
Loc

Mycotretus chilensis

Skelley 2001: 221
Alvarenga 1994: 22
Guerin 1952: 182
Blackwelder 1945: 466
Kuhnt 1909: 75
Crotch 1876: 454
Gemminger 1876: 3692
1876