Saperda populnea populnea (Linnaeus, 1758) .

Wallin, Henrik, Kvamme, Torstein & Bergsten, Johannes, 2017, To be or not to be a subspecies: description of Saperdapopulnealapponica ssp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) developing in downy willow (Salixlapponum L.), ZooKeys 691, pp. 103-148: 109-117

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.691.12880

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DE84C5D3-A257-414E-849D-70B5838799B0

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/706095C3-DB9E-39E1-F237-456D0CBA65E7

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Saperda populnea populnea (Linnaeus, 1758) .
status

 

Saperda populnea populnea (Linnaeus, 1758) .  Figs 6a, d, 8a, 9a, 10 a–b, e, g–h, k, m, o, 11a, 12c, 13

Cerambyx populneus  Linnaeus, 1758: 394 (original combination). There are three males preserved at LINN available for photo examination. 1 ♂ BL 11.1 mm ( LINN 8184), labelled “Populneus” on a pinned and old handwritten label and “57” (recent label added later corresponding to the number of the species in the original description by Linnaeus, type locality: “Europa” according to Linnaeus (1758), and habitat: Populus tremula  according to Linnaeus (1761)); 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm ( LINN 8185), no pinned label available; 1 ♂ BL 9.2 mm, no pinned label available.

Cerambyx decempunctatus  De Geer, 1775: 78 (synonymized by Breuning (1966) and Löbl and Smetana (2010)). Lectotype (here designated), ♂ BL 12.5 mm, Sweden, ex coll. De Geer, NHRS.

Leptura betulina  Geoffroy, 1785: 78 (synonymised by Breuning (1966) and Löbl and Smetana (2010)).

Saperda salicis  Zetterstedt, 1818: 258 (synonymised by Gyllenhal, 1827, Dejean, 1835; Breuning (1966) and Löbl and Smetana (2010)). Lectotype (here designated), ♂ BL 11.5 mm, Sweden, Skåne, Abusa, Lund (insect pin supplied with a small, square bright yellow label), 1818-08, on Salix viminalis  L, leg. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU.

Saperda populi  Duméril, 1860: 607 (synonymised by Breuning (1966) and Löbl and Smetana (2010)).

Saperda ab. bickhardti  Sattler, 1918: 200 (synonymised by Breuning (1966)).

Saperda f. kavani  Roubal, 1933: 133 (synonymised by Breuning (1966)).

Saperda ab. quadripunctata  Podaný, 1953: 52 (synonymised by Breuning (1966)).

Examined specimens.

Sweden: 1 ♀ BL 12.5 mm, ~1818, Skåne, SE Lund, Räften Abusa etc., (insect pin supplied with a small bright yellow label), ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♀ BL 14.0 mm, ~1818, Skåne, E Lund, Björntorps säteri (insect pin supplied with small red and yellow labels), ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♀ 13.0mm, ~1818, Skåne, labelled var. b., ex coll. J. V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♀ BL 13.0 mm, ~1818, Skåne, SE Lund, Räften Abusa etc., (insect pin supplied with a small bright yellow label), ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♀ BL 13.0 mm, ~1818, ex coll. J. V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, ~1818, Skåne, Kiviks Esperöd, (insect pin supplied with a small blue label), ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♂ BL 10.5 mm, ~1818, Skåne, E Lund, Björntorps säteri (insect pin supplied with small red and yellow labels), ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♀ BL 14.0 mm, ~1818, Skåne, E Lund, Björntorps säteri (insect pin supplied with small red and yellow labels), ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, ~1818, Skåne, E Lund, Björntorps säteri (insect pin supplied with small red and yellow labels), ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♂ BL 11.5 mm, ~1818, Skåne, labelled Cer. 10-punctata, ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, ~1818, Skåne, SE Lund, Räften Abusa etc., (insect pin supplied with a small bright yellow label), ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♀ BL 12.0 mm, ~1818, Skåne, SE Lund, Räften Abusa etc., (insect pin supplied with a small bright yellow label), ex coll. J.V. Zetterstedt, MZLU; 1 ♂ BL 11.5mm, Uppland, Uppsala, Stabby, 1991-04-19, ex larva from Populus  , leg. H. Wallin, HW; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, Norrbotten, Blåkölen, 1983-07-03, leg. S. Lundberg, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 13.0 mm, Norrbotten, Kalix, Kosjärv, 1956-12, ex larva from Populus tremula  , leg. S. Lundberg, NHRS; 1 ♀ BL 15.0 mm, Norrbotten, Kalix, Kosjärv, 1956-12, ex larva from Populus tremula  , leg. S. Lundberg, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, Norrbotten, Kalix, 1994-06-30, leg. S. Lundberg, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, Småland, Åseda, ex larva from Salix  , 1974-12-26, leg. B. Gustafsson, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 12.2 mm, Uppland, Båtfors, 1987-06-15, leg. S. Lundberg, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 11.5 mm, Halland, Släp, 1965-05-02, leg. L. Huggert, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, Västerbotten, Umeå, 1969-05-09, leg. L. Huggert, NHRS; 1 ♀ BL 13.0 mm, Norrbotten, Pajala, 1976-07-13, on Populus tremula  , leg., C. Eliasson, GNM; 1 ♂ BL 10.5 mm, Bohuslän, Högås (Sund), 1947-06-16, leg. H. Arvall, NMG; 1 ♀ BL 12.0 mm, Östergötland, Omberg, 1983-06-02, on Salix  tree, leg. S. Lundberg, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 12.2 mm, Uppland, Uppsala, 1984-05, ex larva from Salix  tree, leg. S. Lundberg, NHRS; 1 ♀ BL 13.4 mm, Öland, Räpplinge, 1976-05-03, on Populus  tree, leg. B. Gustafsson, NHRS; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, Västergötland, Amundön, 1968-12-31, ex larva, leg. L. Huggert, NHRS; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, Södermanland, Nacka, Storängen, 1972-07-27, ex larva from Populus tremula  reared 1973-05-22, leg. L. Hole, CHW; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, Uppland, Knutby, 1991-05, ex larva from Salix  tree, leg. H. Wallin, CHW; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, Uppland, Knutby, Kamsgärd, 2001-07-22/29, collected in a window trap, leg. H. Wallin, CHW; 1 ♀ BL 12.8 mm, Uppland, Bladåker, 1996-07-03, on Populus tremula  , leg. H. Wallin, CHW; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, Medelpad, Sillre, leg, S. Adebratt, CUN; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, Östergötland, Omberg, Stora Klint, 1983-05-25, leg. S. Adebratt, CUN; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, Uppland, Knutby, 2014-11-22, reared from Populus tremula  , leg. Å. Lindelöw, CÅL; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, Uppland, Knutby, 2014-11-22, reared from Populus tremula  , leg. Å. Lindelöw, CÅL; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm and 1 ♂ BL 11.3 mm, Uppland, Knivsta, 2014-10-02 (emerged 2015-02 from Populus tremula  ), leg. H. Wallin, CHW; 1 ♂ BL 11.5 mm Västerbotten, Skellefteå, 2014-05-15 (emerged 2015-02 from Populus tremula  ), CHW; 1 ♀ BL 11.0 mm, Dalarna, Los, 1924-05-25, leg. O. Sjöberg, NHRS-COLE 00007445; 1 ♀ BL 12.5 mm, Västergötland, Essunga, leg. Fogelqvist, NHRS-COLE 00007444; 1 ♀ BL 12.0 mm, Västergötland, Skövde, 1926-08-30, leg. Erlandsson, NHRS-COLE 00007431; 1 ♂ BL 12.5 mm Skåne, Sandhammaren, Bjäringeborg, 1947-06-28, leg. G. Wängsjö, NHRS-COLE 00007430; 1 ♀ BL 13.8 mm Östergötland, Norrköping, 1925-05-20, leg. G. Wängsjö, NHRS-COLE 00007424; 1 ♂ BL 11.8 mm, Blekinge, Sjöarp, 1939-06-14, leg. B. Gaunitz, NHRS-COLE 00007419; 1 ♀ BL 11.0 mm, Värmland, Filipstad, 1932-07-22, leg. K. Sidenbladh, NHRS-COLE 00007456; 1 ♀ BL 13.0 mm, Småland, Tranås, 1953-06-09, leg. L.A.H. Lindgren, NHRS-COLE 00007462; 1 ♂ BL 11.5 mm, Närke, Örebro, leg. E. Wieslander, NHRS-COLE 00007482; 1 ♀ BL 13,5 mm, Västergötland, Borås, 1938-06-13, leg. S. Åberg, NHRS; 1 ♀ BL 12.0 mm, Da larna, Tällberg, 1958-03-25, leg. T-E. Leiler, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 11.5 mm, "Oel., Bhn." ( Öland?), ex coll. Boheman), NHRS no. 8131 E94; 1 ♀ BL 14.5 mm, Stockholm, Sweden, ex coll. Hoffstein 1850-1916, NHRS-COLE 00007441; 1 ♀ BL 12.8 mm, Uppland, Uppsala, 1907, leg. O. Sjöberg, NHRS-COLE 00007442; 1 ♀ BL 13.0 Öland, leg. Ahlrot, NHRS-COLE 00007420; 1 ♀ BL 14.0 mm, Bohuslän, Ödsmål, leg. B.H. Hanson, NHRS-COLE 00007414; 1 ♀ BL 14.0 mm, Halland, Vessige, leg. Fogelqvist, NHRS-COLE 00007408; 1 ♂ BL 11.5 mm, Skåne, Hallands Väderö, 1951-06-22, leg. O. Lundblad, NHRS-COLE 00007402; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, Skåne, Hallands Väderö, 1951-06-22, leg. O. Lundblad, NHRS-COLE 00007400; 1 ♀ BL 14.0 mm, Skåne, Hallands Väderö, 1951-06-22, leg. O. Lundblad, NHRS-COLE 00007401; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, Öland, Ålebäck, 1947, Bg, NHRS-COLE 00007506; 1 ♀ BL 12.3 mm, Värmland, Filipstad, 1932, NHRS-COLE 00007457; 1 ♀ BL 14.5 mm, Uppland, Frösunda, 1955-12-04 (emerged from Populus tremula  ), leg. T-E. Leiler, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, Västerbotten, Umeå, 1969-05-09, leg. L. Huggert, NHRS. Finland: 1 ♂ BL 11.5 mm, Hammaslahti, Joensuu, 1938-06-05, leg. P. Koutkanen, NHRS; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, Finland, ex coll. Schönherr., NHRS no. 8132 E94. Norway: 1♀ BL 12.2 mm, 23.06.1915 and 1♀ BL 10.9 mm 15.06.1915, Ø, Fr. Hald (= Fredrikshald/Halden), leg. H. K. Hanssen (ex coll. Andreas Strand), ZMUB; 1♀ BL 13.2 mm, 1♂ BL 11.3 mm, 1♀ BL 13.6 mm and 1♀ BL 13.9 mm, Ø, Fr. Hald (= Fredrikshald/ Halden), 1905, leg. Lyche (ex coll. Ing. Tambs-Lyche), ZMUB (e c G1994); 1♀ BL 12.8 mm, Ø, Fr. Stad (= Fredrikstad), 20.05.1895 (ex coll. E. Sandberg) ZMUB (e c G1994); 1♂ BL 10.9 mm, Ø, Aaldenborgilen (= Oldenborgila), Fr.stad (= Fredrikstad/Halden), 29.05.1895, leg. A. Wollebæk, ZMUB (e c M2951); 1 ♂ BL 10.5 mm, Ø, Aaldenborgilen (= Oldenborgila), Fr.stad (= Fredrikstad), 1895-05-26, leg. A. Wollebæk, NHMO; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, Ø, Aaldenborgilen (= Oldenborgila), Fr.stad (= Fredrikstad), 1895-05-26, leg. A. Wollebæk, NHMO; 1♀ BL 12.5 mm, Ø, Romskogen (= Rømskog), Leg. Holmboe according to Andreas Strand, (ex coll. Andreas Strand) ZMUB; 1♀ BL 12.3 mm, Ø, Romskog (= Rømskog), Leg. Holmboe according to Andreas Strand, (ex coll. Andreas Strand), ZMUB; 1 ♂ BL 10.5 mm, AK, Kristiania (= Oslo), leg. Siebeke, NHMO; 1♀ BL 13.6 mm, AK, Bygdø (in Oslo), 12. 07.1907, leg. Lyche (ex coll. Ing. Tambs-Lyche) ZMUB (e c G1994); 1 ♂ BL 11.3 mm, EIS 37, AK, Sørum, Sørliløkka, Dammyra, 1991-06-17, leg. O. Sørlibråten, COS; 1 ♂ BL 10.5 mm, AK, Oslo, Brannfjell, 2007-06-05, inside gall on Populus tremula  , leg. A. E. Laugsand, CAEL; 1 ♀ BL 12.0 mm, AK, Oslo, Brannfjell, 2007-06-05, inside gall on Populus tremula  , leg. A. E. Laugsand, CAEL; 1♀ BL 13.4 mm, AK, V. Aker, Oslo, 1907, Leg. Lyche (Ex coll. Ing. Tambs-Lyche) ZMUB (e c G 1994); 1♂ BL 11.7 mm, 1♂ BL 12.3 mm and 1♀ BL 12.7 mm, AK, Bækkelag (in Oslo), before 1892, leg. N. G. Moe?, ZMUB (e c G1995); 1♂ BL 11.1 mm and 1♀ BL 12.0 mm, AK, Kristiania (= Oslo), before 1884, Leg. Esmark, ZMUB (e c M2950); 1♀ 10.5 mm and 1♂ BL 11.4 mm, AK, Kristiania (= Oslo), leg. Warloe?, (ex coll. Andreas Strand) ZMUB; 1♀ BL 13.7 mm, AK, Brønnøya, Asker, 15.06.1961, leg. Andreas Strand, (ex coll. Andreas Strand) ZMUB; 1♀ BL 12.5 mm, AK, Brønnøya, Asker, 16.06.1934, leg. Andreas Strand, (ex coll. Andreas Strand) ZMUB; 1 ♀ BL 12.5 mm, AK, Drøbak, before 1939, leg. Warloe, ZMUB (e c M2952); 1♂ BL 10.3 mm, AK, Drøbak, 03.06.1895, leg. Warloe, (ex coll. Andreas Strand) ZMUB; 1♀ BL 12.8 mm, AK, Drøbak, 06.08.1895, leg. Warloe, (ex coll. Andreas Strand) ZMUB; 1 ♀ BL 14.1 mm, AK, Drøbak, 01.06.1895, leg. Warloe, ZMUB (e c M2952); 1 ♂ BL 11.2 mm, AK, Drøbak, 03.06.1895, leg. Warloe, (ex coll. Andreas Strand) ZMUB; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, AK, Drøbak, 1891-06-25, leg. Warloe, NHMO; 1 ♂ BL 11.5 mm, AK, Drøbak, 1891-06-25, leg. Warloe, NHMO; 1 ♀ BL 14.3 mm and 1♂ BL 11.3 mm, VE, Nøterø (= Nøtterøy), 20.VI.1921, Leg. H. Tambs-Lyche, (ex coll. Ing. Tambs-Lyche) ZMUB (e c G1994); 1♀ BL 12.3 mm, VE, Tjømø (= Tjøme), 08.07.1909, Leg. Lyche, (ex coll. Ing. Tambs-Lyche) ZMUB; 1♀ BL 11.0 mm, VE, Kjære, Tjøme, 09.06.1965, on osp (= Populus tremula  ) Leg. A. Fjellberg, ZMUB; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, VE, Sandefjord, 1978-07-20, on Populus tremula  , leg. A. Vik, (coll. NIBIO) NHMO; 1♂ BL 11.6 mm, AAY, Risør, 26.05.1918, leg. Warloe, (Ex coll. Andreas Strand) ZMUB; 1♀ BL 13.6 mm, RY, Fotlandsvatn, Eigersund, 29.05.1973, A. Fjeldså, ZMUB. Germany: 1 ♂ S. populnea var. quadripunctata  Podaný BL 11.2 mm, Westfalen, 1966-06-09, leg. K. W. Stockmann (id 1377), MZH; 1 ♀ BL 12.3 mm, Märzat, 1920-05-27, NHRS no. 8136 E94; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, Boruss. (= Prussia), Mewes, NHRS no. 8137 E94; 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, Boruss. (= Prussia), Mewes, NHRS no. 8138 E94; 1 ♂ BL 12.0 mm, Boruss. (= Prussia), Mewes, NHRS no. 8141 E94; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, Heidelberg, det. E. F. Gilmour, NHRS no. 8140 E94. Austria: 1 ♂ BL 10.5 mm, “Austria”, leg. Ferrari, NHRS no. 8133 E94; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, “Austria”, leg. Ferrari, NHRS no. 8134 E94; 1♂ BL 11.3 mm, Umbegung von Wien, leg. ?, (ex coll. Andreas Strand) ZMUB. France: 1 ♀ BL 13.6 mm, Gallia Meridionalis (=South France), Tarnier, NHRS no. 8139 E94; 1 ♂ BL 11.7 mm, La Roquebrussanne (Var), 2008-06, local collector, CHW; 1 ♀ BL 13.5mm, La Roquebrussanne (Var), 2008-06, local collector, CHW; 1 ♂ BL 10.5 mm, Aramon, Var, 2015-05-12/15, CHW; 1 ♀ BL 11.0 mm, Aramon, Var, 2015-05-12/15, CHW. Switzerland: 1 ♀ BL 13.5 mm, 1 ♀ BL 12.5 mm, 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm and 1 ♂ BL 10.1 mm, Münstertal, Santa Maria, 1400 m, 1953-06-19/22, leg. Lindberg, MZH. Czech Republic: 1 ♀ BL 12.5 mm, Zbraslav (Prag), 1990-05, leg. Rejzek, CHW. Czech Republic or Poland: 1 ♀ BL 13.0 mm, Märztdorf, leg. Weisse, NHRS no. 8135 E94; 1 ♂ BL 11.0 mm, Märztdorf, leg. Weisse, NHRS no. 8135 E94. Kazakhstan: 1 ♀ BL 11.0 mm, S. Kazachstan, Alma-Ata, 2000-2300 m, 1977-06-20-07-05, leg. V. Dolin, det. M. Danilevsky 2003, CCH. Indonesia[?]: 1 ♀ BL 12.5 mm, “Java”, ex coll. Schönherr, NHRS no. 8142 E94.

Additional material examined.

The following specimens are available through Boldsystems Public Data Portal and MZH for photo examination and include: Finland: 1 ♂ COLFA145-10, Northern Ostrobothnia (= Österbotten), Oulu, ex larva April 2005, leg. Mikko Pentinsaari, Marko Mutanen, id MP00407, ZMUO; 1 ♂ COLFA177-10, SW Finland, Eurajoki (N. Rauma), ex larva 1996, Salix phylicifolia  , leg. Juhani Itaemies, id MP00439, ZMUO; 1 ♀ COLFA178-10, Nylandia, Uusimaa, Espoo, ex larva 1997, Populus tremula  , leg. Juhani Itaemies, id MP00440, ZMUO; 1 ♀ COLFA179-10, Nylandia, Uusimaa, Espoo, ex larva 1996, Populus tremula  , leg. Juhani Itaemies, id MP00441, ZMUO; 1 ♀ COLFA180-10, SW Finland, Satakunta, Rauma, ex larva 1982, Populus tremula  , leg. Juhani Itaemies, id MP00442, ZMUO; 1 ♂ COLFA182-10, SW Finland, Mynaemaeki, ex larva 1996, Salix caprea  , leg. Juhani Itaemies, id MP00444, ZMUO; 1 ♀ COLFA186-10, SW Finland, Lappi (SE Rauma), ex larva 1992, Salix caprea  , leg. Juhani Itaemies, id MP00448, ZMUO; 1 ♂ COLFA188-10, Uusimaa, Nylandia, Kirkkonummi (= SE Lohja), ex larva 2003, leg. Erkki Laasonen, id MP00450, ZMUO; 1 ♂ COLFA189-10, Satakunta, SW Rauma, ex larva 1982, Populus tremula  , leg. Juhani Itaemies, id MP00451, ZMUO; 1 ♀ COLFA190-10, Satakunta, Rauma, ex larva 1991, Salix phylicifolia  , leg. Juhani Itaemies, id MP00452, ZMUO; 1 ♂ COLFA575-12, Nylandia, Uusimaa, Vartiokylae (= SE Vantaa), 2008-06-27, leg. Sami Haapala, id MP00452, ZMUO; 1 ♀ Porvoo, 31.12.1965 (ex larva), leg. H. Valtari, MZH; 1 ♀ Turku (= Åbo), 2.2.1971 (ex larva), leg. E. Linnaluoto, MZH; 1 ♀ Ruokolahti, Haloniemi, 22.6.1948, leg. W. Hellén, MZH; 1 ♀ Ruokolahti, Rasila, Patjasuo, 22.6.1948, collector unknown, MZH; 1 ♀ Kuhmoinen, collection date not available, leg. M. Pohjola, MZH; 1 ♀ Kirkkonummi, 4.6.1919, leg. Håkan Lindberg, MZH; 1 ♀ Borgå, Seitlax, 18.6.1920, leg. Thuneberg, MZH; 1 ♀ Kouvola, Voikkaa, date not available, leg. Paulamo, MZH; 1 ♀ Kangasala (= E. Tampere), collection date not available, leg. Grönblom, MZH; 1 ♀ Hämeenlinna, Vanaja, 31.12.1957 (ex larva), leg. Valkeila, MZH; 1 ♀ Mikkeli, 30.1.2001 (ex larva), leg. M. Koponen, MZH; 1 ♀ Kankaanpää, collection date not available, leg. M. Pohjola, MZH; 1 ♀ Kokemäki, Kauvatsa, 2.7.1934, leg. R. Elfving, MZH; 1 ♀ Parikkala, Laurila, 16-27.6.1940, leg. S. Hellén, MZH; 1 ♀ Kouvola, Kuusankoski, 31.12.1986 (ex larva), leg. J. Jantunen, MZH; 1 ♂ Lapua, 31.12.1971 (ex larva), leg. R. Järvenpää, MZH; 1 ♂ Keuruu, 31.12.1971 (ex larva), leg. R. Järvenpää, MZH; 1 ♀ Jyväskylä, 30.01.1975 (ex larva), leg. J. Jalava, MZH; 1 ♀ Pieksämäki, 30.01.1975 (ex larva), leg. J. Jalava, MZH; 1 ♂ Kuopio, collection date not available, leg. Kurkiharju, MZH; 1 ♀ Kitee, 31.12.1938 (ex larva), leg. J. Kaisila, MZH; 1 ♀ Juuka, 2.7.1949, leg. Wegelius, MZH; 1 ♀ Joensuu, collection date not available, J. Carpelan, MZH; 1 ♀ Hangö (= Hankö), Lappvik, 16.6.2009, leg. H. Silfverberg, MZH; 1 ♀ Parainen, Nauvo, 16.6.1960, leg. A. Nordman, MZH; 1 ♂ Loppi, 30.6.1943, leg. A. Saarinen, MZH. Russia: 1 ♂ Republic of Karelia, Viipuri (= Vyborg), 18.6.1920, leg. Thuneberg, MZH; 1 ♀ Leningrad (= St. Petersburg) Oblast, Kuolemajärvi (Pionerskoye), 10.6.1917, leg. M. Ivaschinzeff, MZH; 1 ♀ Republic of Karelia, Impilahti (= Impilaks), collection date not available, leg. Forsius, MZH.

Redescription.

A medium-sized and subcylindrical species with body length 9.0-15.0 mm according to e.g. Freude et al. (1966), Bilý and Mehl (1989), Bense (1995) and Ehnström and Holmer (2007). Measurements from the present study; females: BL 11.0-15.0 mm and males: BL 10.5-13.0 mm. Body 3.1 times longer than wide in females and 3.3 times longer than wide in males (Fig. 6a, d). Integument black, the compressed pubescence is orange-brown, with numerous long, erected dark brown hairs. The orange-brown pubescence relatively dense in males and from dense to very dense in females, resulting in females being more orange-brown, and males grayish to orange-brown (Fig. 6a, d). The orange-brown pubescence is extended laterally in females, especially on pronotum, anterior part of elytra and abdomen (Fig. 8a).

Head in females. Frons convex and broader than long (about 4.7 times broader than the width of one eye lobe), eyes with lower eye lobes longer than broad and, as long as, or slightly longer than gena below. Head with frons more or less “square-formed” in many female specimens, genae straight and acutely narrowing towards mouthparts (Fig. 9a), frons densely covered with orange-brown pubescence and numerous dark brown, long and erected hairs. Genae posteriorly with long fringes of orange-brown hairs. The area between antennal segments is shallowly impressed. Head in males. Frons convex and broader than long (about 4.5 times broader than the width of one eye lobe), eyes with lower eye lobes longer than broad and 2-3 times longer than the short gena below. Head with frons rounded, genae straight and acutely narrowing towards mouthparts, frons densely covered with whitish and orange-brown pubescence and numerous dark brown, long and erected hairs. Genae posteriorly with long fringes of orange-brown hairs. The area between antennal segments is shallowly impressed. Mouthparts. Frontoclypeal margin with a fringe of relatively long orange-brown pubescence and long, orange brown, suberect hairs. Clypeus glabrous except at base. Labrum with appressed orange-brown pubescence and numerous long, suberect, orange-brown hairs. Antennae. Relatively slender, about as long as body in males (Fig. 6d), shorter in females (Fig. 6a). The length of antennae varies in males from antennae extending beyond apices by one antennomere to shorter than elytra by three antennomeres. The length of antennae varies less in females with antennae extending beyond the middle of elytra by 3-5 antennomeres. Antennae from third segment with annulation. Scape slender and coarsely punctured with a combination of large and small shallow punctures and long black hairs, subconical, third segment longer than first and fourth. Annulation on antennal segments greyish and covering about ¾ of the anterior part of each antennal segment. Thorax. Pronotum subcylindrical, slightly broader than long, lacking lateral spines. Pronotal disk convex, weak median line often with a glabrous and shining area medially, base shallowly impressed, coarse punctures except medially, densely covered with long erect and brown hairs, two broad lateral orange-brown stripes with a weak median line interrupted medially, prosternum densely pubescent with orange-brown hairs. Elytra. 2.5-2.9 times longer than broad in females and 2.7-3.0 times longer than broad in males. No carinae present. Parallel and weakly narrowing towards apices, apices narrowing and rounded, punctures coarse, deep, contiguous towards humeri and apices and confluent medially (especially in males where confluent punctures form short and weakly raised ridges transversally on each elytron), pubescence dense to very dense. There are normally eight distinct and large, orange-brown spots on elytra (apart from an irregular patch of orange-brown pubescence often occurring towards apices). The eight rounded spots are arranged in pairs with the first and third near the suture; each spot in the third pair often elongated transversally or even divided into two spots each; spots in the fourth pair sometimes slightly elongated longitudinally. One or more pairs of spots may be obsolete or rarely missing (particularly in old worn specimens). The remaining part of elytra is covered with scattered orange-brown pubescence and numerous long brown hairs. Scutellum. “U-shaped” and covered with orange-brown hairs, the hairs are mostly concentrated to the middle of scutellum. Hind wing. About 12.0 mm long in females and about 10.0 mm long in males (Fig. 11a). Covered with a weak smoky tint. Several veins are broken with apical portions not connected to basal portions. MP3 (rudimentary), MP4 and AA vein distinct although broken. Radial cell very strong and complete (Fig. 11a). Legs. Relatively short, densely covered with a fine whitish pubescence including tarsi; tarsal claws lacking a process. Venter. Densely covered with orange-brown pubescence in both sexes, prosternal process narrow and flattened anteriorly. Mesosternum and abdominal ventrites are densely covered with orange-brown pubescence and numerous yellowish and long, erected hairs. Posterior margin of sternite VII mostly rounded but sometimes weakly notched medially. Male terminalia. Aedeagus 2.1-2.5 mm long, weakly curved towards apex and compressed dorso-ventrally (Figs 10 a–b, 9e), dorsal surface smooth and shining with apical part strongly to moderately narrowed towards apex (Fig. 10e). Tegmen with parameres: 2.2-2.7 mm long with tegmen mostly twisted dorso-ventrally (Fig. 10k). Parameres acutely narrowing towards apex, with dorsal surface densely covered with punctures and suberected setae. The inner margins mostly well separated and diverging towards apices (Fig. 10h) but sometimes projecting inwards (Fig. 10g). Tergite VIII 0.7-1.0 mm long relatively large and rounded with a posterior margin concave in the middle and densely covered with dense white pubes cence and numerous long brown hairs (Fig. 10o). Sclerite inside internal sac: 1.8-2.2 mm long consisting of three parallel “shaft-like” structures of which the apical end (top) is elongated and posterior end often extended and narrowing towards posterior end (Fig. 10m). The colour of male genitalia is brownish. Female terminalia. Tignum almost straight, 6.4-8.5 mm long (width 0.1-0.2 mm at the widest point apically). Tergite VIII posterior margin (width: 1.0 mm) with a few brown hairs. The colour is brown. Spermathecal capsule strongly sclerotised, yellowish, round and supplied with a short shaft, diameter: 0.5 mm.

Remarks.

Morphological characteristics of S. populnea populnea  are based on type specimens preserved at LINN (males). The host tree was claimed by Linnaeus (1761) to be Populus tremula  . S. populnea populnea  is a highly variable species, the most common form in Europe having extensive orange-brown pubescence on pronotum and elytra and four distinct pairs of orange-brown spots on elytra. The orange-brown pubescence on elytra (apart from the four pairs of spots) is often reduced especially in females, as a result of variation, but also in old worn specimens. The characters presented herein are therefore mainly based on newly hatched and fully sclerotised specimens reared from Populus tremula  .

Distribution.

S. populnea  is the most widespread and variable species within the genus, with populations occurring in almost the entire Palaearctic region from the British Isles in the west to Far East of Russia and China in the east ( Löbl and Smetana 2010). S. populnea populnea  is common in Fennoscandia, although less frequently found in Norway in the past. It was recorded from Northern Norway ( Strand 1946, Bily and Mehl 1989, Ehnström and Holmer 2007). We have not seen any of these specimen(s) from Northern or Western Norway and consequently, we do not know the identity of the subspecies. Distribution patterns over the past 200 years in Sweden show stable populations in the southern provinces, with only a few records in the Northern provinces, mainly along the coast ( Lindhe et al. 2010). Most records of the examined specimens of S. populnea populnea  from Fennoscandia are from coastal areas in southern Norway and Finland and numerous inland records from southern Sweden and Finland. Only a few specimens have been recorded in inland, northern Sweden (Fig. 13).

Biology.

Females form a "U-shaped mark" in the bark of Populus tremula  , on stems and branches 1-2 cm in diameter, forming a lid under which an egg is deposited. Usually, a single larva is tunnelling in the centre of the branch of living aspens, where the host tree responds by forming a more or less distinct gall ( Ehnström and Axelsson 2002, Lindhe et al. 2010). An attack by female larvae often results in larger galls than those initiated by male larvae (Fig. 12c). Normally, only scattered attacks can be found in the same habitat with only one or two galls on the same stem or twig. Damages caused by mass attack of S. populnea populnea  have been observed in many European countries (e. g. Schwenke 1974) as well as in Asia (e.g. Cherpanov 1991). In Sweden, Populus  plantations have been severely damaged ( Ehnström and Axelsson 2002). Today the species has become less abundant in Sweden. Only few and scattered records are known from northern Sweden ( Lindhe et al. 2010). The development takes 2 years. The biology and larval morphology of S. populnea  has been dealt with by many authors (e.g. Duffy 1953, Demelt 1966, Schwenke 1974, Cherepanov 1991, Švácha 2001, Ehnström and Axelsson 2002). We have included specimens of S. populnea populnea  from all Fennoscandian countries and as many northern records as possible (Fig. 13).

Host tree.

The preferred host tree is Populus tremula  as a number of authors have claimed (Tab. 2). A total of 16 other Populus  species and hybrids are attacked in Europe and Asia (Tab. 2). Many species of the genus Salix  are also reported to be attacked (Tab. 2). Amongst the specimens included in the present study, the majority was reared from Populus tremula  , while only a few specimens were reared from Salix caprea  L. and S. cinerea  L. S. populnea populnea  is also known to attack living branches and narrow stems of other trees and shrubs in Europe e.g. Corylus  spp. ( Bense 1995) and Betula  sp. ( Vives 2000, Sama 2002), although Betula  spp. has not been recorded as a host tree in any of the Nordic countries. We, therefore, question the validity of Betula  sp. as a host tree. Hua (2002) and CABI (2012) mentioned Quercus glauca  Thunb. (apart from five species of Populus  ) as a host tree in China. S. populnea populnea  has also been reared from stems of coppiced hedgerow ash ( Fraxinus excelsior  L.) in the UK ( Allen 1979) (Tab. 2).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Cerambycidae

Genus

Saperda