Syrioiulus armeniacus, Evsyukov & Golovatch & Antić, 2021

Evsyukov, Aleksandr P., Golovatch, Sergei I. & Antic, Dragan Z., 2021, The millipede genera Amblyiulus Silvestri, 1896 and Syrioiulus Verhoeff, 1914 in the Caucasus, with notes on their distributions (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae), ZooKeys 1048, pp. 109-143 : 109

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scientific name

Syrioiulus armeniacus

sp. nov.

Syrioiulus armeniacus sp. nov.

Figs 1F View Figure 1 , 13 View Figure 13 , 14 View Figure 14 , 15F View Figure 15 , 16 View Figure 16

Material examined.

Holotype ♂ (ZMUM), Armenia, Kafan Distr. , Shikahoh Nature Reserve, Shikahoh, 900-950 m a.s.l., Quercus , Fagus , Carpinus forest by spring, litter, logs and under stones, 28.IV.1983, leg. S. Golovatch. Paratypes: 14 ♂♂, 24 ♀♀ (ZMUM), same collection data as holotype .

Non-type material.

Armenia: 4 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀ (ZMUM), Shikahoh Nature Reserve, Nerkin And, old Platanus stand along river, litter, in rotten wood, under stones, 30.IV.1983; 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (ZMUM), near Kajaran, Megri Mt. Ridge, N of Tashtun Pass, 2000 m a.s.l., Quercus forest on steep slope, litter, logs, 27.IV.1983; 5 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, 2 juv. (ZMUM), Megri Distr., SSE of Lichk, Megri River valley, Quercus forest, litter, under stones and in rotten wood, 25.IV.1983; 2 ♂♂, 16 ♀♀, 2 juv. (ZMUM), above Kuris, 1500 m a.s.l., Quercus and Carpinus forest, litter, under bark and stones along spring, 26.IV.1983; 12 ♂♂, 11 ♀♀, 1 juv. (ZMUM), ca. 4 km NNW of Megri, Legvaz, Juglans and Quercus shrub with Paliurus and Rosa, litter and under stones, 1000 m a.s.l., 24-25.IV.1983; 5 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀ (ZMUM), 6 km N of Shvanidzor, sparse Quercus forest, 1200-1300 m a.s.l., litter, under stones and bark, 24.IV.1983; 5 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀, 2 juv. (ZMUM), environs of Megri, xeriphytous bare canyon, under stones, sparse Juniperus and Paliurus , ca. 1000 m a.s.l., 24.IV.1983, all leg. S. Golovatch; 2 ♀♀ (ZMUM), Odzun W of Alaverdi, 1500-1550 m a.s.l., Quercus , Fagus , Carpinus etc. forest, litter and under stones with ants, 23-24.V.1987, leg. S. Golovatch and K. Eskov; 1 ♀ (ZMUM), Nurkus, 7.VII.1985, leg. V.A. Zakharyan.


This new species belongs to the genus Syrioiulus because of the presence of only two apices on the opisthomere. Differs from all regional congeners by the following combination of somatic and gonopodal characters. Head with frontal setae. Collum and metazonae of following body rings without setae. Eyes absent. Solenomere with a pointed process apically. Anterior process rounded on top.


The new species is named after its terra typica; adjective.


Holotype: length 25 mm, width 1.2 mm, number of body rings 50+2+T. Paratypes and non-type material: length 17-33 mm, width 1.2-1.6 mm, number of body rings, 50-68+1-2+T (♂♂); or length 20-29 mm, width 1.2-1.6 mm, number of body rings, 46-55+2-3+T (♀♀). Body subcylindrical, metazonae brownish yellow, prozonae brownish grey (Figs 1F View Figure 1 , 13A-G View Figure 13 ). Head, collum and telson slightly lighter than body rings (Fig. 1F View Figure 1 ). Antennae, mouthparts, and legs yellow (Fig. 13A, C-E, G View Figure 13 ). Eyes absent. Metazonae with weakly developed, dense, and regular striations, 20-23 striae per quarter of metazonital surface, i.e., that between dorsal axial line and ozopore (Fig. 13D View Figure 13 ). Ozopores relatively large, situated between striae in touch with one of them, lying behind suture without touching it (Fig. 13H View Figure 13 ).

Antennae relatively long, in situ reaching segment 3. Head with 1+1 frontal, 9+9-10+10 labral and 2+2 supralabral setae (Fig. 13A-C View Figure 13 ). Gnathochilarium with three thick setae on each lamella lingualis; stipites with a group of 6-9 setae in medial part and three long setae in anterolateral part (Fig. 13I View Figure 13 ). Collum and metazonae without setae (Fig. 13A, B View Figure 13 ). Epiproct poorly developed, triangular, with several long setae (Fig. 13E, F View Figure 13 ). Hypoproct subtriangular, covered with long setae (Fig. 13G View Figure 13 ). Telson and anal valves densely setose.

Male. Mandibular stipites modified, slightly swollen in distal part (Fig. 13A View Figure 13 ). Leg pair 1 small, unciform, telopodites directed anteromesad (typical of Julidae ), with a group of setae on coxa and telopodite (Fig. 13J View Figure 13 ). Leg pair 2 with small pads on postfemur and tibia (Fig. 13K View Figure 13 ). Penes short, bifurcate. Ventral edge of male pleurotergum 7 with wide curved lamellae bordering the gonopodal aperture (Fig. 13L View Figure 13 ).

Gonopods (Fig. 14 View Figure 14 ) with anterior and posterior parts both equal in height. Promere spoon-shaped, bowl being relatively wide, constricted in basal third; mesal ridge well-developed all along, with a small mesal denticle in apical part; lateral denticle large, rounded on top (Fig. 14B, F View Figure 14 ). Mesomeral process simple, flattened, ribbon-shaped, widened apically, with a group of small teeth (Fig. 14A, C, E, G View Figure 14 ). Opisthomere bipartite. Solenomere long, slightly curved; its apical part with a fovea and a pointed process (Fig. 14A, C, D, G View Figure 14 ). Anterior process as high as solenomere, rounded at tip (Fig. 14D View Figure 14 ).

Female. First two leg pairs unmodified. Vulva rounded, operculum higher than bursa (Fig. 15F View Figure 15 ). Operculum slightly divided at apical margin. Bursa asymmetric, lateral valve higher than mesal one. Each valve with two rows of long setae. Median field of bursa narrow; emargination of median field elongated and suboval.


This species seems to be endemic to the Caucasus Minor within Armenia, but most likely it also occurs in the adjacent parts of eastern Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran (Fig. 16 View Figure 16 ).