Cinachyrella australiensis (Carter, 1886)
Santodomingo, Nadiezhda & Becking, Leontine E., 2018, Unravelling the moons: review of the genera Paratetilla and Cinachyrella in the Indo-Pacific (Demospongiae, Tetractinellida, Tetillidae), ZooKeys 791, pp. 1-46: 13-16
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|Cinachyrella australiensis (Carter, 1886)|
Tethya cranium var. australiensis Carter, 1886: 127 (holotype seen).
Tetilla? australiensis ; Sollas, 1888: 43.
Spiretta raphidiophora Lendenfeld, 1888: 43 (type seen).
Tetilla hirsuta Dendy, 1889: 75 (type seen).
Tetilla australiensis ; Thiele, 1899: 6, pl.1 fig.1; pl. 5, fig.1 a-e. Celebes Sea.
Tetilla lindgreni Lendenfeld, 1903: 18.
Tetilla australiensis ; Lendenfeld, 1903: 20.
Tethya hebes Lendenfeld, 1907: 98, pl. XVI, figs 19-38. 19'South NW Australia, 91 m depth (syntype seen).
Cinachyra isis Lendenfeld, 1907: 143, pl. XV, figs 54-58, XVI, figs 1-4. Mermaid Strasse (NW Australia) (syntype seen); Dendy, 1922: 16, pl. 10, figs 3a-b.
Tetilla cinachyroides Hentschel, 1911: 281, textfig. 1. NW Australia, Barrow Island.
Cinachyra nuda Hentschel, 1912:333, pl. XIII, fig.2; pl. XVIII fig. 13. Aru Island (type seen).
Cinachyra vaccinata Dendy, 1922: 14, pl. 1, fig. 4; pl. 11, figs 1a-l. Diego Garcia, Chagos Island (type seen).
Cinachyra providentiae Dendy, 1922: 18, pl.1, figs 5-5a; pl. 10, figs2 a–f. Providence Island (type seen).
Tetilla (Cinachyrella) hirsuta ; Wilson, 1925: 365, pl. 39, fig.4.
Cinachyrella anatriaenilla Fernandez, Kelly, Bell, 2017: 83, figs 2-4.
Holotype NHMUK 1822.214.171.1247, Port Phillip Heads, Southeast Australia (as Tethya cranium var. australiensis ). Holotype NHMUK 18126.96.36.1994, Port Jackson, Sidney, Australia (as Spiretta raphidiophora Lendenfeld, 1888). NHMUK unreg. type, Gulf of Manaar, Sri Lanka (as Tetilla hirsuta Dendy, 1889). NHMUK 18188.8.131.52 Christmas islands (as Tetilla ternatensis Kirkpatrick, 1900). Holotype NHMUK 1908.9.24.19-21, 19°17'S 116°E, Gazelle Exp., Western Australia, (as Tethya hebes Lendenfeld, 1907). Syntype NHMUK 1908.9.24.74, Mermaid Strait, NW Australia (as Cinachyra isis Lendenfeld, 1907). RMNH unreg. fragment taken from the type (pers. comm. NJ de Voogd) and available in Naturalis collections, Aru Island, Indonesia, as Cinachyra nuda Hentschel, 1912. Holotype NHMUK 19184.108.40.206, Diego Garcia, Chagos Islands (as Cinachyra vaccinata Dendy, 1922). Holotype NHMUK 19220.127.116.11, Providence Island, Seychelles (as Cinachyra providentiae Dendy, 1922). INDONESIA. East Kalimantan, Berau reef, RMNH.POR.11101, RMNH.POR.11102, RMNH.POR.11103, RMNH.POR.11104, RMNH.POR.11105, RMNH.POR.11106, RMNH.POR.11107, RMNH.POR.11108, RMNH.POR.11109, RMNH.POR.11110, RMNH.POR.11111, RMNH.POR11112, RMNH.POR.11113, RMNH.POR.11114, RMNH.POR.11115, RMNH.POR.11116, RMNH.POR.11117, RMNH.POR.11210, RMNH.POR.11124, RMNH.POR.11125, RMNH.POR.11126, RMNH.POR.11127, RMNH.POR.11128, RMNH.POR.11129, RMNH.POR.11130, RMNH.POR.11118, RMNH.POR.11119, RMNH.POR.11120, RMNH.POR.11121, RMNH.POR.11122, RMNH.POR.11123; RMNH.POR.11132; RMNH.POR.11133, RMNH.POR.11134, RMNH.POR.11135, RMNH.POR.11136; Pea Bay, RMNH.POR.11162; Haji Buang Lake, RMNH.POR.11137, RMNH.POR.3511, RMNH. POR.3512, RMNH.POR.3513, RMNH.POR.3516, RMNH.POR.3517; Kakaban Lake, RMNH.POR.11161, RMNH.POR.11138, RMNH.POR.11139, RMNH.POR.11140, RMNH.POR.11141, RMNH.POR.11142, RMNH.POR.11143, RMNH.POR.11144, RMNH.POR.11145, RMNH.POR.11146, RMNH.POR.11147, RMNH.POR.11148, RMNH.POR.11149, RMNH.POR.11150, RMNH.POR.11151, RMNH.POR.11152, RMNH.POR.11153, RMNH.POR.11154, RMNH.POR.11155, RMNH.POR.11156, RMNH.POR.11157, RMNH.POR.11158, RMNH.POR.11159, RMNH.POR.11160. Java, Thousand Islands, RMNH.POR.1969. Ternate , Ternate reef, RMNH.POR.11308. Sulawesi, Bunaken, RMNH.POR.3108, RMNH.POR.3112, RMNH.POR.3119, RMNH.POR.3122. West Papua, Sawaundarek Lake, RMNH.POR.11163, RMNH.POR.11164, RMNH.POR.11165, RMNH.POR.11166, RMNH.POR.11167; Gam Island, Wallace Lake, RMNH.POR.11168, RMNH.POR.11169 Outside Wallace Lake, RMNH.POR.11170, RMNH.POR.11171, RMNH.POR.11172, RMNH.POR.11173; Gam Island, Blue Water Mangrove, RMNH.POR.11174, RMNH.POR.11175, RMNH.POR.11176, RMNH.POR.11177, RMNH.POR.11178, RMNH.POR.11179, RMNH.POR.11180, RMNH.POR.11181, RMNH.POR.11182, RMNH.POR.11183, RMNH.POR.11184, RMNH.POR.11185, RMNH.POR.11186, RMNH.POR.11187, RMNH.POR.11188, RMNH.POR.11189, RMNH.POR.11190, RMNH.POR.11191, RMNH.POR.11192; Ctenophore Lake, RMNH.POR.11193, RMNH.POR.11194, RMNH.POR.11195, RMNH.POR.11196, RMNH.POR.11197; Outside Ctenophore Lake, RMNH.POR.11198, RMNH.POR.11199, RMNH.POR.11200, RMNH.POR.11201; Big Caulerpa Lake, RMNH.POR.11202, RMNH.POR.11203; Outside Big Caulerpa lake, RMNH.POR.11204; Gam Island, RMNH.POR.11205, RMNH.POR.11206.
Other material: Singapore, RMNH.POR.3520, RMNH.POR.2440, RMNH.POR. 2505.
Other types and material examined (not included as synonyms of C. australiensis ): NHMUK 1818.104.22.168. Macclesfield Bank, South China Sea Cinachyra schulzei (unpublished material). Holotype NHMUK 1908.9.24.75 Red Sea, Cinachyra trochiformis Keller, 1891. Holotype NHMUK 1907.2.1.14, Gulf of Manaar, Sri Lanka, Tetilla poculifera Dendy, 1905. Holotype NHMUK 1922.214.171.124, Tella Tella Kebira, Red Sea, Chrotella ibis Row, 1911. RMNH unreg. fragment taken from the type (pers. comm. NJ de Voogd) available in Naturalis collections, Kei Island, Indonesia, Cinachyra mertoni Hentschel, 1912.
External morphology. Globular sponges, size from 4 to 10 cm in diameter (Figure 6A, B). Surface hispid due to the projecting spicules; covered by numerous porocalices. Porocalices are abundant bowl-shape with open oval apertures, up to 10 × 5 mm and 5 mm deep, or bottle-shape, up to 18 × 6.5 mm, with minuscule apertures (2-3 mm diameter), size of porocalices can vary between habitats; a cloaca, defined as a central exhalant cavity (Boury-Esnault and Rützler, 1997), is distinguishable at the top of some specimens (Figure 6A); in preserved material some porocalices are open. Color generally bright yellow when alive, which turns paler or even white in ethanol. In the field, the sponge can appear brownish due to sediment or greenish due to association with algae.
Skeleton. No cortex. Skeleton composed by bundles of oxeas and triaenes radiating from a central core.
Megascleres. Holotype and Indonesian specimens’ measurements are shown in Table 6. Holotype, oxeas 3375 –4135.5– 5500 mm × 15 –24.7– 37.5 mm (Figure 6D, K); no triaenes were observed in the type specimen; in Carter’s description, protriaenes are described (135 mm long) and the absence of anatriaenes was explained as their heads broke off when collected; Indonesian specimens have a wide size range of oxea 1000-5500 mm (Figure 6C), abundant anatriaenes (Figure 6F), with rhabd 2250 –3224.4– 4250 mm × 2.5 –5.7– 10 mm, cladi thin, mainly with obtuse angles 30 –70.6– 100 mm × 20 –51.7– 80 mm × 2.5 –4.9– 10 mm; protriaenes (Figure 6E), with thin and long cladi (20 –57.1– 80 mm × 25 –86.9– 170 mm × 2.5 –7.5– 12.5 mm), rhabd up to 5800 × 20 mm, tapering to dimensions of < 1 mm; few prodiaenes also observed, having smaller cladi (20-30 mm × 20-30 mm); no calthrop-like triaenes.
Microscleres. Numerous acanthose microxeas, holotype, 117 –166.9– 260 mm (Figure 6I, J), slightly larger in the Indonesian material 137.5 –184.7– 270 mm (Figure 6G, H); sigmaspires vary within the same range in both, holotype and Indonesian specimens, 10 –14.4– 20 mm, C-S shape (Figure 6L, M).
Cinachyrella australiensis occurs in reefs, mangroves, and marine lakes, ranging in depths from 0 to at least 30 m, possibly deeper. Specimens can be covered by sand and mud; or in symbiosis with algae, resulting in green external color. This species produces 1-2 mm sized buds (Figure 8) and buds are extensively observed in specimens collected from marine lake habitats.
Cinachyrella australiensis has a wide distribution in Indonesia, including Berau, Bunaken, Raja Ampat, Ternate , and Java. Previous Indonesian records are from Spermonde Archipelago in Sulawesi (de Voogd and Cleary 2005, Becking et al. 2006, de Voogd et al. 2006), North Sulawesi ( Calcinai et al. 2017), Berau ( de Voogd et al. 2009, Becking et al. 2013), Thousand Islands in Java ( de Voogd and Cleary 2008), and Raja Ampat ( Becking 2008). In addition, this species has also been found in Gulf of Oman ( van Soest and Beglinger 2008), Seychelles Islands ( Thomas 1973) Southwest Madagascar ( Vacelet et al. 1976), Zanzibar ( Pulitzer-Finali 1993), Thailand ( Kritsanapuntu et al. 2001a - b, Putchakarn 2007), Singapore ( Lim et al. 2008), Vietnam ( Azzini et al. 2007), Philippines ( Longakit et al. 2005), Northern Territory of Australia ( McDonald et al. 2002), and the Great Barrier Reef in Australia ( Burton 1934).
In the type description of C. australiensis Carter (1886), the author did not observe anatriaenes as it can be interpreted from his statement: "I saw no anchors (smaller tetractinellids with recurved arms); but as their heads when exposed are generally broken off (for they catch in everything that they touch), it does not follow that they do not form part of the spiculation, particularly as they are present in most of the other species that I have been described (sic)". We examined the holotype kept at the Natural History Museum ( NHMUK 18126.96.36.1997) and found neither anatriaenes nor protriaenes. In addition, most of the oxeas were broken in the type specimen. Within all the examined material there is a high variability in the presence or absence of triaenes without a distinct geographic pattern. This variation may be related to where the sponge was cut, as it seems that triaenes are particularly abundant around the porocalices compared to other parts of the sponge. These fragile spicules are also easily broken off. We still assign our specimens to the species C. australiensis due to the characteristic presence of acanthose microscleres. It is furthermore one of the most common names used in the literature since its description and without further evidence we do not want to cause more confusion. Further examination of Cinachyrella specimens from Australia, in particular from the type locality of C. australiensis , will shed more light in this situation. It is quite possible that after a review of specimens from Southern Australia, it will be evident that the Indonesian specimens that we assign to C. australiensis should in fact be assigned to another species. In that case one of the junior synonyms should be used, e.g. C. raphidiophora or C. hirsuta .
Although our focus was on Indonesian species, it was unavoidable to attempt, for the first time after Burton’s review (1934), check the status of his large list of junior synonyms, because some of them were described or later found in Indonesian localities. We gathered as many type specimens as possible, most of them repositories of the NHMUK (London) and NMNH (Washington DC). The main criteria we used to suggest a species as junior synonym of C. australiensis were the presence of acanthose microxea and that the mega- and micro-scleres have the same size range of the species. Therefore, here we include as junior synonyms the following species from Burton’s list: Spiretta raphidiophora Lendenfeld, 1888; Tetilla hirsuta Dendy, 1889; Cinachyra isis Lenfenfeld, 1907; Tetilla cinachyroides Hentschel, 1911; Cinachyra nuda Hentschel, 1912; Cinachyra vaccinata Dendy, 1922; Cinachyra providentiae Dendy, 1922. They all fulfill the C. australiensis description.
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