Prasmodon verhoogdenokus Braet & Fernandez-Triana, 2014

Fernandez-Triana, Jose L., Whitfield, James B., Smith, M. Alex, Braet, Yves, Hallwachs, Winnie & Janzen, Daniel H., 2014, Review of the Neotropical genus Prasmodon (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with emphasis on species from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, Journal of Hymenoptera Research 37, pp. 1-52 : 37-39

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Prasmodon verhoogdenokus Braet & Fernandez-Triana

sp. n.

Prasmodon verhoogdenokus Braet & Fernandez-Triana sp. n. Figs 88-93 View Figures 88–93

Type locality.

BRAZIL, Mato Grosso, Vila Vera, 500m, -12.7667, -55.5.


♀ in CNC. Specimen labels: 1. BRAZIL, Vila Vera, M. Grosso, 500m, 12°46'S, 55°30'W, X.1973, M. Alvarenga. 2. DNA Voucher, CNCHYM 01971.


6 ♀ (CNC, RMNH, IRSNB, MNHN). Ecuador, Napo, Tena, 400m, 16-17.ii.1987 (1 ♀); French Guiana, Saul, collecting dates: 2.ix.2010, 17.ix.2010, 26.x.2010 (3 ♀), Saul, Crique popote, Mont Belvedère, xii.2000 (1 ♀), Kourou, Piste Soumourou, (1 ♀).

Other material examined.

3 ♂ from Colombia, Amazonas, PNN Amacayacu, San Martin, 150m (INHS); 2 ♂ from Ecuador, Napo, P. Misahualli, 350m (CNC); 98 ♂ from French Guiana, Sinamary, Barrage de Petit-Saut; Inselberg Itoupé; RNR Trinité, Zone Aya; Nourages Reserve; Montagne de Kaw, Relais Patawa; and Saul (CNC and IRSNB); 2 ♂ from Peru, Madre de Dios, Rio Tampobata, Sachavacayoc center; and Loreto, Matse’s Reserved Zone, site Jenaro Herrera, Rio Ucayali (CNC); 1 ♂ from Suriname, Paramaribo Zoo (RMNH).


Female. Body length 4.1-4.2 mm, 4.3-4.4 mm, 4.5-4.6 mm, rarely 3.9-4.0 mm or 4.7-4.8 mm. Fore wing length 4.3-4.4 mm, 4.5-4.6 mm, rarely 4.9-5.0 mm. Body color: meso- and metasoma entirely yellow-orange (with the exception of a very small black spot on axillar complex) ( Figs 92, 93 View Figures 88–93 ). Scape color: partially dark brown to black ( Fig. 92 View Figures 88–93 ). Flagellomeres color: with relatively extense yellow area (at least including F13-15, and usually apical half of F11 and basal half of F16) ( Fig. 88, 91 View Figures 88–93 ). Tegula and humeral complex color: tegula pale, humeral complex partially dark/partialy pale. Mesotibia color: entirely yellow. Metatibia color: posterior 0.1-0.3 dark brown to black. Metatibia spurs color: yellow-orange. Metatarsus color: dark brown to black (except for anterior 0.7 or less of first metatarsomere). Fore wing color pattern: mostly infumate, but with pale area centrally which gives the wing a banded appearance. Fore wing veins color: all veins dark brown ( Fig. 89 View Figures 88–93 ). Pterostigma color: entirely dark brown. Hypostomal carina: highly raised. Scutoscutellar sulcus: with 6 impressions, rarely with 5 impressions. Areolet height÷vein r length (fore wing): 0.15 × or less. Hind wing subbasal cell: mostly without setae. Hind tarsal claws: with pectination (teeth) very irregular in spacing and length. Shape of mediotergite 1: distinctly narrowing posteriorly, width at posterior margin clearly less than width at anterior margin and median width ( Fig. 93 View Figures 88–93 ). Mediotergite 1 length÷width at posterior margin 5.6 -6.0 ×. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin÷length: 2.6-3.0 ×. Ovipositor sheaths length: 0.6 × as long as metatibia, rarely 0.5 × as long as metatibia.

Male. Morphologically similar to females, except for antenna.

Molecular data.

Sequences in BOLD: 1, barcode compliant sequences: 0. Two additional short sequences are available from two male specimens, but they were not included in the paratype series (see Comments below).

Biology and ecology.

Light trapped and Malaise trapped.


Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname.


From Dutch "verhoogde nok"= raised ridge, referring to the raised hypostomal carina.


The wide distribution of Prasmodon verhoogdenokus throughout South America, suggests it may represent a complex of morphologically cryptic species. At present there is no host known for the species, and the molecular data are meagre. Two male specimens from Ecuador that appear to be of this species rendered partial DNA sequences that differed by approximately 5% bp from the partial barcode of the female holotype (but the COI sequences for those three specimens only overlap for 240 bp). Although males included under this species look morphologically similar to the female holotype and the paratypes, they have been left out of the paratype series.