Calloconophora estellae

Flórez-V, Camilo, 2019, Two amazing new species of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Colombia: Calloconophora estellae sp. nov. and Problematode robertoi sp. nov., Zootaxa 4590 (5), pp. 561-576: 562-569

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4590.5.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E79C2423-14BA-44E5-A9C4-F5402B7E6CA7

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/775E87C1-B65D-4F24-FF25-FA585E14F90B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Calloconophora estellae
status

 

Calloconophora estellae  Flórez-V sp. nov.

( Figs. 1–5View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5)

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:81929DE6-A603-4D15-97E7-7900DFCF4C1E

Diagnosis. General color brown with most of ventral surface yellow. Body densely covered by silver to golden pubescence; pronotum with two bands of darker and shorter pubescence at each side extended parallel to dorsal margin. Forewing membrane and veins densely punctate and pubescent except for membrane of apical cells and apical limbus, lacking macula. Frontoclypeal fold absent. Anterior pronotal horn short, acute, subconical with dorsal and ventral margins somewhat compressed, obliquely projected, pronotal dorsal margin slightly arcuate. Pro- and mesotibiae narrow (not subfoliaceous), margins subparallel. Male aedeagus U-shaped, denticles on anterior face of apex of posterior arm evenly denticulate.

Description. Holotype male. Color: General color brown, with ventral surface yellow ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A–C). Head, pronotum, coxa and ventral surface of thorax brown, darker brown on forewings and dorso-medial carina; pronotal posterior process lighter than rest of pronotum. Ocelli yellow, eyes dark brown. Rostrum, trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsi yellow, spines and base of tibial cucullate setae dark brown.

Sculpture: Head, pronotum, tibia, tarsus, and ventral surface of thorax, coxae, trochanter, femur and abdomen (including pygofer) covered densely by silver to golden pubescence, except for pronotum with two bands of darker and shorter pubescence at each side extended parallel to dorsal, ventral one from anterior process to humeral angles, and dorsal one from anterior process to 2/3 of pronotal lateral margin ( Fig. 1CView FIGURE 1). Pronotum densely and finely punctate. Forewing membrane and veins densely punctate and pubescent except for membrane of apical cells and apical limbus ( Fig. 1GView FIGURE 1).

Head: In lateral view, obliquely positioned (vertex positioned much more anteriorly than clypeus and rostrum; Fig. 1CView FIGURE 1); supraantenal ledges rounded, weakly extended over frontoclypeus ( Fig. 1AView FIGURE 1); frontoclypeus ovoid, lacking fold.

Thorax: Pronotal anterior process short, broad and conical, obliquely projected; dorsal margin of pronotum in lateral view continuous ( Fig. 1CView FIGURE 1); pronotal medial carina pronounced and flattened on anterior process; in frontal view, dorsal margin dome-shaped ( Fig. 1AView FIGURE 1); in dorsal view, pronotal horn triangular, posterior process acuminate ( Fig. 1FView FIGURE 1). Forewing membrane and veins densely punctate and pubescent except for membrane of apical cells and apical limbus. Pro- and mesotibiae narrow (not subfoliaceous), margins subparallel ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B–C). Metatibia rows I and II bearing spine-like cucullate setae, intercalated with small cucullate setae, row III with numerous cucullate setae; apex with spines ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B–C). Apex of first metatarsomere with cucullate setae.

Abdomen: Pleurites fused to tergites, covered with acanthae, antero-ventromedial margin of pleurites-tergites with oval spiracles on segments IV–VIII ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A–B, 3L); sternite IV without transverse carina ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A–B). Male genitalia. Lateral plate free, finger-like ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3). Style with apical hook of shank flattened and expanded, oriented horizontally ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 F–G). Aedeagus U-shaped ( Fig. 3GView FIGURE 3), posterior arm with apical margin arcuate in caudal view ( Fig. 3EView FIGURE 3), lateral margins divergent toward apex, lateral expansions absent, apex of aedeagus with denticules on anterior face ( Fig. 3E, 3GView FIGURE 3); gonopore ovoid, membrane weakly produced, without microtrichia ( Fig. 3E, 3GView FIGURE 3).

Female. Usually bigger than male. Pronotal horn slightly larger than that of male, and sometimes more dorsally directed ( Fig. 1DView FIGURE 1). Abdomen: Genitalia. Gonoplac with apex obtuse (finger-shaped) ( Fig. 3IView FIGURE 3). First-valvulae ( Fig. 3JView FIGURE 3) broad, with dorsal and ventral margin subparallel until apex, apex abruptly narrowed ending in one short, acute tip; dorsal sculptured area (sad, Fig. 3JView FIGURE 3) restricted to apical area with oblique linear tegumental processes, ventral sculptured area restricted to apical 1/5; structure similar to pores along mid-zone; ventral structure of coupling and ramus extended up to apical third (vsc, Fig. 3JView FIGURE 3); hyaline area (hya, Fig. 3JView FIGURE 3) extended beyond ventral structure of coupling to below apical tooth. Second valvulae ( Fig. 3KView FIGURE 3) fused from to basal third, broad, dorsal and ventral margins subparallel, abruptly narrowed at apex, ending in acute tip; dorsal surface with small teeth; ramus (ram) extended to apical third; ducts of different length present on apical fourth, extended toward margins, opened on pores (po).

Variations: Some specimens have the pronotal horn more acute than others ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B–D). The pronotal horn in some live specimens has a reddish tint.

Late-instar nymph ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A–D): Color: Head, thorax (including legs and forewing pad) greenish brown [in live specimens] to black; abdomen reddish brown with ventral regions of terga darker (even black), anal tube dark brown to black. White waxy patches on: band extended on pronotum over head margin, passing to humeral angles and extended on anterior margin of forewing pad ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 B–C); band extended at each side of pronotal horn to posterior margin ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 B–C); meso- and metanotum with two bands at each side (one continuous with pronotal horn band) ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 B–C); abdomen with waxy spots extended in line at each side of medial region of terga ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 B–C); one rounded band extended from each side from third abdominal segment to eighth abdominal segment, passing to ventral margin; this waxy band broader on 3 rd, 4 th and 8 th segments ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 B–C).

Surface: Integument sparsely clothed with needle-like chalazae, more densely located at bands of waxy patches, abdominal tergites with one row at each side of dorso-medial margin and other row on middle of tergite above ventral waxy patches. Abdominal sternites densely clothed with setae. Head, thorax and abdomen: Body lacking scoli, pronotal horn simple (without apical processes) ( Fig. 2CView FIGURE 2), short, conical, obliquely projected anterior- and dorsally ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2), pronotum extended to third abdominal segment ( Fig. 2CView FIGURE 2). Tibiae slender (not subfoliaceous). Abdominal segment IX with dorsal length slightly shorter than combined length of segments VII– VIII ( Fig. 2DView FIGURE 2); ventral extension half-length of dorsal extension.

Measurements: Males (n=2)/ Females (n=2) (average - mm): body length (from anterior margin of metopidium to forewing apex): 5.11/5.38; pronotal length (from tip of pronotal horn to apex of posterior process): 6.27/6.29; maximum height of pronotum: 2.19/2.18; length of forewing: 4.86/5.21; pronotal width: 2.29/2.31; head width: 2.10/2.13

Examined material: Holotype male in CBUCESGoogleMaps  from COLOMBIA: Antioquia: Remedios   GoogleMaps: “ COLOMBIA. Antioquia, Remedios, \ vereda La Cruz, finca La Brillantina, \ 6.908918°N; 74.581073°W, \ 500–600 msnm, manual, \ Feb. 13/2015 \ leg. A. Chinome, A. Delgado, A. Díaz, C. \ Flórez-V, S. Gallán, J. Sandoval \ CBUCES-F 1673 ”. Paratypes (10 males, 7 females and 2 nymphs in total). COLOMBIA: Antioquia: Remedios : “ COLOMBIA. Antioquia, Remedios, \ vereda La Cruz, finca La Brillantina, \ 6.908918°N; 74.581073°W, \ 500–600 msnm, manual, \ ene-jun-2015 \ leg. A. Chinome, A. Delgado, A. Díaz, C. \ Flórez-V, S. Gallán, J. Sandoval \ CBUCES-F 1675 ” (1 male in CEUA)GoogleMaps  , “CBUCES-F 1228 ” (1 male in MPUJ)GoogleMaps  , “CBUCES-F 1600 ” (1 female in CBUCES)  . COLOMBIA: Chocó: Tadó : “ COLOMBIA. Chocó, Tadó, comunidad \ de Afrodescendientes Bochoromá \ 5.29508°N; 76.39107°W \ ~150 msnm, manual \ Sep. 9-11/2016 \ leg. C. Bota, C. Flórez, C. Guzmán, J.M. \ Sánchez \ CBUCES-F 908 ” (1 male in MEFLGAbout MEFLG)GoogleMaps  , “CBUCES-F 1863” (1 female in MPUJ)GoogleMaps  , “CBUCES-F 2254” (1 female in CBUCES)  , “CBUCES-F 2255” (2 nymphs in CBUCES)  . COLOMBIA: Risaralda: Pueblo Rico : “ COLOMBIA. Risaralda, Pueblo Rico, \ Corregimiento Santa Cecilia, Área de Manejo \ Especial de Alto Amurrupá, Río Lloraudó \ 5.34824°N, 76.21107°W \ ~ 325 m, manual \ Sep. 16/2016 \ leg. C. Bota, B. Cárdenas, C. Flórez \ CBUCES-F 836 ” (1 male in IAvH), “CBUCES-F 834” (1 male in MEFLGAbout MEFLG)GoogleMaps  , “CBUCES-F 835” (1 male in CSJ)GoogleMaps  , “CBUCES-F 1849” (1 male in CEUA)  , “CBUCES-F 2251” (1 female in CBUCES)  , “CBUCES-F 2252” (1 female in CEUA)  , “CBUCES-F 2253” (2 males in ethanol in CBUCES)  . “ COLOMBIA. Risaralda, Pueblo Rico, \ corregimiento Santa Cecilia, Área de Manejo \ Especial Alto Amurrupá \ 5.333000°N; 76.157279°W \ 500–800 msnm \ Manual , borde de bosque, \ Abril 13/2016 \ leg. B. Cárdenas, C. Flórez-V \ CBUCES-F 385” (1 male in CBUCES)GoogleMaps  . “ COLOMBIA. Risaralda, Pueblo Rico, \ quebrada Minas Calamar, \ 5.35315°N, 76.20125°W, 300 msnm \ Ene. 20/2019 \ leg. C. Bota, C. Flórez-V, N. Flórez, \ A. Ospina, J. Sandoval \ CBUCES-F 2256” (1 female in CBUCES)GoogleMaps  , “CBUCES-F 2257” (1 female in IAvH).

Holotype minuten mounted, in excellent state of preservation. Paratypes minuten or pin mounted. Two males and one female paratype with dissected abdomens placed in vials with glycerin pinned with specimens. Two teneral male paratypes in 75% ethanol with broken pronotal horn and two nymphs in 75% ethanol.

Distribution. COLOMBIA: Antioquia: Remedios (Vereda La Cruz, 6.908918°N, 74.581073°W, 500–600 masl); Chocó: Tadó (Bochoromá, 5.29508°N, 76.39107°W, 150 masl); Risaralda: Pueblo Rico (Corregimiento Santa Cecilia, 5.333000°N, 76.157279°W, 500–800 masl) ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9).

Biology. This species exhibits fascinating maternal care behavior. Females secrete a white and sticky waxy substance around stems close to their eggs or aggregations of nymphs ( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 A–B). This substance is secreted forming a spiral pattern, with balls joined with narrow lines ( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 A–B). As in other aconophorines, this species also produces a sticky and white secretion over eggs ( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 C–D). Many insects were found glued to the covered eggs or to the spiral secretion, mainly ants and parasitoid wasps ( Fig. 4DView FIGURE 4). These secretions lost their sticky attribute over time ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5) and, thereafter, other insects were found on the same plants: ants and even other treehoppers Neotynelia vertebralis (Fairmaire)  ( Fig. 4FView FIGURE 4), Bolbonota  sp. and Stegaspis fronditia (Linnaeus)  . However, females may deposit fresh secretions over the worn substance ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5). Parasitic wasps were observed attacking eggs and sometimes walking over the weathered waxy substance. Therefore, females of C. estellae  sp. nov. also defend their eggs by moving the legs and sometimes kicking the parasitoids. A wasp ( Vespidae  ) was found once tending nymphs in presence of treehopper adults ( Fig. 4EView FIGURE 4); the wasp did not appear to be deterred walking on branches with the secretion. When the treehopper aggregation was disturbed, the wasp fled immediately, which would indicate they do not defend the treehoppers. Nymphs have a white pattern which enhances camouflage with the waxy substance ( Fig. 5FView FIGURE 5). This species has been found exclusively in vines of one species of the genus Doliocarpus Rol.  (Dileniaceae), found in riparian forests close to rivers and streams.

Etymology. Named in honor of Luz Estella Valencia, the author’s mother, an amazing woman full of joy and kindness, with a great strength to withstand difficult moments.

Remarks. This species is very different from other Calloconophora  species and has characters found in other aconophorine genera, including characters of the immatures, which makes it difficult to place this species to genus with certainty. This species is placed in Calloconophora  based on the main diagnostic character for that genus in the key to genera of Dietrich and Deitz (1991): the basal half of the forewing has the membrane entirely and densely punctate. However, other Calloconophora  characters presented in the key, like the subfoliaceous pro- and mesotibiae and the male gonopore membrane with microtrichia do not occur in C. estellae  sp. nov. These characters are considered less reliable because they are not expressed in all species previously included in Calloconophora  . Calloconophora estellae  also exhibits characteristics of Aconophora  and Guayaquila  : pronotal sculpture similar to species in Aconophora  with distinct longitudinal bands of dark setae; male genitalia similar to species in Guayaquila  and Aconophora mexicana Stål, 1864  , with aedeagus U-shaped without lateral processes and anterior face of apex of posterior arm with denticles. The proper taxonomic placement should be confirmed based on a phylogenetic analysis of the tribe.

Calloconophora estellae  sp. nov. nymphs do not match any of the Calloconophora  nymphs described by Dietrich and Deitz (1991). The new species lacks scoli and apicolateral processes in the pronotal horn and is, therefore, more similar to nymphs of Guayaquila peruviensis Dietrich  ( Dietrich and Deitz 1991), G. enigmata Dietrich  (Flórez-V unpublished data) and Aconophora cultellata (Walker)  , except for the scoli present in A. cultellata ( Dietrich and Deitz 1991)  . The behavior in females of secreting a waxy white substance adjacent to the eggs or nymphs is also known in Havilandia pruinosa (Haviland)  , Ochropepla triangulum (Germar)  , Leioscyta spiralis Haviland  and other Leioscyta  species ( Dietrich and Deitz 1991, Dietrich and McKamey 1995). Calloconophora estellae  females deposit the secretion in a spiral pattern with the lines almost equidistant and consisting of evenly spaced balls joined by narrow lines. This differs from the more irregular pattern produced by female A. mexicana  ( Fig. 5BView FIGURE 5) and from L. spiralis  which secretes spiral patterns with irregularly spaced lines and balls ( Fig. 5CView FIGURE 5). Nymphs of these species are also clothed with irregular waxy exudates as in nymphs of C. estellae  ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 E–F). The maternal behavior of secreting a sticky substance to defend offspring is also recorded in some species of Aconophora  and Guayaquila  including A. cultellata Walker, A  , elongatiformis Dietrich, A. elongatula Dietrich  , A. flavipes (Germar)  ( Fig. 5DView FIGURE 5) and Guayaquila peruviensis  , which secrete a translucent substance, and A. mexicana  , which also secretes a white (non-translucent) substance ( Fig. 5BView FIGURE 5) ( Dietrich and Deitz 1991, Flórez-V unpublished data). Although C. estellae  resembles A. mexicana  , they differ considerably in their nymphal morphology ( Fig. 5EView FIGURE 5), known host plants (plants of the family Asteraceae  for A. mexicana  ) and the pattern of the female defensive secretion ( Fig. 5BView FIGURE 5).

MEFLG

Museo Entomologico Francisco Luis Gallego

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Membracidae

Genus

Calloconophora

Loc

Calloconophora estellae

Flórez-V, Camilo 2019

2019
Loc

Calloconophora estellae

Flórez-V 2019

2019
Loc

Calloconophora estellae

Flórez-V 2019

2019
Loc

C. estellae

Flórez-V 2019

2019
Loc

C. estellae

Flórez-V 2019

2019
Loc

Ochropepla triangulum (Germar)

Dietrich and McKamey 1995

1995
Loc

Calloconophora

Dietrich 1991

1991
Loc

A. cultellata (

Dietrich and Deitz 1991

1991
Loc

Havilandia pruinosa

Haviland 1925

1925
Loc

Guayaquila

Goding 1920

1920
Loc

Aconophora

Fairmaire 1846

1846