Desmoxytes golovatchi Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha

Srisonchai, Ruttapon, Enghoff, Henrik, Likhitrakarn, Natdanai & Panha, Somsak, 2018, A revision of dragon millipedes I: genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, with the description of eight new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), ZooKeys 761, pp. 1-177: 1

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Desmoxytes golovatchi Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha

sp. n.

Desmoxytes golovatchi Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha  sp. n. Figs 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54


Male (CUMZ), THAILAND, Kanchanaburi Province, Thong Pha Phum District, Prang Ka Sri Temple, 14°39'05"N, 98°40'08"E, ca. 107 m a.s.l., 15 August 2016, leg. C. Sutcharit, R. Srisonchai and ASRU members.


19 males (CUMZ), 2 males (ZMUC), 1 male (ZMUM), 1 male (NHMW), 1 male (NHMUK), same data as holotype.

Further specimens, not paratypes

, all from THAILAND, Kanchanaburi Province, Thong Pha Phum District: 4 males (CUMZ), Tham Khao Noi Bureau of Monks (Wat Tham Khao Noi), 14°41'55"N, 98°31'33"E, ca. 225 m a.s.l., 21 August 2015, leg. E. Jeratthitikul and R. Srisonchai. 3 males, 1 female (CUMZ), Tham Khao Noi Bureau of Monks (Wat Tham Khao Noi), 14°41'55"N, 98°31'33"E, ca. 225 m a.s.l., 15 August 2016, leg. C. Sutcharit, R. Srisonchai and ASRU members. 6 males, 1 female (CUMZ), Wat Huay Charoen Srattha Tham, 14°39'27"N, 98°31'38"E, ca. 202 m a.s.l., 11 October 2015, leg. C. Sutcharit and R. Srisonchai. 1 female (CUMZ), Huay Kayeng Subdistrict, Tham Pong Chang Monastery, 14°44'38"N, 98°30'26"E, ca. 209 m a.s.l., 11 October 2015, leg. C. Sutcharit and R. Srisonchai. 3 males, 5 females (CUMZ), Wat Pak Lam Philok, 14°37'39"N, 98°34'27"E, ca. 280 m a.s.l., 11 October 2015, leg. C. Sutcharit and R. Srisonchai. 4 males, 1 female (CUMZ), Prang Ka Sri temple, 14°39'05"N, 98°40'08"E, ca. 107 m a.s.l., 24 July 2016, leg. P. Pimvichai and P. Prasankok.

Sai Yok District: 2 males, 2 females (CUMZ), Daowadueng Cave, 14°28'23"N, 98°50'04"E, ca. 132 m a.s.l., 15 August 2016, leg. C. Sutcharit, R. Srisonchai, and ASRU members.


Metaterga 2-8 with 2+2 tubercles/cones/spines in anterior row and 2+2 tubercles/cones/spines in posterior row; metaterga 9-19 with 3+3 tubercles/cones/spines in posterior row. Similar in these respects to D. breviverpa  , D. purpurosea  , D. takensis  , and D. taurina  . Differs from those by having: metaterga 9-19 with two rows of 3(2)+3(2) tubercles/cones/spines in anterior row; lamina lateralis (ll) round and compact; tip of process (plm) of lamina medialis terminating in a sharp spine; distal lobe (dlm) of lamina medialis long; broad lobe (blm) dorsally expanded.


The name honours Sergei I. Golovatch, a myriapodologist at the Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, who has enthusiastically encouraged millipede research in Thailand, in recognition of his extensive work on the taxonomy of millipedes - especially in family Paradoxosomatidae  .


SIZE: Length 27-31 mm (male), 32 mm (female); width of midbody metazona ca. 1.9 mm (male), 2.3 mm (female). Width of head < collum < body ring 2 = 3 = 4 < 5-16, thereafter body gradually tapering towards telson.

COLOUR (Fig. 49 A–C): In life with body vivid pink; paraterga, metaterga, surface below paraterga and epiproct pink; head brown; antenna black, except distal part of antennomere 7 and antennomere 8 whitish; sterna and legs pinkish brown; a few basal podomeres brown to whitish.

ANTENNAE (Fig. 50D): Very long and slender, reaching to body ring 7 (male) and 5 (female) when stretched dorsally.

COLLUM (Fig. 50A): With 3 transverse rows of setae and setiferous tubercles, 4+4 anterior setae, 1+1 intermediate setae and 2+2 posterior tubercles (lateral seta in anterior row located almost at base of paraterga in some specimens; lateral tubercles in posterior row located almost halfway to intermediate row); paraterga of collum low, elevated at ca. 15°-20°, directed caudolaterad, with one conspicuous notch on lateral margin.

TEGUMENT: Slightly shining; collum and metaterga microgranulate; prozona finely shagreened; surface below paraterga finely microgranulate; sterna and epiproct relatively smooth.

METATERGA (Fig. 50 A–C): With 2 transverse rows of setiferous tubercles, cones and spines; metaterga 2-8 with 2+2 anterior cones and 2(3)+2(3) posterior spines; metaterga 9-17 with 3(2)+3(2) anterior cones and 3(4)+3(4) posterior spines; metatergum 18 with with 3+3 anterior cones and 3+3 posterior cones; metatergum 19 with with 3+3 anterior tubercles and 3+3 posterior tubercles.

PARATERGA (Fig. 50E, F): Directed caudolaterad on body rings 2-17, elevated at ca. 45° (male) 40° (female); directed increasingly caudad on body rings 18 and 19; anterior margin with 2 distinct notches, on lateral margin of body rings 9, 10, 12, 13, 15-18 with tiny denticle near the tip.

TELSON (Fig. 51 C–G): Tip subtruncate; lateral setiferous tubercles inconspicuous, apical tubercles small and inconspicuous. Hypoproct subtrapeziform; caudal margin round, with small inconspicuous setiferous tubercles.

STERNA (Fig. 52): Cross-impressions shallow. Sternal lobe between male coxae 4 subtrapeziform; base slightly enlarged; tip emarginate; swollen near pores.

LEGS (Fig. 51 H–J): Long and slender. Male femora 5 and 6 strongly humped ventrally in middle portion.

GONOPODS (Figs 53, 54): Coxa (cx) longer than prefemur. Cannula (ca) slender. Prefemur (pfe) ca. 2/3 as long as femur. Femur (fe) long, slightly curved. Mesal sulcus (ms) and lateral sulcus (ls) conspicuous, deep. Postfemur (pof) conspicuous, ventrally wide. Solenophore (sph) well-developed: lamina lateralis (ll) round and compact (obvious when seen in ventral view): lamina medialis (lm) well-developed; process (plm) somewhat short, tip terminating in a sharp spine (in some specimens with a tiny spine-like process situated between process (plm) and distal lobe (dlm)); distal lobe (dlm) quite long, distally with two indistinctly separated lamellae; broad lobe (blm) dorsally expanded, indentation between broad lobe (blm) and distal love (dlm) very wide and shallow. Solenomere (sl) relatively long.

Distribution and habitat.

Known from the type locality and nearby areas in Kanchanaburi Province only. The type locality is situated on a small, isolated limestone mountain near Khwae Noi River. All specimens were found in limestone habitats (Fig. 49D).

This species is distributed along the limestone mountain ranges in Sai Yok and Thong Pha Phum districts. Based on many intensive surveys, the current distribution of the new species is evidently quite narrow, ca. 100 km2. Thus, D. golovatchi  sp. n. should be regarded as a Thai endemic.


Desmoxytes golovatchi  sp. n. is aposematic in its vivid pink body. During the field trips, this animal was noticeable by the contrast of its bright colour to green leaves or brown rocks, it thus was easy to see and collect after rain.

This species is morphologically similar to D. breviverpa  , D. purpurosea  , D. takensis  , and D. waepyanensis  sp. n. with which it shares colourful pink or red body colour, as well as further characters, viz., the same patterns of row of cones on metaterga (metaterga 2-8 with 2+2 cones in anterior row).

Coexisting species.

The new species was found in one place together with D. octoconigera  sp. n. (see detail in D. octoconigera  sp. n.), with D. planata  at Wat Huay Charoen Srattha Tham and Tham Khao Noi Bureau of Monks, and with D. purpurosea  at Daowadueng Cave. This species and D. purpurosea  were hand-collected after rain when lots of them were climbing on vegetation and limestone rocks. Microhabitat differences have not yet been observed. Moreover, D. planata  also occurs near the new species, but the habitats of these two species are clearly different: D. planata  was found on humid cement and on construction materials whereas D. golovatchi  sp. n. was seen crawling on limestone rock.