Orasema rapo (Walker)

Burks, Roger A., Heraty, John M., Dominguez, Chrysalyn & Mottern, Jason L., 2018, Complex diversity in a mainly tropical group of ant parasitoids: Revision of the Orasema stramineipes species group (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eucharitidae), Zootaxa 4401 (1), pp. 1-107: 81-84

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4401.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CE7364CD-1A9E-45F2-ABA1-FB574F03BCBE

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7B0A879B-DE3E-FFBE-FF19-FBB9B294DEE9

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Orasema rapo (Walker)
status

 

Orasema rapo (Walker) 

http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act: 90F3A088-A787-489E-B6B2-6672559B9424 ( Figs 187–198View FIGURES187–192View FIGURES 193–198)

Eucharis rapo Walker, 1839: 66  . Type material: Brazil: Bahia (1 ♀, BMNH type no. 5.609), lectotype designated by Heraty, 2002. 

Orasema rapo  . Kirby, 1886. Change of combination.

Diagnosis. Mesoscutal midlobe almost entirely reticulate, except for a small areolate-reticulate area posteriorly. Mesoscutellar disc with a coarsely areolate area posteromedially, which lacks reticulate sculpture. Axillula with subparallel longitudinal carinae. Fore femur with brown coloration.

Orasema rapo  is similar to many other species, and is differentiated from many in having longitudinal axillular carinae that do not co-occur with reticulate sculpture ( Fig. 193View FIGURES 193–198). It differs from O. evansi  , and other similar species, in having an areolate mesoscutellum ( Figs 190–192View FIGURES187–192).

Description. Female. Length 1.7–3.3 mm.

Color: Head and mesosoma green to blue, with yellowish to purplish luster. Pedicel pale brown or brown; anellus pale brown or brown; flagellum brown. Coxae brown; fore femur mostly brown, tips pale; mid and hind femora yellow. Fore wing hyaline; venation brown. Petiole dark green; gaster brown with green to purple luster.

Head: Head width:head height 1.1–1.2; face reticulate; longitudinal groove between eye and torulus present or absent; eyes bare, inter-ocular distance:eye height 1.4–1.5; malar space:eye height 0.6–0.8; supraclypeal area slightly broader than long, smooth to weakly sculptured; clypeus smooth to weakly sculptured. Flagellum length:head height 1.2–1.6; F2 1.8–3.1× as long as broad, 0.9–1.3× as long as F3; following funiculars progressively shorter.

Mesosoma: Mesosoma length:height 1.3–1.4. Mesoscutal midlobe reticulate anteriorly, becoming areolatereticulate posteriorly, with minute setae; lateral lobe reticulate to weakly areolate-reticulate. Axilla areolatereticulate with longitudinal carinae; mesoscutellar disc mostly areolate-reticulate, becoming coarsely areolate posteriorly; frenal line regularly or irregularly foveate; frenum areolate or reticulate; axillular groove anteriorly narrow, broad and foveate posteriorly; axillula with subparallel longitudinal carinae. Propodeum with irregular median carina; propodeal disc areolate-reticulate; callus reticulate, with a few small setae. Mesepisternum reticulate to areolate-reticulate laterally, smooth ventrally, broadly rounded anterior to mid coxa. Upper mesepimeron smooth to weakly sculptured; lower mesepimeron reticulate; transepimeral sulcus distinct. Metepisternum smooth dorsally, reticulate to areolate-reticulate ventrally. Hind coxa 1.6–2.3× as long as broad; hind femur 5.0–6.0× as long as broad. Fore wing 2.3–2.7× as long as broad, 2.4–2.9× as long as mesothorax; stigma with 4 sensilla in a row or separated into pairs. Hind wing costal cell with a broad bare area.

Metasoma: Petiole 1.8–2.5× as long as broad, 0.8–1.0× as long as hind coxa, rugose to areolate-reticulate, anterior carina weak. Antecostal sulcus irregularly sculptured; acrosternite posteriorly angulate.

Male. Length 2.2–3.2 mm. Head width:head height 1.1–1.2; scape yellow; flagellum length:head height 1.8, F2 2.4–2.6× as long as broad. Fore femur with brownish area, mid and hind femora, and all tibiae yellow. Petiole 5.8–5.9× as long as broad, petiole length:hind coxa length 1.6–1.9.

Discussion. Our current concept of O. rapo  is that it is a relatively variable, widely distributed species. Smallbodied forms vary considerably in mesosomal sculpture and flagellomere dimensions, closely approaching O. costaricensis  , O. evansi  , and O. minutissima  especially. Populations in the Galapagos Islands are tentatively assigned to this species pending new data. Populations in Trinidad are morphogically the nearest to the Brazilian lectotype. Bolivian populations are tentatively included here, despite apparent molecular differences, because Sanger results disagree with Anchored Enrichment on whether they belong in O. rapo  , and also because it would be very difficult to identify these populations morphologically. Orasema cozamalotl  is very similar to O. rapo  , but is recognized as distinct because of its more consistent size, coloration, and sculpture.

Distribution. Argentina (Misiones), Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Trinidad, Venezuela.

Material examined. Lectotype: BRAZIL: Bahia [♀, BMNH type no. 5.609], designated by Heraty, 2002. Additional material examined: ARGENTINA: Misiones: Iguazu Nat. Park , hosteria Hoppe , 140m, 10– 11.iv.1974, C  . R. Vardy, malaise trap [2 ♀, BMNH: UCRCENT00309881–82]. Parc Nac. Iguazu Cantera , 200m, 24°40'58"S, 54°27'26"W, 8.xii.1990GoogleMaps  – 6.i.1991, S. & J. Peck [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRdb00425827]. RN 12, N of Puerto Bosseti , 221m, 25°48'20"S, 54°32'19"W, 25.iii.2007, JGoogleMaps  . &J. Heraty & J. Torréns, Aurac. for. [2 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00169642, UCRCENT00439112]. Rt 17 E of 9 de Julio 212m, 26°24'02"S, 54°27'54"W, 26.iii.2007, JGoogleMaps  . &J. Heraty and J. Torréns, roadside [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00091514 (D2681)]. Rt 17, E of 9 de Julio , 212m, 26°24'02"S, 54°27'54"W, 26.iii.2007, JGoogleMaps  . &J. Heraty & J. Torréns, roadside [2 ♀, IFML: UCRCENT00439111; UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00169643]. Rt 18, E of 9 de Julio , 485m, 26°23'56"S, 54°14'05"W, 26.iii.2007, JGoogleMaps  . &J. Heraty & J. Torréns, humid forest [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00161611 (D2515)]. Rt 19, W of Wanda , 306m, 25°58'18"S, 54°23'54"W, 25.iii.2007, JGoogleMaps  . & J. Heraty & J. Torréns, roadside [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00439114]. Santiago del Estero: R.A  . Santiago, Dique Rio Hondo , 27°35'01"S, 65°57'09"W, 24.ii.1995, P. Fidalgo [ IFML: UCRCENT00439068–81; MACNAbout MACN: UCRCENT00483471, UCRCENT00483472, UCRCENT00483475–81]GoogleMaps  . BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz: General Saavedra , 270m, 17°15'00"S, 63°10'00"W, 4–30.v.1993, J.C. Monje, under natural vegetation, yellow pan trap [1 ♀, CNCAbout CNC: UCRCENT00320849 (D3945)]GoogleMaps  . BRAZIL: Passe des Indies , i.1937, Fritz Plaumann [1 ♀, BMNH: UCRCENT00313926]  . Amazonas: Reserva ZF2 off BR 174 ~ 50 km N of Manaus, 2°38'00"S, 60°09'00"W, 30.vii.1997, JGoogleMaps  . M. Heraty [2 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00169595–96]. Reserva ZF2 off BR 174 ~ 50km N of Manaus , 2°28'00"S, 60°09'00"W, 29.vii.1997, JGoogleMaps  . Heraty, screen sweep [4 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00091325–26, UCRCENT00092149 (D0181), UCRCENT00092245]. Parana: Imbituva , 25°13'33"S, 50°36'02"W, 12.i.1969, CGoogleMaps  . W. & L.B. O’Brien, Araucaria forest [1 ♀, CASC: UCRCENT00417428]. Santa Catarina: Nova Teutonia : 300–500m, 27°00'11"S, 52°00'23"W, 2.ii.1938, iiGoogleMaps  .1938, 20.iv.1938, 29.xii.1938, i– ii.1939, 13.i.1939, 16.i.1939, 26.i.1939, 11.i.1939, 13.i.1939, Fritz Plaumann, B.M. [2 ♀ 18♂, BMNH: UCRCENT00239574, UCRCENT00239586, UCRCENT00239594, UCRCENT00239599, UCRCENT00239606, UCRCENT00309304–06, UCRCENT00309310, UCRCENT00309314, UCRCENT00309316, UCRCENT00309338, UCRCENT00309858, UCRCENT00309983, UCRCENT00309923, UCRCENT00309925, UCRCENT00309947, UCRCENT00309953, UCRCENT00309961; CNC: UCRCENT00247564]. ECUADOR: Galapagos: Isla Fernandina W. side, 1100m, 0°23'26"S, 91°30'34"W, 5.ii.1964, DGoogleMaps  . Q. Cavagnaro [1 ♀, CASC: UCRCENT00240680]. Santa Cruz, E. slope, 160m, 0°41'38"S, 90°20'56"W, 16.iv.1964, DGoogleMaps  .Q. Cavagnaro [2 ♀, CASC: UCRCENT00240681–82]. Isla Santa Cruz, 610m, 0°24'44"S, 91°28'53"W, 1–28.ii.1989, Peck & Sinclair, Los Gemelos Scalesia Forest , flight intercept trap [3 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00252334–36]GoogleMaps  . Santa Cruz, 4km N Bellavista , 620m, 0°39'31"S, 90°19'28"W, 14.v–13.vii.1985, S. & J. Peck, Miconia zone [2 ♀, CNCAbout CNC: UCRCENT00247603, UCRCENT00247608]GoogleMaps  . Los Gemelos , 600m, 0°37'35"S, 90°23'00"W, 1–30.iii.1989, Peck & Sinclair, pamaps, sweeping [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00400707]GoogleMaps  . Santa Cruz, 3 km Bellavista , 115m, 0°32'00"S, 90°21'00"W, 1–30.iii.1989, Peck & Sinclair, malaise trap [2 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00252345–46]GoogleMaps  . Santa Cruz, 3 Km S Bellavista , 115m, 0°43'20"S, 90°19'34"W, 1.iii.1989, Peck & Sinclair, transition forest [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00412528]GoogleMaps  . Santa Cruz, Media Luna to Puntudo , 600–700m, 0°38'01"S, 90°20'19"W, iv.1989, SGoogleMaps  . Peck, pampas, sweeping [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00400705]. Napo: Misahualli , 500m, 1°01'57"N, 77°40'13"W, 25.v.1987, LGoogleMaps  . D. Coote, roadside [5 ♀, ROMEAbout ROME: UCRCENT00252251, UCRCENT00252253, UCRCENT00252255, UCRCENT00252262, UCRCENT00252265]. Puerto Misahualli , 350m, 1°01'54"S, 77°39'60"W, iii.1983, M  . Sharkey [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00237569]. Orellana: Res. Ethnica Waorani, 1 km S. Omkone Gare Camp , Trans. Ent. , 216.3m, 0°39'25.7"S, 76°27'10.8"W, 7.x.1995, TGoogleMaps  . L. Erwin, et al., terre firme forest, fogging [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00091463]. PARAGUAY: Pastorer , 92m, 23°28'24"S, 58°18'08"W, 3–7.i.1972, LGoogleMaps  .E. Pena [15♂ 2 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00240915–27, UCRCENT00240930–33]. PERUAbout PERU: Monson Valley, Tingo Maria , 9°17'43"S, 75°59'51"W, 29.xi.1954 [1 ♀, FSCAAbout FSCA: UCRCENT00240679]GoogleMaps  . Huánuco: Tingo Maria , 620m, 9°17'43"S, 75°59'51"W, 5–12.x.1964, C.C. Porter [1 ♀, MCZAbout MCZ: UCRCENT00242310]GoogleMaps  . TRINIDAD: Arima: Simla Research Station , trail down the road to old water tanks, 250m, 10°41'34"N, 61°17'23"W, 21–28.vii.2013, C. Weirauch, malaise trap, TR13 L88 MT6 [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00479291 (D4231)]GoogleMaps  . Mt. St. Benedict Trail , 330m, 10°40'01"N, 61°24'02"W, 19.vii.2013, Heraty&Baker, swp, H13-066 [2 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00412126 (D3808), UCRCAbout UCRC: UCRCENT00412128 (D3811)]GoogleMaps  . St. George: Arena Reserve , 65m, 10°33'41"N, 61°14'01"W, 31.vii.1976, JGoogleMaps  . S. Noyes, rainforest [ BMNH: UCRCENT00309436]. St. Augustine , 10°38'19"N, 61°23'46"W, 18.vi.1976, JGoogleMaps  . S. Noyes, wasteground [ BMNH: UCRCENT00300438]. VENEZUELA: Aragua: Parque Nat. H. Pittier , Rancho Grande env, 1100m, 10°20'57"N, 67°41'04"W, 10–14.iv.1994, LGoogleMaps  . Masner [1 ♀, CNCAbout CNC: UCRCENT00425828]. Zulia: Dtto Maracaido Jardin Botanico , 10°35'18"N, 71°42'48"W, ii.1982, EGoogleMaps  . Rubio & E. Inciarte [1 ♀, USNMAbout USNM: UCRCENT00248032]. Jardin Botanico de Maracaibo , 10°35'18"N, 71°42'48"W, iv.1982, EGoogleMaps  . Rubio & E. Borrego, malaise trap [1 ♀, USNM: UCRCENT00248034].

UCRC

University of California, Riverside

MACN

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

ROME

Royal Ontario Museum - Entomology

PERU

Universit� di Perugia

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Eucharitidae

Genus

Orasema

Loc

Orasema rapo (Walker)

Burks, Roger A., Heraty, John M., Dominguez, Chrysalyn & Mottern, Jason L. 2018

2018
Loc

Eucharis rapo

Walker 1839: 66

1839