Stenosfemuraia González-Sponga, 1998

Huber, Bernhard A. & Arias, Quintin, 2017, Revision of the Venezuelan spider genus Stenosfemuraia González-Sponga, with new generic and specific synonymies (Araneae, Pholcidae), Zootaxa 4341 (4), pp. 495-508: 496-497

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4341.4.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C476AF75-EF79-4C6E-9E16-9CC14540B25F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7B0FFC7F-FFDC-FFED-56E5-FE5CFCC7884E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Stenosfemuraia González-Sponga, 1998
status

 

Stenosfemuraia González-Sponga, 1998 

Stenosfemuraia González-Sponga, 1998: 21  ; type species: S. parva González-Sponga, 1998  .

Codazziella González-Sponga, 2005: 100  ; type species: C. pilosa González-Sponga, 2005  . New synonymy. Chichiriviche González-Sponga, 2011: 41  ; type species: C. costanero González-Sponga, 2011  . New synonymy.

Justification of synonymies. The two type species of Codazziella  and Chichiriviche  are conspecific (see redescription of Stenosfemuraia pilosa  below), and the single species resulting from this synonymy is very similar to and shares all relevant characters with the type species of Stenosfemuraia  .

Diagnosis. Medium sized (~2.0– 3.5 mm total body length), eight-eyed spiders with round to oval abdomens and relatively short legs (tibia 1 L/d ~25–60). Distinguished from most species in related genera by shape of abdomen (elongated in Coryssocnemis Simon, 1893  , Systenita Simon, 1893  , and in most species of Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893  ). From similar species in Mecolaesthus  by combination of: ventral apophysis distally on male palpal femur directed towards distal ( Figs 10View FIGURES 9 – 14, 23View FIGURES 22 – 27, 36View FIGURES 35 – 40); genital bulb with slender distal apophysis and two dorsal processes ( Figs 41–42, 45–46, 49–50View FIGURES 41 – 52); large membranous (whitish) area in front of small epigynal plate ( Figs 6View FIGURES 2 – 8, 19View FIGURES 15 – 21, 32View FIGURES 28 – 34); internal female genitalia with anteriorly diverging sclerites/‘wings’ (arrows in Figs 8View FIGURES 2 – 8, 21View FIGURES 15 – 21, 34View FIGURES 28 – 34); presence of curved hairs on male (rarely also female) legs (tibiae and metatarsi).

Description. Male. Total body length 2.5–3.5; carapace width 1.0–1.4. Carapace posteriorly elevated ( Figs 3View FIGURES 2 – 8, 16View FIGURES 15 – 21, 29View FIGURES 28 – 34), with deep median furrow; ocular area weakly raised, eight eyes relatively close together, AME very small. Clypeus high, unmodified. Chelicerae never with stridulatory ridges, with one or two pairs of frontal apophyses ( Figs 11View FIGURES 9 – 14, 24View FIGURES 22 – 27, 37View FIGURES 35 – 40), without modified hairs. Palpal coxa with retrolatero-ventral apophysis; trochanter barely modified; femur with retrolatero-ventral process proximally and ventral apophysis distally; procursus simple ( Figs 43–44, 47–48, 51–52View FIGURES 41 – 52); bulb with slender distal apophysis and two dorsal processes ( Figs 41–42, 45–46, 49–50View FIGURES 41 – 52).

Legs relatively short, leg 1 length 13–24, tibia 1 length 3.1–5.7, tibia 2/tibia 4 length 0.9–1.1. Tibia 1 L/d ~25– 60. Femora sometimes thickened ( S. parva  , S. pilosa  ). Legs without spines, with curved hairs on tibiae and metatarsi, retrolateral trichobothrium at 6–9%, prolateral trichobothrium always present (also on tibiae 1). Tarsal pseudosegments distinct.

Abdomen round to oval, higher than long, with dark internal marks dorsally and laterally ( Figs 2–3View FIGURES 2 – 8, 15–16View FIGURES 15 – 21, 28–29View FIGURES 28 – 34).

Female. Very similar to male ( Figs 4–5View FIGURES 2 – 8, 17–18View FIGURES 15 – 21, 30–31View FIGURES 28 – 34), carapace less elevated, legs usually without curved hairs, legs shorter than in male, leg femora never thickened. Epigynum with large protruding weakly sclerotized area in front of epigynal plate ( Figs 6–7View FIGURES 2 – 8, 19–20View FIGURES 15 – 21, 32–33View FIGURES 28 – 34), the latter weakly curved, without processes or pockets; simple posterior plate. Internal female genitalia with anteriorly diverging sclerites/‘wings’, membranous median sac, and pair of pore plates ( Figs 14View FIGURES 9 – 14, 27View FIGURES 22 – 27, 40View FIGURES 35 – 40).

Relationships. Previous molecular phylogenies have suggested a close relationship of Stenosfemuraia  with the Venezuelan (or mostly Venezuelan) genera Mecolaesthus  , Coryssocnemis  , and Systenita  ( Bruvo-Mađarić et al. 2005; Astrin et al. 2007). This is also supported in our most recent molecular phylogeny of the family (J. Eberle et al., unpublished data). Relationships among and within these genera remain poorly resolved. Even the monophylies of the genera need further study, i.e. some genera may actually be nested within a paraphyletic Mecolaesthus  (as for example Coryssocnemis  - but not Stenosfemuraia  - in our most recent molecular phylogeny of the family; J. Eberle et al., unpublished data).

Natural history. All newly collected specimens below were found near the ground, mostly in forest litter, but also under larger objects like logs and rocks. Males and females were often found in close proximity. When disturbed, the spiders vibrated rapidly.

Distribution. The genus is apparently restricted to forests at medium to high elevation (~ 950–2200 m a.s.l.) in the Cordillera de la Costa region in Venezuela ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). It has been found in the states Aragua, Vargas, Capital District, and Carabobo and likely ranges into the state Miranda.

Composition. The genus now includes the three named species treated below. A fourth (undescribed) species occurs in Henri Pittier National Park at Rancho Grande and at La Cumbre between San Estéban and Valencia (specimens in ZFMK, Ar 18256, AMNH, and MNHN, Ar 10556). 

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Loc

Stenosfemuraia González-Sponga, 1998

Huber, Bernhard A. & Arias, Quintin 2017
2017
Loc

Stenosfemuraia González-Sponga, 1998 : 21

Gonzalez-Sponga 1998: 21
Loc

Codazziella González-Sponga, 2005 : 100

Gonzalez-Sponga 2011: 41
Gonzalez-Sponga 2005: 100