Drosophila sachapuyu , Penafiel-Vinueza, Ana Danitza & Rafael, Violeta, 2018

Penafiel-Vinueza, Ana Danitza & Rafael, Violeta, 2018, Five new species of Drosophilaguarani group from the Andes of southern Ecuador (Diptera, Drosophilidae), ZooKeys 781, pp. 141-163: 141

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.781.22841

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:88AFA04F-CA5B-464E-82E4-9A1DA6F50C41

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/C4F4A33E-ED73-44E3-A87A-6BE026A2DD93

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:C4F4A33E-ED73-44E3-A87A-6BE026A2DD93

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Drosophila sachapuyu
status

sp. n.

Drosophila sachapuyu  sp. n. Figs 9 A–F, 10 A–C

Type material.

Holotype ♂ (dissected, terminalia in microvial), Ecuador, Loja, Cajanuma, 2675 m, 4°6'53.7"S; 79°10'54.6"W, 23 Apr. 2015, A. Peñafiel col., A. Peñafiel & V. Rafael det. ( QCAZ-I 3309). Allotype ♀ (dissected, terminalia in microvial), Ecuador, Loja, Cajanuma, 2675 m, 4°6'53.7"S; 79°10'54.6"W, 23 Apr. 2015, A. Peñafiel col., A. Peñafiel & V. Rafael det. ( QCAZ-I 3310).

Paratypes.

9 ♂♂ and 9 ♀♀ (dissected, terminalia in microvial, descendants of isofemale line), Ecuador, Loja, Cajanuma, 2675 m, 4°6'53.7"S; 79°10'54.6"W, 23 Apr. 2015, A. Peñafiel col., A. Peñafiel & V. Rafael det. ( QCAZ-I 3311-3328).

Diagnosis.

Body color yellow. Aristae with six dorsal and two ventral branches. Two prominent oral bristles. Thorax yellow. Wings clear. Cerci not fused to epandrium. Aedeagus with two sheets fused by a membrane with tiny spines, with a ventral blade with wavy edge. Hypandrium in shield-shape. Gonopod bearing one long bristle. Paraphyses fused to gonopod bearing two small bristles.

Description.

Male. Young specimen. Holotype external morphology: total length (body + wings) 3 mm, body length 2.40 mm. Body color yellow.

Head. Aristae with six dorsal and two ventral branches plus terminal fork and fine hairs. Orbital plate yellowish brown, frontal length 0.29 mm; frontal index = 0.82; top to bottom ratio = 0.14; Medial vertical seta closer to lateral vertical seta. Distance of or3 to or1 = 0.11, distance of or3 to vtm = 0.09, or1-or3 ratio = 0.62; or2-or1 ratio = 0.47, vt index = 0.84. Ocellar triangle yellowish brown, ocellus yellow, distance of ocellar setae = 0.51 of frontal length, distance of postocellar setae = 0.75 of frontal length; frontal vitta yellow. Two prominent oral bristles of the same size, vibrissa index = 0.84. Cheek index = 4.58. Carina not sulcate. Eyes wine red, eye index = 1.28.

Thorax. Yellow, thorax length 0.60 mm, acrostichal hairs in eight rows between the two anterior dorsocentral setae that decrease in number toward the rear. h index = 1.2. Transverse distance of dorsocentral setae = 2.17, dc index = 0.65. Distance between apical scutellar seta = 1.16, scutellum yellow, scut index = 1.34. Medial katepisternal seta three quarters of the length of the anterior seta, sterno index = 2.2. Clear wings. Alar length 2.29 mm, alar width 1.09 mm. Alar indices: alar = 2.10; C = 2.76; ac = 2.04; hb = 0.30; 4c = 0.47; 4v = 1.25; 5x = 1.5; M = 0.4 and prox. x = 0.31.

Abdomen. Yellow with dorsal midline that reaches the 5th tergite, 1st tergite yellowish brown, 2nd - 4th tergites with posterior dark pigmentation which reaches and covers the exterior margin leaving a round clear area, 5th tergite with dark pigmentation which covers the entire tergite, 6th tergite totally dark (Figure 9A).

Male terminalia. Epandrium microtrichose with three lower and no upper bristles, four bristles on the ventral lobe. Cerci not fused to epandrium. Surstylus triangular, with ten primary teeth on the right and eleven on the left side, ten sharp secondary teeth on the right and eleven on the left side, eight marginal bristles on each side (Figure 9B). Hypandrium in shield-shape and membranous. Gonopod elongated bearing one long bristle (Figure 9C).

Aedeagus. Young specimen slightly sclerotized, ends in two sheets fused by a membrane with small bright tiny spines, with a wider blade with wavy edge. Aedeagus apodeme broken. Paraphyses fused to gonopod bearing two small bristles (Figure 9 D-F).

Variation in paratypes (dry mounted specimen). Total length (body + wings) 3.82-4.43 mm, body length 2.49-3.08 mm. Head. Frontal length 0.28-0.32 mm, frontal index = 0.7-0.85, top to bottom width ratio = 1.08-1.59; distance of or3 to or1 = 0.07-0.12, distance of or3 to vtm = 0.11-0.14, or1-or3 ratio = 0.86-1.40, or2-or1 ratio = 0.20-0.38, distance of ocellar setae = 0.83-1.17 of frontal length, distance of postocellar setae = 0.68-0.96 of frontal length, vt index = 0.77-0.93; cheek index = 5.36-10.66; vibrissa index = 0.86-1.07; eye index = 1.08-1.40. Thorax length 0.76-0.98 mm, h index = 0.69-1.27. Transverse distance of dorsocentral setae = 1.0-2.47, dc index = 0.61-1.06. Distance between apical scutellar seta = 0.76-1.0, scut index = 1.10-1.51; sterno index = 1.28-2.60.

Female. Allotype and paratypes (isofemale descendants). Allotype: total length (body + wings) 4.41 mm, body length 2.94 mm. Body color dark brown.

External morphology. Same as the male except abdomen, which is yellow with dorsal midline that reaches the 6th tergite, 1st tergite yellowish brown, 2nd - 5th tergites with posterior dark pigmentation which reaches and covers the exterior margin leaving a round clear area, 6th tergite totally dark (Figure 10A). Wings yellow. Alar length 3.6 mm, alar width 1.38 mm. Alar indices: alar = 2.21; C = 4.32; ac =1.78; hb = 0.44; 4c = 0.51; 4v = 1.40; 5x = 1.20; M = 0.36 and prox. x = 0.42.

Terminalia. Spermatheca lightly pigmented, balloon-shaped, with small indents, deeply invaginated to three-quarters (Figure 10B). Ovipositor elongated, sclerotized, with 20 marginal and eight discal teeth, one long bristle and three fine hairs (Figure 10C).

Variation in paratypes (dry mounted specimen). Total length (body + wings) 4.12-5.05 mm, body length 2.49-3.27 mm. Head. Frontal length 0.31-0.39 mm, frontal index = 0.72-0.84, top to bottom width ratio = 1.16-1.55; distance of or3 to or1 = 0.08-0.15, distance of or3 to vtm = 0.11-0.16, or1-or3 ratio = 0.5-2, or2-or1 ratio = 0.10-0.46, distance of ocellar setae = 0.70-1.11 of frontal length, distance of postocellar setae = 0.64-0.88 of frontal length, vt index = 0.74-1.34; cheek index = 5.40-9.83; vibrissa index = 0.88-1.0; eye index = 1.07-1.35. Thorax. Length 0.86-1.04 mm, h index = 0.65-1.26. Transverse distance of dorsocentral setae = 1.76-2.50, dc index = 0.64-0.82. Distance between apical scutellar seta = 0.69-1.12. scut index = 1.05-1.72; sterno index = 1.20-2.23.

Etymology.

In Kichwa, sachapuyu  refers to sacha (forest) and puyu (cloud). This species was found on a cloud forest habitat.

Distribution.

Known only from the type locality.

Ecology.

Unknown. The type specimen was found in the fermented banana-bait traps placed at the locality, which suggests that this species feeds and breeds in fermented fruit as do many other Drosophila  species. This species has been reared with gelatin banana media devised by Rafael et al. 2000. The habitat is a well-preserved intermediate montane forest.

Relationship to other species.

The general shape of the terminalia of Drosophila sachapuyu  sp. n. has similarities with the terminalia of D. pichinchana  Vela & Rafael, 2004. The two smaller ventral sheets and two heavier dorsal sheets are fused by a membranous medial region. Both species have four bristles on the ventral lobe. Drosophila sachapuyu  and Drosophila pichinchana  differ in the general shape of the aedeagus. The aedeagus of D. sachapuyu  is dorsally flattened.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Lauxaniidae

Genus

Drosophila