Paromius procerulus ( Berg 1892 ), Berg, 1892
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|Paromius procerulus ( Berg 1892 )|
Paromius procerulus ( Berg 1892) , new combination
Pamera procerula Berg, 1892: 75 –76; Lethierry & Severin, 1894: 193; Coscarón, 2003: 46
Pamera sororcula Berg, 1892: 77 ; Lethierry & Severin, 1894: 194 [n. syn.]
Neopamera procerula: Harrington, 1980: 107 ; Slater & O ´Donnell, 1995: 151; Melo et al., 2004: 67
Neopamera sororcula: Harrington, 1980: 107 ; Slater & O ´Donnell, 1995: 151
Redescription. Male ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 )—Body elongate, dorsal surface pruinose, antennae and legs long. Head ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2 – 7 ) dark brown, with abundant silvery anteriorly decumbent setae; sparse semierect longer setae dorsally. Jugum forming a carina. Antenniferous tubercles parallel. Eyes oval. Ocelli located at imaginary line passing at level of posterior eye margin ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURES 2 – 7 ), nearer to anterior pronotal margin than to eyes. Rostrum brown with short erect setae more abundant over segments II and III; segment IV surpassing procoxae. Buccular juncture Vshaped. Antennae light brown, segment IV darker; with abundant short decumbent setae.
Collar brown to light brown; anterior pronotal lobe dark brown; posterior pronotal lobe brown with lateral margins and posterior 1 / 3 lighter. Pronotum pilose, with very short decumbent setae, and scalelike setae over anterior pronotal lobe and anterior 2 / 3 of posterior pronotal lobe; microsculpture of pronotum as shown in figure 3. Scutellum dark brown, lighter at apex; with short decumbent setae and scalelike setae; punctate except lower Yshaped carina. Hemelytra uniformly light brown with short decumbent setae. Clavus with three rows of punctures, and two additional rows of scattered punctures on distal 2 / 3 between inner and median rows. Membrane whitish, with irregular light brown tinges. Pleura dark brown, punctate, pilose, metepimeron lighter brown. Mesepimeron ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 2 – 7 ) enclosed. Evaporative area ( Figs. 5, 6 View FIGURES 2 – 7 ) extensive. Procoxae with one spine; protrochanters unspined; profemora ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 2 – 7 ) thickened, bearing a double row of spines on internal surface; protibiae unspined, with a spiniform seta at apex; mesofemora unspined. Coxae and femora brown, tibiae and tarsi light brown, pretarsi darker. Legs with short decumbent setae; meso and metatibiae with spiniform setae.
Abdomen brown with reddish hues in some specimens; with abundant short decumbent silvery setae. Pygophore ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 8 – 10 ) with three dorsal depressions posteriorly; anterior margin of dorsal aperture rounded and with two internal projections thinner at apex. Parameres ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 8 – 10 ): blade broad, strongly curved at apex, internal tonguelike projection slightly sclerotized; external projection bearing two long setae. Phallus ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 8 – 10 ): conjunctiva with two weakly sclerotized small lobes and with two very sclerotized conjunctival spines; ejaculatory reservoir with welldeveloped wings; vesica with three marginal processes: proximal process small and with three or four small teeth; median process without teeth, distal process formed by two long serrated projections joined at base.
Measurements (n = 10). Total length: 5.70–6.84 (mean 6.20). Head length: 0.93–1.08 (mean 1.01). Head width: 0.97–1.13 (mean 1.05). Interocular distance: 0.58–0.68 (mean 0.65). Interocellar distance: 0.33–0.40 (mean 0.37). Length of rostral segments I –IV: 0.60– 0.72 (mean 0.66); 0.55–0.67 (mean 0.62); 0.38–0.42 (mean 0.41); 0.30–0.37 (mean 0.35). Length of antennal segments I –IV: 0.37–0.42 (mean 0.40); 0.92–1.18 (mean 1.03); 0.72– 0.97 (mean 0.86); 0.87–1.12 (mean 1.03). Length of collar, anterior pronotal lobe, and posterior pronotal lobe: 0.17–0.18 (mean 0.17); 0.67–0.85 (mean 0.77); 0.45–0.62 (mean 0.55), respectively; width of collar, anterior pronotal lobe, and posterior pronotal lobe: 0.72–0.82 (mean 0.78); 1.03–1.22 (mean 1.14); 1.33–1.57 (mean 1.47), respectively. Abdominal length: 2.67–3.17 (mean 2.92).
Female —Similar to male in all aspects.
Measurements (n = 10). Total length: 5.95–7.09 (mean 6.67). Head length: 1.02–1.13 (mean 1.06). Head width: 1.07–1.17 (mean 1.12). Interocular distance: 0.67–0.70 (mean 0.69). Interocellar distance: 0.38–0.42 (mean 0.40). Length of rostral segments I –IV: 0.67– 0.75 (mean 0.72); 0.60–0.70 (mean 0.67); 0.40–0.45 (mean 0.43); 0.35–0.40 (mean 0.38). Length of antennal segments I –IV: 0.38–0.43 (mean 0.42); 0.98–1.17 (mean 1.10); 0.82– 0.97 (mean 0.90); 1.03–1.22 (mean 1.15). Length of collar, anterior pronotal lobe, and posterior pronotal lobe: 0.17–0.20 (mean 0.18); 0.75–0.85 (mean 0.80); 0.55–0.60 (mean 0.59), respectively; width of collar, anterior pronotal lobe, and posterior pronotal lobe: 0.82–0.87 (mean 0.84); 1.17–1.30 (mean 1.24); 1.55–1.75 (mean 1.62), respectively. Abdominal length: 2.98–3.67 (mean 3.35).
Remarks. —Berg described Pamera procerula and Pamera sororcula in 1892, stating that these two species could be easily confused in the absence of meticulous analysis, but he did not provide diagnostic characters to distinguish between them. After examination of the type material of both species and the collected material, I consider them to be the same species; consequently, P. sororcula is hereby considered a junior synonym of P. procerula .
The only known distributional data are those mentioned by Berg for Buenos Aires province (Chacabuco and Almirante Brown departments) and some localities in Corrientes province ( Coscarón, 2003; Melo et al., 2004); consequently, the new records of this species in the provinces of Chaco, Entre Ríos, Misiones, Salta, and Santa Fe considerably extend its geographic distribution.
Two species of Paromius are known from southern South America: P. procerulus , which is restricted to northeastern Argentina, and P. longulus , which has wider geographical distribution. Both species are similar in general aspect and coloration pattern. P. longulus has a more slender body, with less developed profemora, and the anterior pronotal lobe of this species is anteriorly narrow, with almost straight lateral margins; whereas in P. procerulus the anterior pronotal lobe is not narrowed anteriorly and the lateral margins are rounded.
Type material.— Lectotype (here designated): 1 Ψ ( Pamera procerula Berg ), Argentina, Buenos Aires, Chacabuco (34 º 38 ´S 60 º 28 ´W), F. Lynch ( MLP). [it only has the first antennal segment, one foreleg, one midleg and one mesofemur] Paralectotypes: 1 ɗ, 1 Ψ, Argentina, Buenos Aires, [Adrogué is the locality mentioned in the original description] ( MLP) [male without head or hemelytra and with only one midleg; female without antennae, legs, and with hemelytra broken; moreover, the head and pronotum are pasted onto a separate sheet]; Holotype: Ψ, ( Pamera sororcula Berg ), Argentina, Chacabuco, F. Lynch ( MLP) [without antennae, and it only has the clavus of the hemelytra].
Other material studied
Argentina: BUENOS AIRES.— 1 ɗ, Alejandro Korn, X 1972 (DJC); 2 ɗɗ, La Plata, 34 º 58 ´S 57 º 53 ´W, 27 II 2002, C. Melo coll. ( MLP). CORRIENTES.— 12 ɗɗ, 19 ΨΨ, Galarza, 28 º05´S 56 º 43 ´W, 17 XI 2000, P. M. Dellapé coll. ( MLP), 2 ɗɗ, 7 ΨΨ, 16 / 18 XI 2000, A. P. Martínez coll. ( MLP); 1 Ψ, Mercedes, XII 1974 (DJC); 1 ɗ, 1 Ψ, Pellegrini, 28 º 32 ´S 57 º 10 ´W, 16 XI 2000, P. M. Dellapé coll. ( MLP), 1 ɗ, 9 V 2002, P. M. Dellapé coll. ( MLP); 1 Ψ, cerca de Chavarría, 10 V 2002, P. Dellapé coll. ( MLP); 8 ɗɗ, 12 ΨΨ, Ituzaingó, Reserva Rincón de Santa María, 27 º 36 ´S 56 º 41 ´W, IV/ V 2003, P. M. Dellapé coll. ( MLP). CHACO.— 1 Ψ, ( MACN). ENTRE RÍOS.— 6 ɗɗ, 12 ΨΨ, Colón, III 2003, Carpintero & Cichino colls. ( MLP); 8 ΨΨ, Colón, ruinas del viejo molino, 06II 2003, Grandinetti & Cichino colls., trampa de luz ( MLP); 1 Ψ, La Paz, 30 º 75 ´S 59 º 65 ´W, I 1953 ( MACN); 4 ɗɗ, Concordia, 31 º 24 ´S 58 º02´W, 1938, Hayward coll. ( MACN); MISIONES.— 1 ɗ, Río Cuñapirú, 27 º07´S 54 º 55 ´W, II 1964, C. Bonino coll. ( MACN). SALTA.— 1 Ψ, Orán (DJC). SANTA FE.— 6 ɗɗ, 2 ΨΨ, Villa Ana (F.C.P.S.F.), 28 º 29 ´S 59 º 37 ´W, 4 / 8 XI 1933, Hayward coll. ( MACN); 1 Ψ, Rosario de Santa Fe, 32 º 57 ´S 60 º 40 ´W, A. Stévenin coll. ( MACN).
Description of eggs and immature stages
Eggs and nymphs were collected along with adults in Galarza (Corrientes Province) between 15 and 25 November 2000, from ears of Andropogon selloanus (Hackel) , a Poaceae that grows commonly in disturbed habitats such as roadsides. Slater (1977) mentioned that individuals of some geophylic species will occasionally climb up on plants to feed upon the mature seeds. P. procerula individuals feed on the ears of A. selloanus (Hackel) , where egglaying also occurs and immature stages live. The eggs are found unattached on the ears, with their greater axis perpendicular to the ground and the anterior pole upwards, resembling the seeds of the plant. Of 167 collected eggs, one was parasitoidized by a microhymenopteran ( Figs. 11, 12 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ); this parasitoid together with an adult collected in the same sample was determined as an undescribed species of the Telenomus floridanus species group ( Hymenoptera : Proctotrupoidea: Scelionidae ). (Cecilia Margaría, pers. comm.)
Egg ( Figs. 11, 14 View FIGURES 11 – 14 )
Elongate, anterior pole rounded and posterior pole slightly pointed. Light brown. ( Figs. 11 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ). Chorium with small projections ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ). Operculum with seven micropylar processes ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 11 – 14 ).
Nymph V ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 15 – 19 )
Body elongate. Head brown, eyes brown to dark brown. Antennae elongate, segment IV fusiform; light brown, darker at apex; pilose. Rostrum dark brown, surpassing procoxae, but not reaching mesocoxae. Head ventrally, pro, meso, and metasternum with a median longitudinal carina, pale yellow. Pronotum brown, posterior lobe darker. Collar wider medially, posteriorly delimited by a furrow; lateral margins reflexed, light brown with a black line externally; transverse impression well delimited. Wing pads brown, lateral margins flattened, light brown. Scutellum brown. Pleura brown. Profemora inflated, with ventral spines. Abdomen, dorsal: brown to dark brown, last segments reddish; with yellowish or creamcolored transversal fringe comprising the posterior half of segment III and the anterior third of segment IV, and continuing ventrally to form a complete ring, rest of ventral brown. Scent glands apertures between III/IV, IV/V and V/VI, in a black macula (same condition in the other instars).
Measurements (n = 10). Total length: 5.94–6.40 (mean 6.24). Head length: 0.98–1.12 (mean 1.06). Head width: 0.97–1.24 (mean 1.23). Antennal length: 3.22–3.60 (mean 3.44). Rostral length: 4.34–4.43 (mean 4.37). Length of collar, anterior pronotal lobe, and posterior pronotal lobe: 0.15–0.16 (mean 0.16); 0.86–0.93 (mean 0.90); 0.20–0.24 (mean 0.22) respectively; width of collar, anterior pronotal lobe, and posterior pronotal lobe: 0.82–0.98 (mean 0.92); 1.48–1.60 (mean 1.56); 1.50–1.64 (mean 1.59) respectively. Wing pads length: 1.76–1.82 (mean 1.78).
Nymph IV ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15 – 19 )
Body elongate. Head brown to light brown; eyes dark with red outline. Ventral carina same as in nymph V. Antennae elongate, segment IV fusiform; light brown, segment IV darker at apex; pilose. Rostrum brown to light brown, surpassing procoxae but not reaching mesocoxae. Pronotum brown; collar delimited posteriorly by a furrow; lateral margins reflexed, yellowish with black outline; transverse impression well delimited; posterior lobe dark brown. Wing pads brown, lateral margin flattened, yellowish with black outline. Pleura brown to light brown. Legs brown to light brown, tarsi darker; profemora inflated with some small ventral spines. Abdomen: Scent gland apertures as in nymph V; general coloration light brown to pale yellow or pale yellow with darker regions as follows: dorsally: segment I with 2 brown maculae submedially, segment II and anterior 2 / 3 of segment III brown, segment IV with broad transverse brown fringe, wider medially, segments IV, V, VI, VII and VIII brown laterally, segment VIII with a medial anterior black spot, segments IX and X darker. Ventrally with lighter curved fringe on segments IV and V, continuing dorsally; segments VIII, IX and X dark.
Measurements (n = 10). Total length: 4.76–4.96 (mean 4.88). Head length: 0.93–1.10 (mean 1.01). Head width: 0.88–0.96 (mean 0.92). Antennal length: 1.80–1.96 (mean 1.88). Rostral length: 2.10–2.18 (mean 2.14). Length of collar, anterior pronotal lobe, and posterior pronotal lobe: 0.09–0.10 (mean 0.10); 0.65–0.73 (mean 0.70); 0.10–0.12 (mean 0.11), respectively; width of collar, anterior pronotal lobe, and posterior pronotal lobe: 0.80–0.84 (mean 0.82); 1.10–1.12 (mean 1.11); 1.11–1.12 (mean 1.11), respectively. Wing pads length: 0.84–0.92 (mean 0.89).
Nymph III ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 15 – 19 )
Body elongate, oval, general coloration light brown. Head light brown, darker at vertex and posteriorly. Antennae brown to light brown, terete, segment IV fusiform, darker at apex. Rostrum light brown, apex of segment IV darker; reaching mesocoxae. Pronotum brown, some specimens with anterior darker fringe; collar weakly delimited; lateral margins reflexed; transverse impression insinuated; posterior margin straight, with black outline. Wing pads short. Pleura brown. Legs light brown; profemora slightly inflated, without spines. Abdomen light brown with reddish hues, scent glands apertures as in nymph V; segment 4 light brown ventrally with 2 reddish maculae laterally.
Measurements (n = 10). Total length: 3.28–3.52 (mean 3.44). Head length: 0.66–0.75 (mean 0.70). Head width: 0.79–0.82 (mean 0.80). Antennal length: 1.65–1.79 (mean 1.74).
Rostral length: 1.39–1.44 (mean 1.42). Pronotum length: 0.55–0.60 (mean 0.58). Pronotum width 0.86–0.89 (mean 0.88). Wing pads length: 0.34–0.41 (mean 0.38).
Nymph II ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 15 – 19 )
Body elongate, oval. Head brown. Antennae yellowish, segment IV reddish. Rostrum light brown; reaching mesocoxae. Pronotum brown, subquadrangular, without collar or transverse impression; lateral margins flattened. Meso and metanotum brown, reddish laterally, lateral margins flattened. Pleura brown, reddish dorsally. Legs light brown, profemora slightly inflated, without spines. Abdomen yellowish, with reddish hues on segments 5 and subsequent. Apertures of scent glands as in nymph V.
Measurements (n = 10). Total length: 2.36–2.54 (mean 2.44). Head length: 0.53–0.58 (mean 0.56). Head width: 0.62–0.65 (mean 0.64). Antennal length: 1.35–1.41 (mean 1.38). Rostrum length: 0.84–0.87 (mean 0.86). Pronotum length: 0.43–0.54 (mean 0.49). Pronotum width: 0.68–0.86 (mean 0.76).
Nymph I ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 15 – 19 )
Body ovoid. Head brown, yellowish ventrally. Antennae yellowish, segment IV reddish. Rostrum light brown, reaching mesocoxae. Pro, meso, and metanotum brown, meso and metanotum with reddish hues laterally. Pleura brown, dorsally yellowish with reddish hues. Esterna yellowish. Legs brown, pilose. Abdomen yellowish, with reddish hues on segments 5 and subsequent.
Measurements (n = 10) Total length: 1.92–2.10 (mean 2.02). Head length: 0.41–0.45 (mean 0.43). Head width: 0.45–0.47 (mean 0.46). Antennal length: 1.05–1.21 (mean 1.07). Rostrum length: 0.82–0.86 (mean 0.83). Pronotum length: 0.50–0.56 (mean 0.53). Pronotum width 0.21–0.24 (mean 0.23).
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Paromius procerulus ( Berg 1892 )
|Dellapé, Pablo Matías 2005|
|Melo 2004: 67|
|Slater 1964: 1139|
|Slater 1964: 1142|
|Pennington 1921: 19|
|Pennington 1921: 19|
|Coscaron 2003: 46|
|Lethierry 1894: 193|
|Berg 1892: 75|
|Lethierry 1894: 194|
|Berg 1892: 77|