Philodoria kolea Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara

Kobayashi, Shigeki, Johns, Chris A., Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos, Camiel Doorenweerd,, Kawakita, Atsushi, Ohshima, Issei, Lees, David, 2018, Hawaiian Philodoria (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Ornixolinae) leaf mining moths on Myrsine (Primulaceae): two new species and biological data, ZooKeys 773, pp. 109-141: 109

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Philodoria kolea Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara

sp. n.

Philodoria kolea Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara  sp. n. Figs 3, 5K, L, 7 A–D, I, 12, 13, 14D

Type locality.

Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park (Big Island).

Type material.

Holotype ♂, Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii (Big Island), 25.iv.2016, A. Kawakita leg., host: Myrsine lessertiana  (understory shrub), GenBank accession no. MF804825, IO-322, SK851 in BPBM. The type series was mounted from emerged adult moths.

Paratypes, in BPBM: 1♀, Kaumana Trail, Hilo, Hawaii (Big Island), 28.iv.2016, em., C.L.-Vaamonde & C. Doorenweerd leg., host: Myrsine  sp., 20.iv.2016 (Cocoon), HILO016, SK634♀. 1♀, Thurston lava tube (Nahuku), Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii Is., 13.v.2016, em., S. Kobayashi leg., host: Myrsine lessertiana  , 25.iv.2016 (larva), SKH-05-1, SK632♀; 1♀, same locality and data as holotype, IO-323, SK852; 2♀, same locality as holotype, 2&24.v.2016, em., C.L.-Vaamonde & C. Doorenweerd leg., host: Myrsine lessertiana  , 22.iv.2016 (larva), HILO020/SKH-15, SK630♀, 631♀.


Among Philodoria  species having similar fuscous forewing coloration (i.e., P. wilkesiella  Swezey, P. pipturiana  Swezey, P. epibathra  (Walsingham), and P. nigrella  (Walsingham) (See Zimmerman 1978)), the new species is recognizable by the white and bronze color bands on the forewing (Fig. 3). The forewing pattern and the genitalia are similar to those of other Myrsine  mining species, P. succedanea  and P. auromagnifica  , but P. kolea  completely lacks the orange markings (Figs 2, 3).


Adult (Figs 3, 5K, L, 12N). Wingspan 6.7 mm in holotype, 6.6, 8.5 mm in paratypes; forewing length 3.0, 3.1 mm in holotype, 2.7-4.0 mm in paratypes. Head leaden grey; frons whitish grey; maxillary palpus reduced; labial palpus greyish ochreous, terminal joint with fuscous band at middle and at apex. Antenna greyish fuscous. Thorax leaden grey. Forewing base leaden grey, externally suffused with brownish fuscous patches: a triangular basal patch along the costal fold; an oblique transverse fascia before the middle of wing, bordered with black scales; a large transverse patch after the middle to costal 3/4, narrowing in the dorsum, extending to dorsal 2/3, containing small white costal spot; leaden grey small median line at base with dorsal narrow patch from base to near middle; one white color band at the middle of the first bronze color band, others on both extremities of second and third bands; a leaden grey patch extending toward the termen and apex with small shiny black apical spots; cilia leaden grey with a black fringe basal line; tonal cilia with a shiny white fringe basal line. Hindwing and cilia leaden grey. Abdomen greyish fuscous above, banded with white beneath. Legs pale greyish fuscous, spurs white.

Male genitalia (Fig. 7 A–D) (n = 1). Capsule 830 µm. Tegumen 600 µm long. Similar to P. auromagnifica  , except tegumen 1.5 × length of valva (Fig. 7A, C); valva 390 µm long, broad and having rather shorter and pointed dorsal process (Fig. 7A); saccus 250 µm long. Phallus 640 µm long.

Female genitalia (Fig. 7I) (n = 5). Similar to P. succedanea  and P. auromagnifica  , but different in having two very small and narrow signa with minute spines.


Hawaii (Big Island).

Host plants.

Primulaceae  : Myrsine lessertiana  A. DC.


(Figs 12, 13, 14D). Larvae mine the adaxial side of leaves of M. lessertiana  , forming a slender serpentine mine (Fig. 12A, B), and gradually expanding as they feed and grow forming a full-depth mine (Fig. 12G, L). Larvae consumed small amounts of leaf tissue (under 2 cm in leaf length) when feeding on seedlings (Fig. 13G, H). The young larva is about 1.5 mm long (Fig. 12I) and later instar larvae are 4-8 mm long (Fig. 12J, K). Larvae were collected from fresh leaves of seedlings. There was usually only one mine per leaf (Fig. 12A, B, G, H). The pupal cocoon is prepared outside the mine, on either surface of the leaf; the cocoon is greyish white to ochreous and near ellipsoidal in shape (Fig. 12M); 4.0-5.0 mm in length, 1.0-3.0 mm in width.

DNA barcoding.

BIN BOLD:ADF137. The five specimens sequenced for COI are from two localities on Hawaii and have maximum intraspecific p-distance of 0.17%. The p-distance to the nearest neighbor, Philodoria kauaulaensis  , is 6.98%.


The specific epithet, kolea, is a noun in apposition taken from the Hawaiian name of the host plant, Myrsine  .