Cnemaspis anamudiensis

Cyriac, Vivek Philip, Johny, Alex, Umesh, P. K. & Palot, Muhamed Jafer, 2018, Description of two new species of Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Western Ghats of Kerala, India, Zootaxa 4459 (1), pp. 85-100: 92-97

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4459.1.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F72A2055-3F61-4905-98BB-E0B818E2C378

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7E633953-2351-930E-DCBA-72E6FF63FE4D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cnemaspis anamudiensis
status

sp. nov.

Cnemaspis anamudiensis  sp. nov.

Figs. 4–6View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6

Holotype: ZSI/ WGRC /IR. V/2706, an adult male of SVL 58.2 mm; collected from a rock crevice of a boulder in thick evergreen forest at Anamudi Reserve Forest (10.16675°N, 0 76. 99791°E), near Pettimudi in Munnar, Idukki District , Kerala, at an elevation of 1873m  ; collected on 0 4 September 2013 by Vivek Philip Cyriac.

Paratypes: ZSI/ WGRC /IR. V/2707, a sub-adult individual of SVL 42.1mm; collected from rock crevice near a stream at the same locality as holotype on 0 4 September 2013 by Vivek Philip Cyriac. ZSI/ WGRC /IR. V/2708, an adult female of SVL 49.1 mm; collected from rock crevice of a boulder at the same locality as holotype on 0 4 September 2013 by Vivek Philip Cyriac. ZSI/ WGRC /IR. V/2709, a juvenile of SVL 29.9 mm; collected from rock crevice near a stream at the same locality as holotype on 0 4 September 2013 by Vivek Philip Cyriac.

Diagnosis: A large sized, robust Cnemaspis  with a maximum snout-vent length 58.2 mm (n = 4); mid-dorsal scales heterogeneous with small granular scales intermixed with few large, irregularly arranged tubercles; spinelike tubercles absent on flanks; ventral scales of neck and abdominal smooth, sub-imbricate; supralabials to angle of jaw 7–8; infralabials 7; subdigital lamellae under manus IV 1 9–21, under pes IV 20–22; tail base slightly swollen with a single postcloacal spurs on each side; dorsal scales of tail smooth, without whorls of enlarge tubercles; subcaudals enlarged, smooth with regularly arranged scales; male with 2 precloacal pores, femoral pores absent. Dorsum dark brown with an interrupted orange/ochre vertebral line; forelimbs and hind limbs speckled with brick red spots; throat and abdomen black in colour.

Cnemaspis anamudiensis  sp. nov. differs from all other Indian congeners by the following characters: absence of spine-like tubercles on flanks (versus spine-like tubercles present on flanks in C. assamensis  , C. gracilis  , C. goaensis  , C. littoralis  , C. mysoriensis  , C. indraneildasii  , C. jerdonii  , C. otai  , C. wicksii  , C. andersonii  , C. monticola  , C. nilagirica  and C. flaviventrali  ); presence of only two precloacal pores and absence of femoral pores (versus presence of only femoral pores in C. wynadensis  , C. sisparensis  , C. anaikattiensis  , C. heteropholis  , C. littoralis  , C. indica  , C. jerdonii  , C. girii  , C. kotiyoorensis  and C. flaviventralis  ; presence of both femoral and precloacal pores in C. gracilis  , C. goaensis  , C. mysoriensis  , C. indraneildasii  , C. otai  , C. yercaudensis  , C. wicksii  , C. andersonii  , C. australis  and C. adii  ; presence of a continuous series of 24–28 precloacal-femoral pores in C. kolhapurensis  ; absence of both femoral and precloacal pores in C. assamensis  and C. boiei  ; presence of 6–10 precloacal pores in C. beddomei  , C. ornata  , C. nairi  and C. maculicollis  sp. nov.); tail without whorls of enlarged caudal tubercles and a postcloacal spur on either side of the base of the tail (versus tail with whorls of enlarged or flattened caudal tubercles in C. gracilis  , C. goaensis  , C. littoralis  , C. mysoriensis  , C. indraneildasii  , C. jerdonii  , C. otai  , C. yercaudensis  , C. monticola  , C. australis  and C. nilagirica  ; without postcloacal spur in C. wynadensis  , C. kottiyoorensis  , C. sisparensis  and C. heteropholis  ); dorsal scales heterogeneous with small granular scales intermixed with irregularly arranged enlarged, keeled, conical tubercles (versus dorsal scales homogenous in C. boiei  , C. indica  , C. jerdonii  , C. littoralis  , C. nilagirica  , C. wynadensis  , C. sisparensis  , C. kolhapurensis  and C. adii  ).

Description of Holotype ( Figs. 4 View Figure and 5 View Figure ): An adult male of SVL 58.2 mm. Head moderately long (HL 26.9 % SVL), broad (HW 94.9 % HL) and not strongly depressed (HD 42.6 % of HL). Snout short (ES 40.3 % HL); scales on snout granular, keeled, larger than those on forehead and interorbital region. Eye relatively small (ED 19.3 % HL); pupils round; extra-brillar fringe scales large anteriorly, gradually becoming smaller posteriorly. The tympanum is relatively small (TD 6.9 % HL), oval and broader than long. The rostrum is broader than long, with a partially dividing median groove. Nasals separated from each other by two supranasals, which are in contact with each other; nasals bordered posteriorly by two postnasals and are not in contact with the first supralabial. Mental scale sub-pentagonal bordered posteriorly with two widely separated postmentals and a single, large intermediate chin shield. Supralabials to the angle of jaw, seven; Infralabials to the angle of the jaw, seven. Ventral scales of head and neck granular, smooth.

Body rather robust (TW 61.0 % AG) and moderately elongate (AG 44.9 % SVL). Mid-dorsal scales heterogeneous with small granular scales intermixed with irregularly arranged marginally enlarged, keeled tubercles. Ventral scales smooth, larger than dorsal scales. Pectoral scales sub-imbricate, abdominal and pelvic scales juxtaposed.

The forelimbs are moderately long; upper arm longer than lower arm (UAL 12.4 % SVL; LAL 11.4 % SVL). The hindlimbs are longer than forelimbs; femur longer than tibia (FEL 16.6 % SVL; TBL 15.4 % SVL). Dorsal scales of forelimbs and hind limbs granular, keeled and without enlarged tubercles; ventral scales smooth; scales on manus and pes, smooth. Subdigital lamellae entire, a few fragmented; lamellae on the basal phalanges larger. Interdigital webbing absent. Subdigital lamellae on finger I: 14, finger II: 15, finger III: 19, finger IV: 19, finger V: 16; toe I: 12, toe II: 17, toe III: 20, toe IV: 21 and toe V: 17. Relative length of digits, fingers: IV (6.6 mm)> III (6.4 mm)> V (5.9 mm)> II (5.3 mm)> I (4.4 mm); toes: IV (7.8 mm)> III (6.8 mm)> V (6.5 mm)> II (5.8 mm)> I (3.5 mm). Precloacal and femoral scales are larger than abdominal scales. Femoral pores absent; 2 precloacal pores present.

Tail sub cylindrical in cross-section, regenerated, its length shorter than SVL (TL 40.4 mm). The tail base is slightly swollen with a single large, conical postcloacal spurs on each side. Dorsal scales of tail granular. Ventral scales larger than dorsal scales of tail; subcaudals slightly larger than adjacent scales, rounded and smooth. Subcaudals irregularly arranged.

Colouration in preservative ( Fig. 4 View Figure ): Head dark brown to black mottled with light brown markings. The ventral side of the head and neck are dark brown except for the first two infralabials and few adjacent scales which are white in colour. The dorsal side of the body is dark brown mottled with lighter brown markings and a vertebral light brown line which is interrupted posteriorly from the mid body to the base of the tail. Dorsal sides of the forelimbs and hindlimbs are dark brown with several lighter brown spots. Dorsal side of the pes and manus are dark brown with lighter brown bands. Ventral side of the abdomen and limbs are dark grayish brown in colour. Dorsal side of tail dark brown mottled with lighter markings, ventral side uniform grayish brown.

Colouration in life ( Fig. 6 View Figure ): Dorsum overall dark grayish brown with a long orange/ochre vertebral line on the back interrupted by small paired black spots. Paravertebral region mottled with light and dark brown markings with a series of four to five buff yellow spots running transversely on either side of the vertebral line. The head is grayish brown with light and dark reticulations. The iris is bright red in colour. Forelimbs and hind limbs brown with brick red spots; digits cross-barred with black and brick red bands. The tail is grayish brown with irregular light and dark markings. Ventral sides of throat, neck and abdomen, are dark grey.

Variation: Morphometric data for the type series is provided in Table 1. Supralabials range from seven, as in the holotype and ZSI/WGRC/IR. V/2707, to eight, as in ZSI/WGRC/IR. V/2708 and ZSI/WGRC/IR. V/2709; Infralabials eight on the right side and seven on the left side in ZSI/WGRC/IR. V/2708; supranasals separated by a small internasal in ZSI/WGRC/IR. V/2708; tail complete with subcaudals being enlarged, smooth and regularly arranged in ZSI/WGRC/IR. V/2707. Lamellae varies from13–15 on manus I, 15–17 on manus II, 19–21 on manus III, 19–21 on manus IV and16–17 on manus V; lamellae ranges from 12–13 on pes I, 17–18 on pes II, 19–21 on pes III, 2 0–22 on pes IV and17–19 on pes V.

Etymology: The specific epithet is named after the Anamudi reserve forest in Munnar of Idukki District of Kerala, the type and only known locality for this species.

Distribution: At present, Cnemaspis anamudiensis  sp. nov. is known to occur in Pettimudi, Anamudi Reserve Forest (10.16675°N, 076.99791°E) in the Munnar Forest Division of Idukki District at an elevation range of 1860 – 1900 m ( Fig. 7 View Figure ). The area is contiguous with Eravikulam National Park and is near Anaimudi peak (2695m ASL), the highest peak in the Western Ghats.

Natural History: The adult male holotype was found in the crevice of a huge rock boulder in an evergreen forest in Anamudi Reserve Forest. The paratype ZSI/ WGRC /IR. V/2708 was also found between rock crevices in evergreen forest. ZSI/ WGRC /IR. V/2707 and ZSI/ WGRC /IR. V/2709 were found in the crevices of wet boulders in a stream.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Reptilia

Order

Squamata

Family

Gekkonidae

Genus

Cnemaspis