Brachymeria nigritibialis,

Tavares, Marcelo Teixeira, Navarro-Tavares, Andrea Barbieri & Almeida, Gilberto De Souza Soares De, 2006, The species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera) parasitoids of Parides ascanius (Cramer), an endangered Papilionidae (Lepidoptera) from restingas of Southeastern Brazil, Zootaxa 1197, pp. 55-63: 57-63

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.2646331

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scientific name

Brachymeria nigritibialis

sp. nov.

Brachymeria nigritibialis  sp. nov. Tavares & Navarro­Tavares

Figs. 1–4View FIGURES 1–4


FEMALE. Length of body: 6.0 mm.

Color: black, except: eyes and ocelli brown; distal half of tegulae white; apex of femora and metatibia, apex and base of mesotibia and tarsi yellow; wings hyaline, veins brown; pilosity of the dorsum of head, mesosoma and gaster yellow, the remaining white.

Head: Pilosity about two thirds as long as DOA (fig. 1), dense on lower face; piliferous punctures of frons and vertex about one third of DOA, interspace width less than 0.5X the diameter of punctures, on posterior vertex punctures irregular and shallower; lower face and lower parts of parascrobal space with shallow and irregular punctures, interspace raised and becoming rugose; lateral scrobal margins concave, marginal carinae conspicuous on lower three quarters, internal surface weakly coriaceous, becoming smooth toward the center; interanntenal projection indicated as a thick laminar carina, almost rectangular in profile; preorbital carina present as fig. 1, postorbital carina curved backward and reaching genal carina slightly above lower eye margin; clypeus with a row of piliferous punctures as fig. 1, interspace shiny; mandibles 0.7x as long as clypeus width, formula 2.2, upper teeth small, lower ones larger and blunt; anterior ocellus separated from scrobe by an elevation like a carina; antenna robust (fig. 2), not clavate, scape not reaching the level of anterior ocellus, anellus tiny, F1 obconical. Relative measurements: length 34, width 67, height 45, malar space 15, scrobal width 25 (and parascrobal area 7), frontovertex 35, DOA 7, OOL 5, POL 15, eyes (height: breadth) 35:35, clypeus 23:5, scape 20, pedicel 3, F1 (length: width) 8:6, F2 5:7, F3–F7 5:9, clava 11:7.

Mesosoma: Pilosity on pronotum and mesoscutum similar to that on vertex, on scutellum pilosity about 3X as long as diameter of punctures; piliferous punctures on dorsum of pronotum and scutellum 0.1X to 0.3X the DOA, on anterior margin of mesoscutum about 0.3X DOA, on the center of mesoscutum about 0.4X DOA; interspaces coriaceous on dorsum of pronotum and mesoscutum, from 0.25 to 0.3X the puncture diameter; on the scutellum (fig. 3), interspaces smooth and shiny, reaching about 0.5X the puncture diameter along the median area; pronotal carina developed as a lamina and broken off mesad for about 1/3 of pronotal width; line of punctures on posterior margin of pronotum shallow and forming an irregular anterior carina; upper portion of lateral panel of pronotum alutaceous, without rugae, transverse sulcus shallow and distinct by its smooth and shiny surface; scutellum convex, insterspace not elevated as median rugae, frenal carina as figure 3; epicnemial carina slightly emarginate on median­ventral portion; femoral depression shiny and smooth, except for few complete transverse carinae; upper epimeron smooth and shiny; propodeum with median carina on the anterior third, posteriorly with a median areola, this about 2.5X as long as wide; basal fold of fore wing with 1–2 lines of setae, cubital and subcubital folds with 1 line of setae each, basal cell with 1–2 lines of hairs parallel to submarginal vein and 1–3 scattered hairs; metafemur with 9–10 ventral teeth (fig. 4), out side with piliferous punctures, interspace smooth and shiny; metatibia as figure 4. Relative measurements: mesosoma (length:width) 83:52, mesoscutum length 34, scutellum 37:30, wing 153:52, submarginal vein 58, marginal 37, postmarginal 5, stigmal 7, metacoxa length 22, metafemur 67:47.

Metasoma: Apex acuminate; petiole indistinct in dorsal view; T1 mostly smooth and shiny, with some piliferous punctures latero­dorsally, posterior margin straigth; posterior margin of T2­T3 concave, T4­T5 straigth; T7+8 wider than longer; ovipositor sheath not protruding; apex of hypopygium emarginate. Relative measurements: gaster (length: width) 75:52, T1 length 30.

MALE. Similar to female, except: F2­F4 with longer ventral pilosity; punctures on lower face deeper; femoral depression more extensively carinate; gaster truncated at apex.

Distribution Brazil (Rio de Janeiro State).

Hosts This species is a hyperparasitoid of P. ascanius  through Lespesia  sp. ( Diptera  : Tachinidae  ).

Material examined

Holotype female labeled “ Brasil, RJ, Rio de Janeiro, Parque Natural Municipal do Bosque da Barra , 30.ix.2003, G. Almeida e eq. col.”, “ex: pupário de Lespesia  ( Diptera  ) em Parides ascanius (Lepid.)  , emergido em 29.x.2003 ” ( UFES)  . Paratypes: 2 females, 1 male with the same label data as holotype, but collected 04.xi.2003 (male) and 30.ix.2005 (females), emerged, respectively, 24.xi.2003 and 22.x.2005 ( UFES)  ; 4 females, 3 males, same data as holotype, but from Parque Natural Municipal de Marapendi , collected 30.ix.2005 (1 male)  and 28.x.2005 (4 females, 2 males), emerged, respectively, 21.x.2005 and 20.xi.2005 ( UFES, MNRJ, MZSP). Non­type material  : 1 female, same data as holotype, but collected 04.xi.2003  and emerged 23.xi.2003 (dissected to take SEM micrographs).


As B. koehleri  , this species is a larval­pupal parasitoid of Diptera  (see above). Besides them, only Brachymeria compsilurae (Crawford)  has been recorded from species of Lespesia  . As well as many others Brachymeria  parasitoid of Diptera  , these species share: mandibles with 2 teeth each, the lower ones larger and blunt; preorbital carinae present but not extended between the ocelli; and median carinae on metasternum forked at the ends. B. nigritibialis  is close to B. koehleri  by: the presence of marginal carinae on lower three quarters of scrobe (fig. 3); the anterior ocellus separated from scrobe by a carina­like elevation; interanntenal projection indicated as an elevated carina, almost rectangular in profile; and gaster acuminate at apex. B. nigritibialis  differs from B. koehleri  by having the lateral scrobal margins concave (fig. 3) and metatibia mainly black. Additionally, the dorsal portion of lateral panel of pronotum is alutaceous, without transverse rugae, and the interspace of median line of scutellum is not raised. In B. koehleri  , there is one or more transverse rugae on the dorsal portion of lateral panel of pronotum above transverse sulcus, the interspace of median line of scutellum is wider (wider than the puncture diameter) and raised at the basal two thirds, and the black coloration on metatibia is restricted to the middle.

Etymology This species name refers to the mainly black metatibia.

Conura parides  sp. nov. Tavares & Navarro­Tavares

Figs. 5–8


FEMALE. Length 6,6–6,9mm.

Color: Body mainly yellow. Black on: a small spot on the center of scrobes and on the outside of posterior ocellus; a bilobed spot on the occiput; a ‘Y’ mark on midlobe, anterior margin and a central oval spot on lateral lobe of mesoscutum; anterior margin of axilla and axillula; a strip on the lower one half of femoral depression; a central spot on metasternum; an elongated spot on the dorsal side of apical half of metacoxae; ventral side of trochanter; a small central spot on the outside and a spot at apex of inside of metafemora; a strip on the anterior margin of tergites 2 to 6; and the ovipositor sheath. Dark brown on: apex of pedicel and all flagellomeres; a median strip on anterior 2/3 of scutellum; two small submedian spots on anterior margin of propodeum. The pilosity is black on: head; dorsum of mesosoma; anterior margin of propodeum; ventral side of fore and midfemora, apex of metacoxae and metasoma; out side of tibiae and metafemora; the remaining pilosity yellowish. Wings hyaline, apex slightly infumated, veins brown.

Head: Mandibles 2.2, short and with a narrow lamina on lower edge; malar sulcus narrow, internal carina obliterated toward eyes, external one complete and not contiguous with postorbital carina; lower face with some fine rugae beside the malar sulcus; parascrobal space, surface of scrobes inconspicuously alutaceous, shiny; the rest of lower face, scrobes, frons, and anterior portion of vertex as fig. 5; interspace of vertex between the eyes and posterior ocelli almost smooth, between posterior ocelli rugulose; interantennal projection with a laminar carina above; gena and temple with scattered fine piliferous punctures, interspaces smooth and shiny on genae, alutaceous on temples; carina bordering gena posteriorly prolonged as occipital carina, but interrupted medially; antennal scape reaching just the level of vertex, anellus tiny. Relative measurements: length of head 32, width 65, height 40, malar space 9, frontovertex 33, diameter of anterior ocellus 5, OOL 4, POL 8, eyes (height:breadth) 27:30, scape 22, pedicel 6, F1 12:9, F2­F3 9:8, F4­F5 8:7, F6­F7 7:7, clava 12:6.

Mesosoma: Pronotal collum alutaceous, collar punctured strigose, pronotal carina expanded into lamina, interrupted medially; mesoscutum strigose; scutellum distinctly convex, its sculpture, axilla and frenal carina as fig. 6; dorsellum convex and smooth, distinct from lateral parts of metanotum; epicnemium smooth and shiny, finely alutaceous below; femoral depression rugulose, interspaces smooth; epimeron smooth, with sparse fine piliferous punctures above; metapleuron prominent, interspaces smooth and shiny, almost glabrous on anterior half, posteriorly with sparse and fine piliferous punctures; propodeum as fig. 6; metafemur with 14–15 teeth (fig.7), interspace smooth; external carinae of tarsal sulcus developed on the apical half of metatibia; basal cell of fore wing with 1–2 lines of setae parallel to the submarginal, cubital fold with 1 line of setae. Relative measurements: mesosoma (length: width) 80:50, mesoscutum length 29, scutellum 24:29, wing 196:42, submarginal vein 76, marginal 32, postmarginal 42, stigmal 9, metacoxa length 65, metafemur 86:42.

Metasoma: Petiole with long ventral pilosity (fig. 8), longer than petiole width, spiracles as fine tubercles, basal lamina absent dorsally, present ventrally; gaster not pointed at apex (fig. 8), ovipositor sheath not visible from above; T7+8 2.3X longer than wide; hypopygium emarginated on apex. Relative measurements: gaster (length: width) 87:35, petiole 25:8, T1 length 25.

MALE. Simmilar to female, except by: scrobes yellow; “Y” mark on midlobe of mesoscutum partly effaced; anellus obconical and almost as long as width; and the lack of ovipositor sheath at apex of metasoma.

Distribution Brazil (Rio de Janeiro State).

Hosts Reared from pupae of P. ascanius  as a gregarious parasitoid. FIGURES 5–8. Conura parides  , sp.n., female. 5. Head frontal. 6. Scutellum and propodeum. 7. Metafemur and tibia, indicating external carina of tarsal sulcus on tibia (ECTS). 8. Metasoma. Scale= 0.5 mm.

Material examined

Holotype female labeled “ Brazil, RJ, Rio de Janeiro, Parque Natural Municipal do Bosque da Barra , 30.ix.2003, G. Almeida e eq. col.”, “ex: pupa de Parides ascanius (Lepid.)  , emergido em 14.i.2004 ”  . Paratypes: 23 females, 5 male with the same label data as holotype ( UFES, MNRJ, MZSP)  .


This species belongs to vau  group of Conura  , proposed by Delvare (1992) to contain only the single species, C. vau  . C. parides  agrees with the vau  group by having: body with erect pilosity; the mandibles small and with two teeth each; malar bristles distinct in females (fig. 5) and conspicuous in males; mesoscutum strigose; scutellum strongly convex; dorsellum distinct from the lateral parts of metanotum, smooth and convex; female gaster not pointed at apex and valvulae not visible from above (fig. 8). C. parides  differs from C. vau  by: the antennal scape not exceeding the vertex (male and female) and not enlarged at apex (males), the presence of a lamina on lower edge of mandible (fig. 5), and the median carina and anterior costulae on propodeum (fig. 6). This species also has the cubital fold of fore wing indicated by dense pilosity, the petiole 3.1X as long as wide and with a dark ventral pilosity, and a carina that delimits the metatarsal sulcus developing as a lamina for half of the length of metatibia (fig. 7). The relationship to P. ascanius  ( Papilionidae  ) is the first host record for the vau  group of Conura  . Species of the closely related maculata group attack several families of Lepidoptera  other than Papilionidae ( Delvare 1992)  .

Etymology This species name refers to generic epithet of the host butterfly, Parides ascanius  .


We are thankful to: Paulo Augusto Pereira Vivas, Ricardo Costa Flores, Cláudio Eduardo Lopes e Gláucio Rangel da Silva for helping on field work; to Dr. Nelson Wanderley Perioto for helping to take scanning electron micrographs; to Dr. Enio Nunez for identification of the Tachinidae  genus; and to the anonymous reviewers for corrections and suggestions. This research is supported in part by FAPESP (Project #98/0583–0). The second author gives thanks to CAPES for the fellowship provided.


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