Pholcus ubin Huber

Berhard A. Huber, Booppa Petchard, Charles Leh Moi Ung, Joseph K. H. Koh & Amir R. M. Ghazali, 2016, The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group (Araneae, Pholcidae): new data from field observations and ultrastructure, European Journal of Taxonomy 190, pp. 1-55: 10-12

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Pholcus ubin Huber

sp. nov.

Pholcus ubin Huber  , sp. nov.

Figs 7–8View Figs 1 – 8, 29–33View Figs 29 – 33, 90–92View Figs 90 – 101


Easily distinguished from putatively closest known relatives (other species in the halabala  core group) by morphology of male palps ( Figs 29–30View Figs 29 – 33; procursus with heavily sclerotized dorsal process distally; shapes of uncus and appendix) and by female internal genitalia ( Figs 32–33View Figs 29 – 33; triangular pore plates).


The species name is derived from the type locality; noun in apposition.

Type material

SINGAPORE: holotype, ♂, ZFMK ( Ar 15010), Pulau Ubin  , degraded forest near park headquarters (1°24.2' N, 103°58.2' E), 20 m a.s.l., on leaves, 16 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber, J. Koh, D. Court)GoogleMaps  .

Other material examined

SINGAPORE: 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, ZFMK ( Ar 15011), same data as holotypeGoogleMaps  ; 2 ♀♀, 3 juvs, in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 232), same dataGoogleMaps  .

MALAYSIA-BORNEO: 1 ♂, RMNH, Sabah  , Gaya Island (6° 00.90' N, 116° 01.17' E), 22 Aug. 2009 (A. Floren)GoogleMaps  .


Male (holotype)

MEASUREMENTS. Total body length 4.1, carapace width 1.0. Leg 1: 30.4 (7.3 + 0.4 + 7.2 + 14.2 + 1.3), tibia 2: 4.7, tibia 3: 2.7, tibia 4: 3.9; tibia 1 L/d: 86. Distance PME-PME 220 µm, diameter PME 95 µm, distance PME-ALE ~35 µm; distance AME-AME 35 µm; diameter AME 60 µm.

COLOR. Carapace ochre-yellow with brown pattern of radiating marks posteriorly, in live specimens with reddish color in median area between posterior marks ( Fig. 7View Figs 1 – 8); ocular area and clypeus not darkened; sternum with some dark marks posteriorly; legs ochre-yellow with dark brown patellae and tibiametatarsus joints; abdomen pale ochre-gray with small black and white marks dorsally and laterally, monochromous ventrally.

BODY. Habitus as in Fig. 7View Figs 1 – 8; ocular area slightly raised, with brushes of ~10 stronger hairs behind each PME; carapace without median furrow; clypeus unmodified; sternum wider than long (0.62/0.40), unmodified.

CHELICERAE. As in Fig. 31View Figs 29 – 33, with pair of frontal apophyses provided with two modified hairs each and rounded lateral processes.

PALPS. As in Figs 29–30View Figs 29 – 33; coxa unmodified; trochanter with retrolatero-ventral apophysis; femur with small retrolateral apophysis proximally; tibia very large; tarsus with dorsal elongation carrying subdistal tarsal organ; procursus with prominent ventral ‘knee’, with distinctive heavily sclerotized dorsal process distally (arrow in Fig. 30View Figs 29 – 33); bulb oval, with distinctive uncus and appendix; weakly sclerotized embolus with subdistal fringed side branch (hidden by appendix in Fig. 29View Figs 29 – 33).

LEGS. Without spines and curved hairs; few vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 5%; prolateral trichobothrium absent on tibia 1, present on other tibiae; tarsus 1 with ~20 pseudosegments (only distally ~15 fairly distinct).

Male (variation)

Tibia 1 in 2 other males: 6.1, 7.3.


In general similar to male ( Fig. 8View Figs 1 – 8), but without stronger hairs behind PME; sternum mostly dark with some small light marks; eye triads closer together than in male (PME-PME distance: 185 µm). Tibia 1 in 3 females: 5.8, 5.9, 6.1. Epigynum weakly sclerotized whitish plate ( Fig. 90View Figs 90 – 101), anterior internal arch visible through cuticle, posterior margin laterally slightly more sclerotized; with median ‘knob’ ( Figs 32View Figs 29 – 33, 90–91View Figs 90 – 101); internal genitalia as in Figs 33View Figs 29 – 33 and 92View Figs 90 – 101.

Natural history

All Pulau Ubin  specimens were found in a highly degraded patch of forest near park headquarters, while no specimen was found in a well preserved forest about 3.3 km WNW. Most specimens were collected by beating of branches, but some were observed in their flat resting position on the leaves.


Known from two localities in Singapore and Gaya Island ( Sabah  ) respectively ( Fig. 17View Fig. 17).


Germany, Bonn, Zoologische Forschungsinstitut und Museum "Alexander Koenig"


Netherlands, Leiden, Nationaal Natuurhistorische Museum ("Naturalis") [formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie]


USA, Florida, Gainesville, University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Allyn Museum