Pholcus halabala Huber, 2011

Berhard A. Huber, Booppa Petchard, Charles Leh Moi Ung, Joseph K. H. Koh & Amir R. M. Ghazali, 2016, The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group (Araneae, Pholcidae): new data from field observations and ultrastructure, European Journal of Taxonomy 190, pp. 1-55: 7-10

publication ID

10.5852/ejt.2016.190

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BE92596B-62D9-46CD-8486-CF6B36C640B11

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7F7187D5-4E4A-7023-FD98-C5D3C848FCBF

treatment provided by

Jeremy

scientific name

Pholcus halabala Huber, 2011
status

 

Pholcus halabala Huber, 2011 

Figs 1–6View Figs 1 – 8, 18–28View Figs 18 – 28

Pholcus halabala Huber, 2011: 128  –131, figs 495–496, 517–518, 530–535 (♂ ♀).

Diagnosis

Easily distinguished from most other species in halabala  core group by simple triangular uncus and short curved appendix with simple rounded tip (fig. 530 in Huber 2011; Fig. 24View Figs 18 – 28), and by distinctive sclerite anteriorly in internal female genitalia (fig. 533 in Huber 2011; similar in Ph. lintang  sp. nov, cf. Fig. 37View Figs 34 – 38); from very similar Ph. sepaku  only by shape of procursus (distinctive distal elements; compare figs 535 and 536 in Huber 2011).

New material examined

THAILAND: 1 ♀, 2 juvs, in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 302, 315), Narathiwat  , Hala Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, ‘site 1’, forest at river near headquarters (5°47.8' N, 101°49.9' E), 90 m a.s.l., on leaves, 1–2 Mar. 2015 (B.A. Huber, B. Petcharad)GoogleMaps  .

MALAYSIA: 1 ♂ in ZFMK ( Ar 15000), Kedah, Gunung Jerai, forest near Sri Perigi Waterfall (5°48.3' N, 100°24.6' E), 100–200 m a.s.l., on leaf, 27 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1 juv., in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 292), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, ZFMK ( Ar 15001), Pulau Pinang, Penang National Park near Teluk Bahang (5°27.7' N, 100°12.1' E), 10–50 m a.s.l., on leaves, 28 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 119), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, ZFMK ( Ar 15002), Perak, Gunung Liang (3°47.7' N, 101°32.0' E), 250 m a.s.l., forest along river, on leaf, 22 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber, A.R.M. Ghazali, K.A. Braima)GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♀♀, 1 juv., in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 268), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, ZFMK ( Ar 15003), Pahang, Ulu Dong (3°56.2' N, 102°01.9' E), 190 m a.s.l., forest near river, on leaf, 21 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber, A.R.M. Ghazali, K.A. Braima)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 253), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, ZFMK ( Ar 15004), Selangor, Kemensah (3°13.31' N, 101°47.57' E), 230 m a.s.l., forest along stream, on leaf, 19 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber, A.R.M. Ghazali, K.A. Braima, M. Muslimin)GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, ZFMK ( Ar 15005), Johor, Gunung Ledang, forest near Puteri Falls (2°21.2'– 2°21.6' N, 102°37.8'– 102°38.1' E), 100–300 m a.s.l., on leaves, 17 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 4 juvs, in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 239), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 2 ♀♀, ZFMK ( Ar 15006), Gunung Ledang, forest near Puteri Falls (2°21.3' N, 102°38.1' E), 110 m a.s.l., on leaves, 18 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber), night collectingGoogleMaps  ; 1 juv. in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 244), same dataGoogleMaps  .

SINGAPORE: 1 ♂, ZFMK ( Ar 15007), Upper Selatar Reservoir Park (1°24.0' N, 103°48.4' E), 20 m a.s.l., on leaf, 15 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber, D. Court)GoogleMaps  ; 3 juvs, in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 224), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂♂, ZFMK ( Ar 15008), Dairy Farm Nature Park (1°21.6' N, 103°46.7' E), 50 m a.s.l., on leaves, 15 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber, J. Koh)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 2 juvs, in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 214), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, ZFMK ( Ar 15009), MacRitchie Reservoir Park (1°21.3' N, 103°48.8' E), 50 m a.s.l., on leaves, 14 Feb. 2015 (B.A. Huber, J. Koh, D. Court)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 4 juvs, in absolute ethanol, ZFMK ( Mal 201), same dataGoogleMaps  .

INDONESIA: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv., RMNH, Sumatra, Gunung Leuser National Park at Bohorok [3.54°N, 98.12°E], 1000 m a.s.l., from leaves, 7–10 Aug. 1982, collector unknownGoogleMaps  .

Description – amendments

Male ocular area on each side with four strong spines ( Figs 18–20View Figs 18 – 28); apparently without gland openings ( Fig. 23View Figs 18 – 28); tarsus 4 comb-hairs of the simplified Pholcus  - type (cf. Huber & Fleckenstein 2008), with three lateral tines ( Fig. 27View Figs 18 – 28); procursus with retrolateral distal pocket ( Figs 21–22View Figs 18 – 28); distal cheliceral apophyses with two cone-shaped teeth (modified hairs) each ( Fig. 28View Figs 18 – 28); gonopore with four epiandrous spigots ( Fig. 26View Figs 18 – 28); ALS with one widened, one pointed, and six smaller cylindrically shaped spigots of varying sizes ( Fig. 25View Figs 18 – 28).

Variation

Previously, this species was known only from southern Thailand (type locality) and Sumatra ( Huber 2011). Specimens from Sumatra were assigned tentatively because of minor differences in the procursus. The new specimens above support the idea that this is intraspecific variation rather than an indication of species limits. First, the ventral distal spine of the procursus varies continuously among localities, with specimens from Singapore having a short spine like specimens from Sumatra, and specimens from Malaysia being intermediate between those from Singapore and Thailand. Most deviating are specimens from Pulau Pinang, where the ventral distal process of the procursus carries three spines instead of only one. Second, the shape of the dorsal process of the procursus varies strongly with the angle at which it is viewed. If the procursus is viewed in slightly dorsal view, the process looks as in the original description ( Huber 2011, fig. 531); if the procursus is viewed in perfect retrolateral view, the process appears slightly wider.

The usual pattern on the carapace consists of two V-marks on the posterior half ( Figs 1, 6View Figs 1 – 8). In some specimens, these marks are fused into larger marks or even into a single large mark that covers the entire posterior half of the carapace ( Fig. 5View Figs 1 – 8). Tibia 1 in newly collected specimens: 12 males: 7.0–9.1 (mean 8.0); 6 females: 6.4–7.7 (mean 7.0).

Natural history

Even though this species is widespread, it seemed to be extremely rare at most localities. This explains the low specimen numbers even though it was searched for with considerable effort. At the type locality, three days of intensive search yielded only one female and two juveniles. The ATOL Expedition in 2003 (including several experienced arachnologists using a variety of collecting techniques) also found only one adult specimen. At some localities (Gunung Jerai; Penang), Ph. halabala  was found together with Ph. erawan  , but Ph. halabala  seemed to prefer dicot leaves while Ph. erawan  was mostly found on monocot leaves. Otherwise these two species are barely distinguishable in the field. Webs consisted mainly of round platforms attached to the undersides of leaves. Small silk tufts ( Fig. 4View Figs 1 – 8) were observed in some webs at most localities. Egg-sacs are carried under the prosoma ( Figs 3, 5–6View Figs 1 – 8).

Distribution

Widely distributed from southern Thailand to Singapore and Sumatra ( Fig. 17View Fig. 17).

ZFMK

Germany, Bonn, Zoologische Forschungsinstitut und Museum "Alexander Koenig"

RMNH

Netherlands, Leiden, Nationaal Natuurhistorische Museum ("Naturalis") [formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie]

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Pholcus

Loc

Pholcus halabala Huber, 2011

Berhard A. Huber, Booppa Petchard, Charles Leh Moi Ung, Joseph K. H. Koh & Amir R. M. Ghazali 2016

2016
Loc

Pholcus halabala

Huber 2011: 128

2011