Minous trachycephalus ( Bleeker 1855 )

Matsunuma, Mizuki & Motomura, Hiroyuki, 2018, Three new species of the Indo-Pacific stingfish genus Minous (Synanceiidae: Minoinae) with redescriptions of M. trachycephalus (Bleeker 1855) and M. pictus Günther 1880, Zootaxa 4455 (2), pp. 201-257: 225-236

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Minous trachycephalus ( Bleeker 1855 )


Minous trachycephalus ( Bleeker 1855) 

English name: Striped Stingfish

Figures 9D–FView FIGURE 9, 10View FIGURE 10, 13D, EView FIGURE 13, 14–18View FIGURE 14View FIGURE 15View FIGURE 16View FIGURE 17View FIGURE 18, 19G–KView FIGURE 19, 20EView FIGURE 20, 24BView FIGURE 24; Tables 1–5, 7

Aploactis trachycephalus Bleeker 1855: 451  (original description; type locality: Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia; holotype: RMNH.PISC. 5901).

Corythobatus trachycephalus: Bleeker 1865: 282  (listed).

Minous trachycephalus: Eschmeyer et al. 1979: 465  , figs. 1, 6 (northeastern Indian Ocean and northwestern Pacific oceans; description, synonymy, nomenclatural remarks on holotype); Allen & Erdmann 2012: 243, unnumbered fig. (East Indies; short description); Motomura 2013: 85, unnumbered fig. (Thailand, Gulf of Thailand; short description; specimen: KAUM–I. 23829); Matsunuma et al. 2017: 1289, figs. 1b, 2a (Red Sea; description).

Minous pictus  not of Günther: Günther 1880: 41, pl. 18, fig. D (Arafura Sea, south of New Guinea; in part); Allen et al. 2003: 380, unnumbered fig. (Pacific Ocean; ecological and identification notes); Naranji et al. 2017: 1, fig. 1 (Visakhapatnam, India, Bay of Bengal; in part; description).

Holotype. RMNH. PISC. 5901, 55.9 mm SL, Manado , Sulawesi, Indonesia. 

Paralectotype of M. pictus  . BMNH 1879.5.14.372, 36.6 mm SL, Arafura Sea , south of New Guinea, 09°59′S, 139°42′E, 28 fm. (ca. 51 m) depth, Challenger station 188, 10 Sep. 1874.GoogleMaps 

Non-type Bleeker specimens: 5 specimens, 33.1–43.8 mm SL: BMNH 1880.4. 21.110, 43.8 mm SL, Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia; RMNHAbout RMNH  .PISC. 38554, 53.9 mm SL, RMNH.PISC. 38555, 52.0 mm SL, RMNH.PISC. 38556, 45.9 mm SL, RMNH. PISC. 38557, 33.1 mm SL, Manado , Sulawesi, Indonesia. 

Other non-type specimens: 51 specimens, 16.5–70.4 mm SL: Thailand (Gulf of Thailand): KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 23829, 43.5 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 23830, 49.7 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 24086, 51.2 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 24087, 56.8 mm SL, Gulf of Thailand , trawl  ; KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 47803, 47.6 mm SL, Fish landing bridge at Klong Wan, Prachuab Khirikhan Province , 11°44′33″N, 99°47′26″E, trawl; URM-P 9 0 22, 54.6 mm SL, Songkhla fish market, trawl, 9 Apr. 1984GoogleMaps  ; URM-P12 155, 35.8 mm SL, Songkhla fish market, trawl, 21 Oct. 1983  . Thailand (Andaman Sea): KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 33284, 70.4 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 33285, 61.2 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 33286, 59.6 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 33287, 56.5 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 33288, 55.7 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 33289, 44.3 mm SL, Pak Nam Ranong fishing port  , Ranong, 09°56′N, 98°35′E, trawl. Malaysia (Borneo): KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 49280, 55.2 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 49281, 44.5 mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM –I. 49282, 50.8 mm SL, off Kota KinabaluGoogleMaps  , Sabah, 06°00′N, 116°07′E, 12 Aug. 2012GoogleMaps  . Philippines: CASAbout CAS 29371View Materials, 39.4View Materials mm SL, Buenavista, Mindanao, F. B. Steiner, 14 Apr. 1973  ; USNM 272154View Materials, 39.7View Materials mm SL, east of Sicogon Island, Visayan Sea between Northern Negross and Masbate, 11°27′45″N, 123°23′45″E, 47.6 m depth, L. Alcala et al., RV Sting Ray, 4 June 1978GoogleMaps  . Vanuatu: USNM 350129View Materials, 26.0 mm SL, Ranon Bay, Ambrym Island   , Vanuatu Islands , 17°51′34″S, 168°07′01″E, 9–16 m depth, J. T. Williams and D. G. Smith, 26 May 1997GoogleMaps  . New Caledonia: MNHNAbout MNHN 2005-2618, 49.6View Materials mm SL, Belep Island , 19°45′00′′S, 163°45′00′′E, RV Vauban, 16 June 1985GoogleMaps  . Australia (Arafura Sea): AMS I.21842-007, 53.2 mm SL  , Northern Territory  , Arafura Sea, 10°37′11′′S, 133°46′48′′E, RV Soela, 16 Nov. 1980; NTMAbout NTM S.12970-001, 53.7 mm SLGoogleMaps  , Arafura Sea  , Northern Territory, 09°53′S, 136°18′E, 54–55 m depth, H. Larson, 29 Oct. 1990GoogleMaps  ; NTMAbout NTM S.13270-003, 2 specimens, 45.6–58.1 mm SL, Gulf of Carpentaria , Queensland, 11°04′S, 139°56′E, 57 m depth, R. Williams, 29 Nov. 1991GoogleMaps  . Australia (Western Australia): CSIROAbout CSIRO H1477-2, 43.2 mm SL, north of Dampier Archipelago   , Western Australia, 20°06′–09′S, 116°39′–40′E, 49–50 m depth, FRV Soela, demersal trawl, 24 Sept. 1988  ; NMVAbout NMV A29708View Materials -007, 22.7 mm SL, northwestern Australia , 16°44′25″–07″S, 121°01′54″E, 109–112 m depth, Broome L 25 transect, RV Southern Surveyor, 30 June 2007  ; NTMAbout NTM S.11673-005, 52.2 mm SL, south of Rowley Shoals, Northeast Shelf , Western Australia, 19°12′S, 118°41′E, 76–80 m depth, NT Fisheries, 1 June 1985GoogleMaps  . Coral Sea: CSIROAbout CSIRO H3442-02, 47.1 mm SL, east of Cape York Peninsula   , Queensland, 11°34′S, 143°30′E, 40 m depth, 30 May 1993GoogleMaps  ; CSIROAbout CSIRO H4151-03, 54.6 mm SL, east of Cape York Peninsula , Queensland, 11°42′S, 143°27′E, FRV Gwendoline May, trawl, 14 Mar. 1995GoogleMaps  . Maldives: BMNH 1901.12.31.21-23, 3 specimens, 16.5–24.4 mm SL, Maldives. Yemen: CAS 227832View Materials, 44.8View Materials mm SL, Aden  . Egypt (Red Sea): MNHN 1966-0437View Materials, 47.4View Materials mm SL, El-bahr El-ahmar , 28°52′12′′N, 32°45′00′′E, RV Al Sayad, 8 Dec. 1928GoogleMaps  . Israel (Red Sea): HUJ 1633View Materials, 55.0 mm SL, Eilat, May 1951  ; HUJ 14005, 32.6 mm SL, Eilat, 8 Sept. 1986; HUJ 14681, 55.2 mm SL, Eilat, 23 June 1965; HUJ 14682, 52.8 mm SL, Eilat, 14 July 1965; SAIAB 4152View Materials, 56.0 mm SL, Eilat , 29°32′59′′N, 34°57′00′′E, M. Dor, 1 June 1965GoogleMaps  . Eritrea: HUJAbout HUJ 20655View Materials, 25.3View Materials mm SL, Horgigo Bay , 3 Apr. 1961  . Saudi Arabia: KAUMM 422, 35.0 mm SL, off Jizan, 16°34′N, 42°33′E, 30–32 m depth, 4 Nov. 2014GoogleMaps  ; SMFAbout SMF 35844View Materials, 38.0 mm SL, off Jizan, 16°45′N, 42°29′E, 28–30 m depth, 5 Nov. 2014GoogleMaps  . Madagascar: SAIAB 53292View Materials, 3 specimens, 48.9–60.9 mm SL, east of Nosy Komba , 13°23′59′′S, 48°16′59′′E, H. Phillip, bottom trawl, 2 Sept. 1995GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. A species of Minous  distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characters: 1st dorsal-fin spine much shorter than 2nd dorsal-fin spine, their bases close together; dorsal-fin rays X or XI, 9–11 (modally XI, 10), total rays 20–23 (21); anal-fin rays I–III, 7–9 (II, 8), total rays 9–11 (10); anterior and posterior lacrimal spines sharp, anterior spine tip canted anteroventrally, posterior spine tip usually canted ventrally to posteroventrally (angle to horizontal axil of head and body variable) but never curved anteroventrally as in M. roseus  ; body grayish dorsally ( Figs. 14View FIGURE 14, 15View FIGURE 15), without oblique alternating dark and light stripes; pectoral fin inner surface with many dark bordered bright yellow (whitish in preserved specimens) blotches basally, forming somewhat hexagonal pattern when fresh, distal portion largely yellow (whitish) when fresh ( Figs. 13EView FIGURE 13, 16View FIGURE 16); pore above pectoral-fin base with or without short blunt rounded skin flap.

Distribution. Minous trachycephalus  is widely distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific region, from the Red Sea and Madagascar east to Vanuatu and New Caledonia, and northern Australia north to the Gulf of Thailand (based on examined specimens) ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 10). Although the species has actually been recorded from a more widespread area, including Taiwan, Vietnam, Sumatra ( Indonesia), India and Sri Lanka ( Eschmeyer et al. 1979; Mishra et al. 1999; Poss 1999), confirmation of this extended range based on voucher specimens is necessary, owing to previous taxonomic confusion of the species with congeners (see synonym lists). Underwater photographs of the species from the East Indies, also reported by Allen & Erdmann (2012), are shown here as Fig. 13D, EView FIGURE 13 (from Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Sampling data for eight specimen lots recorded their collection mostly by bottom trawl at depths of 9–112 m (mostly> 50 m depth).

Remarks. Meristic and morphometric values taken from examined specimens are given in Tables 1–5, 7. The other meristic values without individual variations are as follows: pectoral-fin rays 12; pelvic fin rays I, 5; vertebrae 11 + 14 = 25.

An underwater photograph reported by Allen et al. (2003) as M. pictus  was identified here as M. trachycephalus  , lacking oblique alternating dark and light stripes on the body and a longitudinal yellow band on the dorsal fin (see Species comparisons). Although Naranji et al. (2017) recorded M. pictus  from India, their photograph is also identical with M. trachycephalus  , based on the diagnostic coloration of the dorsal fin and pectoral fin inner surface. However, Naranji et al.’s (2017) description of highly variable coloration on the pectoral fin inner surface and broad range of dorsal-fin ray meristics (IX–XII, 9–13) suggests that their materials included several species of Minous  .

Variations in diagnostic characters. Individual or geographical variations in several morphological features were apparent in the examined specimens of M. trachycephalus  . Specimens from Sabah, Malaysia (Borneo) differed from those from the Andaman Sea by having a paler caudal fin ( Fig. 15D, FView FIGURE 15) [vs dusky and scattered with numerous minute melanophores in the latter ( Fig. 15A, BView FIGURE 15)] and relatively pale dorsum, with a distinct dark blotch below the middle of the dorsal-fin base in small specimens (ca. 40–50 mm SL) ( Fig. 13FView FIGURE 13) (vs darker dorsum without a distinct blotch). The coloration of specimens from the Gulf of Thailand (geographically between the Andaman Sea and Borneo) and Australia ( Fig. 15C, E, G, HView FIGURE 15) appeared to be intermediate between those of the Andaman Sea and Bornean specimens. Moreover, the Bornean specimens also had the posterior lacrimal spine tip tending to be more ventrally canted ( Fig. 19IView FIGURE 19) than in the Andaman Sea specimens ( Fig. 19JView FIGURE 19) in a range of comparable growth stages. Further morphological and genetic analyses based on a greater number of specimens of M. trachycephalus  from throughout its distributional range are necessary to determine the trends in such variations.

Note on the holotype. Minous trachycephalus  was originally described by Bleeker (1855) (as Aploactis trachycephalus  ) based only the holotype from Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia, stating “Longitudo speciminis unici 75′′′. [Length (= total length) of the single specimen 75 mm]”. Subsequently, Hubrecht (1879) reported a total of eight Bleeker specimens of M. trachycephalus  (group A, 5 specimens; group B, 2 specimens; group C, 1 specimen). Five group A specimens were originally registered as RMNH.PISC. 5901 [55.9 mm SL (caudal fin broken), 53.9 mm SL (caudal fin broken), 52.0 mm SL (65.7 mm TL), 45.9 mm SL (caudal fin broken) and 33.1 mm SL (44.4 mm TL)] ( Fig. 17A–EView FIGURE 17). Another Bleeker specimen of A. trachycephalus  is registered as BMNH 1880.4.21.110 [43.8 mm SL (59.5 mm TL)] ( Fig. 17FView FIGURE 17). According to Hubrecht (1879), the primary type specimen was included within group A, Eschmeyer et al. (1979) also pointing out that the holotype of A. trachycephalus  was included in RMNH.PISC. 5901 (mixed up with four non-type specimens). Among the original five specimens of RMNH.PISC. 5901, the total lengths (65.7 mm TL and 44.4 mm TL) of 52.0 mm-SL and 33.1 mm-SL specimens are inconsistent with that of the holotype of A. trachycephalus  . Although the caudal fins of the remaining three specimens (55.9 mm SL, 53.9 mm SL and 45.9 mm SL) are damaged, the total lengths of the specimens could be estimated as 75.4 mm TL, 72.8 mm TL and 62.3 m TL, respectively, based on measurements of 26 undamaged specimens of M. trachycephalus  (TL = 1.3043*SL + 2.4503). The total length (estimated) of the largest Bleeker Group A specimen (55.9 mm SL, 75.4 mm TL), being closest and similar to that of the holotype of A. trachycephalus  given by Bleeker (1855), is therefore regarded here as the holotype of the species ( Fig. 17AView FIGURE 17), the remaining four specimens (reregistered as RMNH.PISC. 38554–38557) having no type status ( Fig. 17B–EView FIGURE 17).

Species comparisons. M. roseus  , M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  vs other congeners. Minous roseus  sp. nov., M. groeneveldi  sp. nov. and M. trachycephalus  all have the pectoral fin inner surface broadly yellow distally, with dark radial stripes along the rays ( M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  ) or a dark hexagonal or nearly hexagonal pattern ( M. trachycephalus  ). Although M. pusillus  possesses similar pectoral fin markings ( Fig. 4F–HView FIGURE 4), such markings form radial stripes in small specimens (<ca. 40 mm SL) ( Fig. 4HView FIGURE 4), becoming a minute hexagonal or nearly hexagonal pattern in larger specimens ( Fig. 4G, HView FIGURE 4), whereas the dark markings in M. roseus  and M. trachycephalus  (no information for M. groeneveldi  ) do not change with growth. Minous pusillus  is also readily distinguished from M. trachycephalus  and M. groeneveldi  by the absence of a yellow or light-colored band on the dorsal fin (vs present in M. trachycephalus  and M. groeneveldi  ) and a largely grayish dorsum [vs almost entirely pinkish or reddish when fresh (entirely creamy-white in preserved specimens) in M. roseus  ].

Moreover, M. pusillus  possesses relatively long, hair-like dorsal-fin spines (thinner than soft rays) ( Fig. 3G, HView FIGURE 3) [first dorsal-fin spine length 8.1–15.7% (mean 11.3%) of SL], compared with relatively short strong (inflexible) dorsal-fin spines in M. roseus  , M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  [first dorsal-fin length 3.9–7.7% (6.0%) of SL in M. roseus  , 5.8% of SL in M. groeneveldi  and 3.2–9.3% (6.3%) of SL in M. trachycephalus  ] ( Fig. 18DView FIGURE 18). Minous pusillus  also has a relatively smaller head [length 38.3–45.6% (mean 42.0%) of SL in M. pusillus  vs 41.9– 47.6% (45.8%) of SL in M. roseus  , 45.1% of SL in M. groeneveldi  and 42.4–48.3% (45.1%) of SL in M. trachycephalus  ], shorter snout [length 11.1–15.6% (13.6%) of SL vs 16.2–18.6% (17.4%) of SL, 17.0% of SL and 14.9–17.1% (16.1%) of SL] and narrower interorbital space [width at mid-orbit 5.9–9.9% (7.3%) of SL vs. 10.1– 12.5% (11.4%) of SL, 11.0% of SL and 8.4–12.1% (10.2%) of SL] ( Fig. 18A–CView FIGURE 18). Minous pusillus  further differs from M. roseus  , M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  in having modally 21 total dorsal-fin rays (vs 22 in M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  ), modally 10 total anal-fin rays (vs 11 in M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  ), modally 11 lower gill-rakers (vs 8 in M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  ; 9 in M. trachycephalus  ), modally 13 total gill rakers (10 in M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  ; 11 in M. trachycephalus  ) and 11 + 14 = 25 vertebrae (11 + 15 = 26 in M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  ) (see Tables 1, 2, 4, 5).

In addition to the differences in pectoral fin inner surface coloration, M. roseus  , M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  can be readily distinguished from M. andriashevi  , M. monodactylus  , M. quincarinatus  , M. usachevi  and M. versicolor  ( Fig. 3A–FView FIGURE 3) by the first dorsal-fin spine being much shorter than the second spine (first dorsal-fin spine length 29–37%, 36% and 19–61% of second spine length in M. roseus  , M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  , respectively), with bases close together, whereas both spines are of similar length (first dorsal-fin spine length 91–152% of second spine length) with well separated bases in the other five species. Moreover, M. inermis  and M. longimanus  ( Fig. 3I, JView FIGURE 3) differ from M. roseus  , M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  in having a longer pectoral fin, its length 45.2–59.3% (mean 51.2%) of SL and 51.7–63.6% (57.9%) of SL in M. inermis  and M. longimanus  , respectively, with the tip almost reaching to or extending beyond the end of the anal-fin base [pectoral-fin length 34.8–44.4% (39.8%) of SL, 38.0% of SL and 38.0–49.6% (43.3%) of SL in M. roseus  , M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  , respectively: tip never reaching to the end of anal-fin base]. The remaining congeners, including M. coccineus  , M. dempsterae  , M. pictus  and M. radiatus  sp. nov. ( Figs. 3K, LView FIGURE 3, 23View FIGURE 23, 24View FIGURE 24), can be also readily distinguished from M. roseus  , M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  by their oblique alternating dark and light stripes on the body (absent in the latter three species).

Minous trachycephalus  vs M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  . Minous trachycephalus  differs from M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  in having fewer dorsal-fin soft rays [9–11 (modally 10) in M. trachycephalus  vs 10–12 (11) in M. roseus  and 11 in M. groeneveldi  ], total dorsal-fin rays [20–22 (21) vs 21 or 22 (22) and 22], anal-fin soft rays [7–9 (8) vs 8–10 (9) and 9], total anal-fin rays [9–11 (10) vs 10–12 (11) and 11], lateral-line tubes [13–18 (15) vs 15–19 (17) and 16] and vertebrae (11 + 14 = 25 vs 11 + 15 = 26 in M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  ) (Tables 1–3), in addition to morphometric differences: narrower interorbital width at preocular spine base [6.4–9.4% (mean 7.7%) of SL in M. trachycephalus  vs 7.8–10.8% (9.1%) in M. roseus  and 9.2% in M. groeneveldi  ] and shorter second dorsal-fin spine [11.1–18.1% (14.1%) of SL vs 15.3–21.0% (18.3%) and 15.9%] ( Fig. 19B, CView FIGURE 19). Moreover, the pectoral fin inner surface in M. trachycephalus  has darkly margined bright yellow (lighter in preserved specimens) blotches, forming a hexagonal or nearly hexagonal pattern ( Figs. 9D–FView FIGURE 9, 13EView FIGURE 13 16View FIGURE 16), whereas dark stripes along the rays on a bright yellow background characterize the other two species ( Figs. 7BView FIGURE 7, 9A–CView FIGURE 9, 11DView FIGURE 11, 13BView FIGURE 13). The body of M. trachycephalus  is primarily grayish dorsally in large specimens> 50 mm SL ( Figs. 14A, BView FIGURE 14, 15View FIGURE 15), but broadly pinkish or yellowish (lighter in preserved specimens), except for dark blotches below the middle and posterior portions of the dorsal-fin base, in M. roseus  and M. groeneveldi  ( Fig. 6B, CView FIGURE 6, 7View FIGURE 7, 11B, CView FIGURE 11, 12View FIGURE 12).

Minous roseus  vs M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  . Minous roseus  sp. nov. is clearly distinguished from M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  in having sharp anterior and posterior lacrimal spines, the tip of the former canted anteroventrally and that of the latter canted anteroventrally or ventrally in large specimens> 60 mm SL ( Fig. 20D–FView FIGURE 20), whereas both lacrimal spines are relatively bunt with ventrally canted tips in M. groeneveldi  ( Fig. 20BView FIGURE 20); sharp, with the anterior spine tip canted anteroventrally and that of the posterior spine usually canted ventrally or posteroventrally (angle to horizontal axis of head and body variable) but never curved anteroventrally in M. trachycephalus  ( Fig. 20H–KView FIGURE 20). Moreover, M. roseus  differs from M. groeneveldi  and M. trachycephalus  in having an elongate tentacle-like skin flap [blunt and short or absent in 3 of 13 examined specimens] on a pore above the pectoral-fin base in specimens> 40 mm SL, the tentacle length much greater than the pore diameter ( Fig. 21B–DView FIGURE 21), whereas a blunt, thick skin flap (absent in 3 of 18 examined specimens of M. trachycephalus  ) occurred in the latter two species ( Fig. 21E, FView FIGURE 21).

Minous groeneveldi  vs M. roseus  . Minous groeneveldi  sp. nov. is closely related to M. roseus  , sharing a similar color pattern on the pectoral fin inner surface. However, M. groeneveldi  differs in having lesser head depth [17.6% of SL in the former vs 18.8–21.6% (20.0%) of SL in M. roseus  ] ( Fig. 19AView FIGURE 19), a horizontal line parallel to the head and body axis through the top of the snout bulge meeting the ventral margin of pupil in the 77.7 mm SLholotype ( Fig. 20AView FIGURE 20) (compared with well below the ventral margin of pupil in> 60 mm SL-specimens of M. roseus  ; Fig. 20CView FIGURE 20). Minous groeneveldi  also has the body yellowish dorsally, with a relatively broad dark stripe centrally, in the fresh holotype (77.7 mm SL) ( Fig. 12View FIGURE 12), compared with largely pale pink or yellow, with a narrow dusky stripe centrally, in large specimens of M. roseus  .

TABLE 7. Selected meristic and morphometric values (expressed as percentages of standard length) recorded from specimens of Minous trachycephalus  (including holotype of Aploactis trachycephalus 

and paralectotype of M. pictus  ).

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TABLE 7. (Continued)

Gill raker counts include upper + lower = total gill rakers. Modes and means include all specimens.


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis


Kagoshima University Museum


California Academy of Sciences


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences


Australian National Fish Collection


Museum Victoria


Hebrew University


Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg














Minous trachycephalus ( Bleeker 1855 )

Matsunuma, Mizuki & Motomura, Hiroyuki 2018


Aploactis trachycephalus

Bleeker 1855 : 451


Corythobatus trachycephalus:

Bleeker 1865 : 282


Minous trachycephalus: Eschmeyer et al. 1979 : 465

Eschmeyer et al. 1979 : 465 Allen & Erdmann 2012 : 243