Matsunuma, Mizuki & Motomura, Hiroyuki, 2018, Three new species of the Indo-Pacific stingfish genus Minous (Synanceiidae: Minoinae) with redescriptions of M. trachycephalus (Bleeker 1855) and M. pictus Günther 1880, Zootaxa 4455 (2), pp. 201-257: 205-215
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Minous roseus sp. nov.
New English name: Pink Stingfish
Minous trachycephalus not of Bleeker 1855: Gloerfelt-Tarp & Kailola 1984: 110, unnumbered fig. (Western Australia; short description; specimen: CSIRO CA1844); Sainsbury et al. 1985: 94 (Western Australia; short description; specimen: CSIRO CA1844); Poss 1999: 2320, unnumbered fig. (eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans; in part; figure taken from Sainsbury et al. 1895; key, ecological notes and distribution); Allen et al. 2006: 905 (Western Australia; listed, ecological notes and distribution).
Holotype. CSIROAbout CSIRO CA1844, 72.1 mm SL, north of Cape Lambert, Western Australia, Australia, 19°35′–39′S, 117°10′–13′E, 76 m depth, demersal trawl, FRV Soela, 5 Nov. 1980.
Paratypes. 12 specimens, 32.8–69.0 mm SL (all from northwestern Australia): AMS I.22832-012, 32.8 mm SL, Northwest Shelf, north of Port Hedland , 19°S, 117° E, J. Paxton and M. McGrouther, FRV Soela, 15 Apr. 1982; BSKU 16979View Materials, 57.3View Materials mm SL, Sahul Shelf, Timor Sea, 12°24′48″S, 128°00′06″–12″E , 115 m depth, RV Hakuho - maru, beam trawl, cruise KH-72-1, sta. 30, 25 June 1972; CSIRO CA1576, 53.2 mm SL, Ashmore Reef, northwest of Admiralty Gulf, 12°16′–18′S, 124°03′–05′E, 82 m depth, FRV Soela, demersal trawl, 16 July 1980; CSIROAbout CSIRO CA1589View Materials, 53.9View Materials mm SL, CSIROAbout CSIRO CA1591View Materials, 40.8View Materials mm SL, KAUMAbout KAUM – I. 113069 (formerly CSIROAbout CSIRO CA1590View Materials), 52.8 mm SL, east of Ashmore Reef, northwest of Admiralty Gulf, 12°27′S, 124°25′EGoogleMaps , 76–78 m depth, FRV Soela, demersal trawl, 16 July 1980; CSIROAbout CSIRO CA1845View Materials, 67.6View Materials mm SL, collected with holotype; NMVAbout NMV A29660 -012, 33.5 mm SL,GoogleMaps
northwestern Australia , 19°47′22″–16″S, 115°28′20″–29′01″E, 90–108 m depth, Dampier L 20 transect, RV Southern Surveyor, beam trawl, 12 June 2007; NMVAbout NMV A29708 - 026, 60.2 mm SL, northwestern Australia , 16°44′25″–07″S, 121°01′54″E, 109–112 m depth, Broom L 25 transect, RV Southern Surveyor, beam trawl, 30 June 2007; NMVAbout NMV A29712 - 004, 40.6 mm SL, northwestern Australia , 15°47′34″–48′30″S, 121°03′30″–02′53″E, 111– 119 m depth, Lacepede L 26 transect, RV Southern Surveyor, beam trawl, 1 July 2007; NMVAbout NMV A29722 - 006, 44.2 mm SL, northwestern Australia, 14°33′41″–01″S, 122°54′22″–40″E, 135–165 m depth, Adele L 28 transect, RV Southern Surveyor, beam trawl, 5 July 2007; NTMAbout NTM S.13974-005, 63.9 mm SL, north of Dampier Archipelago , Western Australia, 20°13′S, 116°18′ E, L. Bullard, 11 May 1983.GoogleMaps
Non-type specimen: CASAbout CAS 60400, 40.2View Materials mm SL, reef off southeast side of Funidu Islet , Maldives, 04°11′00″N, 73°30′30″E, M. G. Bradbury, RV Te Vega, rotenone and dip nets, 6 Nov. 1964.GoogleMaps
Diagnosis. A species of Minous distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characters: 1st dorsal-fin spine much shorter than 2nd dorsal-fin spine, their bases close together; dorsal-fin rays X or XI, 10–12 (modally XI, 11), total rays 21 or 22 (22); anal-fin rays II, 8–10 (II, 9), total rays 10–12 (11); head depth 18.8–21.6% (mean 20.0%) of SL; eye set high on head (horizontal line through top of snout bulge well below ventral margin of pupil in specimens> 60 mm SL); anterior and posterior lacrimal spines sharp, anterior spine tip canted anteroventrally, posterior spine tip canted anteroventrally or ventrally in specimens> 60 mm SL; body entirely pale pink or yellow with narrow dark stripe centrally, without oblique alternating dark and light stripes; pectoral fin inner surface largely bright yellow (whitish in preserved specimens), basally with dark stripes along rays, distal portion largely yellow (whitish) when fresh; skin flap associated with pore above pectoral-fin base long and tentacle-like.
Description. Pectoral-fin rays 12, lowermost ray free from membrane; pelvic fin rays I, 5. Vertebrae 11 + 15 = 26. Other meristics and morphometrics shown in Tables 1–6. Body oblong, moderately compressed laterally, without scales ( Fig. 6 View Figure ). Lateral-line tubes continuous, except for last isolated tube on caudal peduncle; each tube with a pore opening to short skin tube on posterior end, short cirri associated with pore. Single slit-like pore opening above pectoral-fin base behind gill opening, associated with relatively long tentacle (sometimes lacking dermal flap including left side of holotype).
Head moderately large, exposed bony surface rough with numerous small spines; interorbital space deep, interorbital ridges developed, well separated from each other; occipital pit well developed, very deep. Posterior lacrimal spine subequal to (slightly longer than) anterior lacrimal spine, anterior spine canted anteroventrally, posterior spine canted ventrally, its tip slightly curved forward in specimens> 60 mm SL (both spines canted ventrally in specimens <60 mm SL); suborbital ridge with rough bony clusters with numerous small spines; preopercle with 5 spines, uppermost spine behind end of suborbital ridge longest, lowermost 2 spines blunt, platelike; 3 sensory pores on underside of dentary; small pore on each side of symphysial knob; lateral and ventral surfaces of anterior portion of lower jaw with many cirri or tentacles, 2 relatively long tentacles between each sensory pore, posterior tentacle (below lacrimal spines) longer than anterior tentacle, tip extending beyond (almost reaching) posterior margin of maxilla when laid flat.
Snout relatively long; dorsal profile of snout relatively steep, forming angle of ca. 50° (ca. 40–50°) to horizontal axis of head and body. Mouth moderately large, slightly oblique, forming angle of ca. 30° to horizontal axis of head and body; posterior margin of maxilla not reaching (slightly extending beyond) a vertical through midorbit; upper edge of posterior part of maxilla swollen laterally, forming low ridge. Lower jaw tip slightly projected anteriorly when mouth closed. Symphyseal gap separating premaxillary teeth bands very narrow, less than width of each band; both jaws with a band of small, conical teeth, ca. 6 (7) and ca. 4 teeth rows at widest portions of upper and lower jaw, respectively; 2 small elongate patches of small conical teeth on vomer; palatine teeth absent.
Eye moderately large, with numerous tentacles on dorsal portion, longest tentacle branched, tips extending beyond dorsal contour of orbit. Eye set relatively high on head, dorsal contour of orbit (about half of orbit) extending beyond a line between snout tip and dorsal-fin origin; horizontal line parallel to head and body axil through top of snout bulge well below ventral margin of pupil in specimens> 60 mm SL (just reaching ventral margin of pupil in small specimens) in lateral view. Preocular, supraocular and postocular (surrounding orbit) rough, with numerous spines.
Dorsal-fin origin just behind occipital pit, surrounded by parietal spine clefts; 1 st spine relatively short, thin, much shorter than 2nd spine, its length 40% (26–37%) of 2nd spine length, their bases close together; 3rd spine shorter than 2nd spine, its length 78–91% of 2nd spine length (based on paratypes and non-type specimen); 4th to 6th spines gradually becoming longer posteriorly, remaining posterior spines subequal in length; membranes on anterior spinous portion well incised, remaining membranes moderately incised; 2nd and 3rd spines associated with several small dermal flaps on both lateral sides. Dorsal contour of soft-rayed portion of dorsal fin rounded, longest soft ray subequal to 2nd spine in length; last soft ray attached to caudal peduncle by broad membrane. Anal-fin origin below 9th (7th or 8th) dorsal-fin spine base; spines tiny, covered with skin; longest anal-fin soft ray length subequal to longest dorsal-fin soft ray length; last soft ray attached to caudal peduncle by broad membrane. Pectoral fin rounded, moderately large, 5th (4th) ray longest, its tip extending beyond a vertical through anal-fin origin but not reaching end of anal-fin base; lowermost ray long, slightly thickened, free from membrane, its tip extending slightly beyond a vertical through anal-fin origin when depressed. Pelvic-fin origin below 4th dorsal-fin spine base, spine covered with skin, last soft ray attached to abdomen by broad membrane; 4th soft ray longest, its tip extending beyond a vertical through anal-fin origin when depressed; end of pelvic-fin base not reaching level of anus. Caudal fin moderately long, posterior margin slightly rounded. All segmented rays in dorsal, anal, pectoral, pelvic and caudal fins unbranched.
Fresh coloration, based on color photographs of fresh specimens [ CSIROAbout CSIRO CA1576 and CSIROAbout CSIRO CA1844 (holotype)] and underwater photographs ( Figs. 7 View Figure , 8 View Figure ). Body entirely pale pink (pale yellow), with relatively narrow brown stripe centrally; thorax whitish ventrally; lateral line tinged with brown. Head brown, cheek pale pink (pale yellow); posterior portions of both jaws whitish; eye dark orange, pupil black. Dorsal-fin membrane coloration same as body, with oblique alternating dusky and light stripes on spinous and anterior soft-rayed portions; poorly defined black blotch on membranes between 7–9th spines; posterior portion of soft-rayed portion largely brown (or black) with irregular shaped small pale-yellow blotches. Anal fin brownish paler basally, scattered with numerous small faint white spots. Outer surface of pectoral fin dusky brown (or pale brown) with irregular, poorly defined light bands; inner surface of pectoral fin mostly dusky brown with broad orangish-yellow outer margin, basal portion light yellow with brown tinged rays; lowermost free ray pale pink (pale yellow) ( Fig. 7B View Figure ); axil with large white blotches forming somewhat hexagonal pattern. Pelvic fin pale pink (pale yellow), brownish distally with numerous small white blotches forming somewhat hexagonal pattern. Caudal fin pale yellow, scattered with numerous small faint white spots on rays; spots on uppermost ray brownish.
Coloration in preserved specimens, based on all specimens ( Fig. 6 View Figure ). Head and body entirely creamy-white; body with narrow brown stripe centrally; lateral line tinged with brown. Two poorly defined brown bands below eye; anterior band on sides of snout from anteroventral margin of orbit to lacrimal; posterior band broad, crossing eye obliquely, from top of preocular spine to ventral portion of opercle. Dorsal fin creamy-white; large brown blotch on posterior portion of spinous portion, connected with central body stripe; posterior portion of soft-rayed portion largely brown. Anal fin creamy-white (or largely brown). Outer surface of pectoral fin brown with irregular narrow light bands; inner surface brown with broad light outer margin, membranes of basal portion light, rays tinged with brown (or blackish) ( Fig. 9A–C View Figure ); axil with faint white blotches forming somewhat hexagonal pattern. Pelvic fin brown with numerous small light blotches (or entirely creamy white without markings). Caudal fin entirely pale creamy-white without markings.
Etymology. The name of the new species, roseus , is derived from Latin meaning pinkish and alludes to the entirely pinkish body of the species.
Distribution. The species is here recorded from northwestern Australia and the Maldives on the basis of examined specimens ( Fig. 10 View Figure ). Underwater photographs of the species were taken at the Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia in 18–20 m depth ( Fig. 8 View Figure ). Sampling data for 11 lots of Australian specimens recorded their collection mostly by bottom trawl in depths of 76–165 m (mostly> 100 m depth).
Remarks. A single specimen ( CASAbout CAS 60400, 40.2 mm SL) collected from reefs off Funidu Islet between Malé and Hulhulé islands, Maldives ( Fig. 6F View Figure ) was not included among the paratypes of M. roseus , because the stated locality is far from the main distributional range of the species, viz., northwestern Australia and Indonesia ( Fig. 10 View Figure ).
TABLE 1. Frequency distribution of dorsal-fin ray numbers taken from specimens of Minous spp.
TABLE 2. Frequency distribution of anal-fin ray numbers taken from specimens of Minous spp.
TABLE 3. Frequency distribution of lateral-line tube numbers taken from specimens of Minous spp.
TABLE 4. Frequency distribution of upper and lower gill raker numbers taken from specimens of Minous spp.
H and L indicate holotype and lectotype, respectively. P indicates paralectotype of M. pictus (= M. trachycephalus ). TABLE 6. Selected meristic and morphometric values (expressed as percentages of standard length) recorded from specimens of Minous roseus sp. nov. and M. groeneveldi sp. nov.
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TABLE 6. (Continued)
Gill raker counts include upper + lower = total gill rakers. Modes and means include all specimens.
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